Rahmi Khamsita
Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Articles
4
Documents
Ethanolic Extract of Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaf Exhibits Estrogenic Effects In Vivo and In Silico

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

The menopause women have the low level of estrogen in the body. The lack of estrogen changes physiological function in womens body that affects in health condition. Carica papaya L. leaf contains flavonoid quercetin which exhibits estrogenic effect. The aim of this study is to determine the estrogenic effect of papaya leaves extract (PLE) in vivo, and in silico. Papaya leaves were extracted by ethanol 70% maceration. The in silico study were done by molecular docking between quersetin and Estrogen Receptor (ERα and ERß) to obtain the docking score. Based on this study, docking score of quercetin was almost similar to the native ligand of ER. The in vivo study was done as follow: 36 female rats Sprague Dawley divided into six groups. The groups are shame-ovariectomized (S-OVX), control ovariextomized (OVX), CMC-Na control (OVX+CMC-Na), positive control (OVX+Estradiol), and the PLE treatment groups dose 750 mg/kgBW (OVX+750mg/kgBW) and dose 1000 mg/kgBW (OVX+1000 mg/kgBW). Administrations of PLE were done in three weeks orally, while estradiol was administrated intraperitonially. The mammae and uterine were sliced for analysis. Based on the study, the treatment of PLE increased the number of mammae lobules and uterine weight as well as estrogen does. In summary, PLE can be developed as a source of phytoestrogens.Keywords: Carica papaya L., phytoestrogen, estrogen receptor, mammae lobule, uterine

Ethanolic Extract of Papaya (Carica papaya) Leaves Improves Blood Cholesterol Profiles and Bone Density in Ovariectomized Rats

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Bone  loss  and  disturbance  in  the  blood  cholesterol  profiles  modulation  are  two effects  caused  by  menopauses  syndromes.  As  the  estrogen  concentration  in  the  body decreased  drastically,  menopause  women  need  the  replacement  of  estrogen  to  keep  the regulation  of  several  physiological  functions  in  the  body,  such  as  bone  generation  and cholesterol  regulation  in  a  good  condition.  Phytoestrogen  in  Carica  papaya  leaves,  such  as quercetin,  could  be  one  of  the  potential  agents  for  the  estrogenic  effect.  The  aim  of  this study  is  to  know  the  effects  of  papaya  leaf  extract  (PLE)  on  the  blood  cholesterol  profiles and bone density in ovariectomized rats. Thirty six female Sprague Dawley rats divided into six groups.  The groups were sham-treated ovx (S-OVX), ovariectomized rats (OVX), CMC-Na  control  (OVX+CMC-Na),  positive  control  (OVX+Estradiol),  and  the  PLE  treatment groups  dose  750  mg/kgBW  (OVX+750mg/kgBW)  and  dose  1000  mg/kgBW  (OVX+1000 mg/kgBW).  Administrations  of  PLE  were  done  in  three  weeks  orally  and  estradiol administrated  intraperitonially.  In  the  end  of  the  treatment,  the  blood  sample  of  tested animals was collected for the blood cholesterol  determination (LDL, HDL, triglyceride, and total  cholesterol)  and  the  femur  bones  were  examined  for  the  bone  density.  Based  on  the results, PLE  dose of 750 mg/kgBW a day in ovariectomized rats showed estrogenic effects in modulating  blood  cholesterol  profile  by  lowering  total  cholesterol  levels.  Meanwhile,  PLE dose  of  1000  mg/kgBW  significantly  increased  the  bone  density  (p<0.05).  Thus,  PLE  is potential  to  overcome  the  negative  effects  of  post-menstrual  women  especially  in  the cholesterol blood profiles and bone density.Keywords : Carica papaya, phytoestrogen, bone density, blood cholesterol, ovariectomized rats

Ethanolic Extract of Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.) Wood Performs as Chemosensitizing Agent Through Apoptotic Induction on Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Resistance  to  chemotherapy  is  believed  to  cause  treatment  failure  of  the  patient cancer. Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.) has been proven to possess anticancer activity on some cancer cell lines. The aimed of this study to develop ethanolic extract of secang wood (EES) as  chemosensitizing  agent  through  apoptotic  induction  on  breast  cancer  MCF-7  cells. Extraction  of  secang  was  done  by  using  maceration  with  70  %  ethanol.  Single  and combinatorial treatment of EES and doxorubicin on MCF-7 breast cancer cells were analyzed by using MTT assay to determine the IC50 value and combination index (CI) to evaluate the combinatorial effect. Apoptosis was analyzed with flowcytometry (annexin V).  EES showed a dose-dependent cytotoxicity (IC50 value of 37 µg/ml), while combinatorial treatment showed that  7  concentrations  was  found  to  be  synergist  with  doxorubicin  on  MCF-7  cells. Combinatorial treatment also triggered apoptotic instead of single treatment. Based on this result,  we  conclude  that  ethanolic  extract  of  secang  wood  is  potential  as  chemosensitizing agent in breast cancer.Keyword: Caesalpinia sappan L, MCF-7 cells, doxorubicin, apoptosis.

Sinergisitas efek sitotoksik kombinasi arekolin dan doxorubicin pada sel kanker serviks HeLa

INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 22 No 4, 2011
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

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Abstract

Arecoline, the main alcaloid of Areca cathecuL has been proven to posses cytotoxic  activity  against  various  cancer  cell  lines.  The  research  conducted  to examine  the  cytotoxic  activity  of  arecoline  alone  and  its  combination  with doxorubicin  against  HeLa  cervical  cancer  cell  line.  Single treatment  of arecoline  in  various  concentration  on  HeLa  cancer  cell  were  done  followed  by the  combinational  treatment  with  doxorubicin.  The  cell  viability  as  the parameter  of  cytotoxicity  was  measured  using  MTT  (3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium  bromide)  assay.  The  apoptotic  effect  was  examined  by double staining assay using etidium bromide – acridin orange. Arecoline did not show  potent  cytotoxicity  effect  against  HeLa  since  the  value  of  IC50 is  462µM. The  combinational  treatment  of  arecoline  and  doxorubicin  showed  synergicity with  the  optimum  CI  value  is  0,48  given  by  the  treatment  of  30mM  arecoline combined with 125 nM doxorubicin. The result of this study shows that arecoline has potential  to  be proposed  as  co-chemotherapeutic  agent for  cervical cancer. However, further study on its molecular mechanism needs to be conducted.Key words: arecoline, synergicity, doxorubicin, MTT assay, HeLa cell line