MUJIZAT KAWAROE
Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga Campus, Bogor 16680,

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Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae PRARTONO, TRI; KAWAROE, MUJIZAT; SARI, DAHLIA WULAN; AUGUSTINE, DINA
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 17, No 4 (2010): December 2010
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel) presently.
The Oogenesis of Sclerectinian Corals Caulastrea furcata and Lobophyllia corymbosa KAWAROE, MUJIZAT; SOEDHARMA, DEDI; MAULINIA, MAULINIA
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 14, No 1 (2007): March 2007
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Caulastrea furcata and Lobophyllia corymbosa are corals of order Sclerectinian. Caulastrea furcata is the only species of genus Caulastrea that could be found in Kepulauan Seribu and L. corymbosa is a rare species. The purpose of this research was to study sexual reproduction of the Sclerectinian coral. The result showed that the ovaries of C. furcata and L. corymbosa were developed in the mesentery, inside the mesoglea, and pinched by gastrodermis. Distinctive channel with trophonema like structure was found in both species as well as gamete which was spawned from polyp through distinctive channel. The gamete simply spawned trough gastrodermis, heading from mesentery filament to excretion track. Histological observation showed that there were four stages of gamet maturity level. However, gonad maturity level consisted of three stadia depended on the characteristic of the ovary. Key words: oogenesis, sexual, reproduction, corals Caulastrea, Lobophyllia, Seribu Island
Laju Pertumbuhan Spesifik dan Kandungan Asam Lemak pada Mikroalga Spirulina platensis, Isochrysis sp. dan Porphyridium cruentum (Specific Growth Rate and Fatty Acid Content of Microalgae Spirulina platensis, Isochrysis sp. and Porphyridium cruentum) Kawaroe, Mujizat; Pratono, Tri; Rachmat, Ayi; Sari, Dahlia Wulan; Augustine, Dina
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 17, No 3 (2012): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Mikroalga merupakan pabrik sel yang mampu mengkonversi karbondioksida menjadi biofuel potensial, makanan serta bioaktif yang bernilai tinggi dengan bantuan sinar matahari. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis laju pertumbuhan spesifik dan kandungan asam lemak 3 jenis mikroalga yaitu S. platensis, Isochrysis sp., P. cruentum. Kultivasi mikroalga murni dilakukan di laboratorium selama 8 hari dengan media Guillard/F2. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode sokletasi serta pelarut n-heksan. Profil dan kandungan asam lemak mikroalga dilakukan dengan menggunakan kromatografi gas spektrofotometri massa (GC-MS). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kepadatan mikroalga tertinggi terdapat pada hari ke-8. Laju pertumbuhan spesifik tertinggi terdapat pada P. cruentum, yaitu 0,37/hari. Spesies mikroalga yang memiliki total konsentrasi asam lemak paling tinggi adalah Isochrysis sp., (96,18%) dan yang terrendah adalah P. cruentum (34,73%). P. cruentum memiliki kadar MUFA tertinggi. Isochrysis sp. memiliki kadar asam lemak tidak jenuh ikatan poli (PUFA) yang lebih tinggi daripada S. platensis.Kata kunci: mikroalga, S. platensis, Isochrysis sp., P. cruentum, asam lemak, pertumbuhan spesifikMicroalgae is cell factory that is capable of converting carbon dioxide to potential biofuel, foods and high-value bioactive with sunlight assistance. The purpose of this study is to analyze the specific growth rate and fatty acid content of S. platensis, Isochrysis sp., P. cruentum. Cultivation of pure microalgae is conducted in laboratory for 8 days with media Guillard/f2. Extraction process is conducted using soxhletation method and hexane as the solvent. Fatty acid profile and content in microalgae is performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest density of microalgae found at day 8 cultivation. The highest specific growth rate found in P. cruentum in 0.37/day. The highest and lowest total of fatty acid concentration found in Isochrysis sp. (96.18%) and P. cruentum (34.73%) respectively. P. cruentum has the highest levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA), whereas S. platensis has the highest levels of mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). Isochrysis sp. has lower levels poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) than S. platensis.Key words: microalgae, S. platensis, Isochrysis sp., P. cruentum, growth rate, fatty acid
Specific Growth Rate of Chlorella sp. And Dunaliella sp. According to Different Concentration of Nutrient and Photoperiod Kawaroe, Mujizat; Prartono, Tri; Sunuddin, Adriani; Wulan Sari, Dahlia; Augustine, Dina
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan dan Perikanan Indonesia Vol 16, No 1 (2009): Juni 2009
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Light and nutrient are factors that support the microalgae growth rate besides COB2B, temperature, and salinity. Microalgae growth of Chorella sp. and Dunaliella sp. were observed to determine the influences of different nutrient concentration and photo period. Microalgae cultivation was located at laboratory using 100 mL Erlenmeyer. The specific growth rate of microalgae was observed for different nutrient concentration and photo period of light treatments. Using Guillard/f2 nutrient, the highest specific growth rate for Chorella sp. was 0.227/d and 0.289/d for Dunaliella sp. The highest microalgae specific growth rate influenced different photo period was 0.39/d and 0.329/d, respectively. Finally, the highest specific growth rate for both cultivated species of microalgae was observed at 2V nutrient concentration and 24 hour period of light treatment.Keywords : Spesific growth rate, photoperiod, nutrient, Chlorella sp., Dunaliella sp.
TRANSPLANTING ENHALUS ACOROIDES (L.F) ROYLE WITH DIFFERENT LENGTH RHIZOME ON THE MUDDY SUBSTRATE AND HIGH WATER DYNAMIC AT BANTEN BAY, INDONESIA Kiswara, Wawan; Kumoro, Erlangga Dwi; Kawaroe, Mujizat; Rahadian, Nana P.
Marine Research in Indonesia Vol 35 No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Research Center for Oceanography - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

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Abstract

This study is a part of transplanting Enhalus acoroides carried out from November 2006 to February 2007 as a compensation of 1.6 ha loss of seagrass beds at Bojonegara, which was facilitated by NGO Rekonvasi Bhumi and funded by oil drilling company, PT Apexindo. The transplanting site was located at Terate, Banten Bay which has muddy substrate with high water dynamic. Healthy transplant seedlings were collected from monospecific vegetation with muddy substrate of donor site at Kepuh. The seedlings of Enhalus have different length of rhizome, 5 and 10 cm, with leaf length of 60 cm and removed roots. Transplanting of Enhalus acoroides was conducted using single shoot seedlings with 9 seedlings per unit in 1 meter square with 5 replicates. Light coefficient (1.17-5.06) and percentage of silt and clay (86.45 ± 2.18 %) at transplant site Terate were both higher than the donor site Kepuh with light coefficient values of 1.21-2.46 and percentage of silt and clay 64.00 ± 5.57 %, respectively. Seedling growth survival of Enhalus acoroides in February 2007 with rhizome length of 10 cm was higher (51.11 ± 25.58%) than seedlings with rhizome length of 5 cm (17.78 ± 18.59%). Leaf length and wide Enhalus acoroides transplants decreased during the study. Water dynamic (waves) influenced light coefficient and turbidity at the transplant site. Field observations showed that mortality of Enhalus acoroides transplants was caused by mud smoothering the leaves and barnacle growing on them. They made the leaves lost their buoyancy, laid on the surface, rotten and finally died. Wave is one of the important physical factor affecting the transplanting seagrass on the muddy substrate.
PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUND AND TOXICITY OF SEAGRASS ENHALUS ACOROIDES AND THALASSIA HEMPRICHII FROM PRAMUKA ISLAND, DKI JAKARTA Dewi, Citra S.U.; Soedharma, Dedi; Kawaroe, Mujizat
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI PERIKANAN DAN KELAUTAN Vol 3, No 1 (2012): November 2012
Publisher : Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan

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Abstract

Some of marine bioactive research has been done using seagrass, such as Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii. Respect to the bioactive compound in Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii as medicine, and other pharmaceuticals, it is necessary to observations phytochemical components and toxicity level. This study informs the toxicity level and phytochemical compounds which is contained in Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii from Pramuka Island, Jakarta. Phytochemical test of Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii showed that there are containing flavonoids, alkaloids, and steroids. Toxicity test wich is conducted with Brain Shrimp Lethal Toxic (BSLT) method showed that methanol extract of Enhalus acoroides is highly toxic with LC50 = 5.74 ppm, while the n-hexane extract of Enhalus acoroides is not toxic, indicated by LC50 = 1309.42 ppm.
Potential Marine Fungi Hypocreaceae sp. as Agarase Enzyme to Hydrolyze Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium (Potensi Jamur Hypocreaceae sp. sebagai Enzim Agarase untuk menghidrolisis Makroalga Gelidium latifolium) Kawaroe, Mujizat; Setyaningsih, Dwi; Negara, Bertoka Fajar SP; Augustine, Dina
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 20, No 1 (2015): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Agarase dapat mendegradasi agar ke oligosakarida dan memiliki banyak manfaat untuk makanan, kosmetik, dan lain-lain. Banyak spesies pendegradasi agar adalah organismelaut. Beberapa agarase telah diisolasi dari genera yang berbeda dari mikroorganisme yang ditemukan di air dan sedimen laut. Hypocreaceae sp. diisolasi dari air laut Pulau Pari, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta, Indonesia. Berdasarkan hasil identifikasi gen 16S rDNA dari 500 basis pasangan, isolat A10 memiliki 99% kesamaan dengan Hypocreaceae sp. Enzim agarase ekstraseluler dari Hypocreaceae sp. memiliki pH dan suhu optimum pada 8 TrisHCl (0,148 ?.mL-1) dan 50?C (0,182 ?.mL-1), masing-masing. Enzim Agarase dari Hypocreaceae sp. mencapai kondisi optimum pada aktivitas enzim tertinggi selama inkubasi dalam 24 jam (0,323 ?.mL-1). SDS page mengungkapkan bahwa ada dua band dari protein yang dihasilkan oleh agarase dari Hypocreaceae sp. yang berada di berat molekul 39 kDa dan 44 kDa dan hidrolisis Gelidium latifolium diperoleh 0,88% etanol. Kata kunci: enzim agarase, Hypocreaceae sp., hidrolisis, fungi, rDNA. Agarase can degradedagarto oligosaccharide and has a lot of benefits for food, cosmetics, and others. Many species of agar- degrader are marine-organism. Several agarases have been isolated from different genera of microorganisms found in seawater and marine sediments. Hypocreaceae sp. was isolated from sea water of Pari Islands, Seribu Islands, Jakarta, Indonesia. Based on the results of the 16S rDNA gene identification of 500 base pairs, A10 isolates had 99 % similarity toHypocreaceae sp. The extracellular agarase enzyme from Hypocreaceae sp. have optimum pH and temperature at 8 TrisHCl (0.148 ?.mL-1) and 50 ?C (0.182 ?.mL-1), respectively. Agarase enzyme of Hypocreaceae sp. reach an optimum condition at the highest enzyme activity during incubation in 24 hours (0.323 ?.mL-1). SDS Page revealed that there are two bands of protein produced by agarase of Hypocreaceae sp. which are at molecular weight of 39 kDa and 44 kDa and hydrolisis of Gelidium latifolium obtained 0,88% ethanol. Key words: agarase enzym, Hypocreaceae sp., hydrolysis, marine fungi, rDNA?
GREEN ALGAE Ulva sp. AS RAW MATERIAL FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION Oktiana, Tri Dian; Santoso, Joko; Kawaroe, Mujizat
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 7, No 1 (2015): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis

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Abstract

Ulva sp. is a non edible seaweed and posses a high growth rate. Therefore, this species is potential to be developed as a raw material for biogas production. One important factor on the biogas production is to determine organic loading rate (OLR). The aim of this study was to determine the potential of Ulva sp. as a raw material for biogas and to find out the optimum loading rate in the process of biogas production.  Biogas production was carried out in the digester with a capacity of 22 l that was made of fiber and equipped with a manual stirrer and gas flow meter to measure gas production. Parameters analised were pH, COD, TSS, VSS, and gas composition. Organic loading rates used in this study were 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 kg COD.m-3.day-1.  The results showed that the optimum loading rate was 1.5 kg COD.m-3.day-1. In the loading rate of 1.5 kg COD.m-3.day-1, we obtained the highest biogas production rate of 12.14 l/day with methane content of 42.96%, average COD removal of 51.97%, and methane production of 0.33 l/g COD.   Keywords: anaerobic, biogas, COD, loading, methane, Ulva sp.
Relationship Between Light Intensity and Abundance of Dinoflagellate in Samalona Island, Makassar (Keterkaitan Intensitas Cahaya dan Kelimpahan Dinoflagellate di Pulau Samalona, Makassar) Tasak, Albida Rante; Kawaroe, Mujizat; Prartono, Tri
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 20, No 2 (2015): Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Cahaya merupakan salah satu faktor penting dalam proses fotosintesis dinoflagellate dan pertumbuhan variabilitas harian. Intensitas cahaya memengaruhi aktivitas fotosintesis dan kelimpahan dinoflagellate. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan pola kecenderungan kelimpahan dinoflagellate dan klorofil serta lama penyinaran terhadap kelimpahan dinoflagellate di Perairan Pulau Samalona. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menginkubasi sampel dinoflagellate kedalam botol sejak pagi-sore hari dengan inkubasi waktu pengamatan setiap 2 jam dengan ulangan sebanyak 3 kali. Pengambilan mencakup kelimpahan dinoflagellate, nutrient dan intensitas cahaya dalam perairan. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linear sederhana. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai intensitas cahaya berkisar antara 50?3000 lux; kelimpahan dinoflagellate berkisar antara 9?1105 sel.L-1, dan kandungan klorofil a lebih dominan dengan kisaran? 0.00069?0.50321 ?g.L-1. Intensitas cahaya mempengaruhi kelimpahan dinoflagellate, namun pengaruh kandungan nutrient sangat kecil terhadap kelimpahan dinoflagellate. Pola kelimpahan dinoflagellate bervariasi dari pagi hingga sore hari yang dipengaruhi oleh intensitas cahaya dalam melakukan proses fotosintesis serta kondisi lingkungan lain seperti klorofil a dan nutrient. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan informasi variasi temporal harian kelimpahan dinoflagellate di Pulau Samalona, Makassar.
Correlation Between Paddle Wheel Operation Time with Microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp.) Growth Rate and Lipid Contents in Open Raceway Ponds Barat, Welmar Olfan; Kawaroe, Mujizat; Bengen, Dietriech G
Journal Omni-Akuatika Vol 13, No 1 (2017): Omni-Akuatika May
Publisher : Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University

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Abstract

Nannochloropsis sp. is one of microalgaes species with high lipid content, so it has great potential to be used as the source of biofuel. One of the microalgae cultivation system in mass scale is open raceway ponds. Problems faced in microalgae cultivation with open raceway ponds system are low productivity and the high production cost, especially high electrical energy for operating paddle wheel machine. This research studies about efficiency and effectiveness level of the cultivation system with open raceway ponds through the analysis of correlation between operational duration of the paddle wheel with growth rate and lipid content from Nannochloropsis sp.. The highest density is 530x106 cell/ml found in treatment of 45min/h. The highest growth rate is 0,45/days Which also found in the treatment of 45min/h but the treatment 45min/h is only able to survive until 12 days. The highest productivity of dry biomass is 0,25 g/L/day found in treatment of 45min/h. Meanwhile, the highest lipid content contained on treatment 15min/h is 5,19%DCW. Dominant fatty acids for all treatments are palmitic acids. The best treatment related to the use of the paddle wheel machine is 15min/h.