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MOISTURE SORPTION BEHAVIOR OF JATROPHA SEEDS AT 20 °C AS A SOURCE OF VEGETABLE OIL FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION Kartika, Ika Amalia
Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian Vol 19, No 3 (2009): Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Publisher : Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian

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Abstract

This research studied the moisture sorption behavior of jatropha seeds by developing a model that correlates the equilibrium moisture (EMC) and Free Fatty Acids (FFA) contents as a function of water activity and EMC, respectively. Two sets of sorption-isotherm experiments were performed to describe the relationship of EMC and FFA contents with water activity, both for fresh and dried seeds of Banten and Lampung varieties. The seeds are conditioned in a series of vessel with saturated salts at certain water activity. The EMC were increased following an increase in water activity in either desorption or adsorption. The hysteresis effect is more pronounced at Banten variety than Lampung one. The FFA content of fresh seeds was increased with an increase in water activity, while the FFA content of dried seeds is relatively constant. The moisture sorption behavior of jatropha seeds reveals that like most product, it exhibits the sigmoid pattern. The BET, GAB, Harkins-Jura, Halsey and Oswin models are recommended to be adequate in predicting the amount of moisture adsorbed or desorbed at known humidity. The relationship between EMC and FFA contents shows that the polynomial equation is the best for fresh seeds, and constant equation for dried seeds.Keyword: moisture sorption; jatropha seeds; water activity; equilibrium moisture content;
METHYL ESTER EXTRACTION OF SUNFLOWER OIL IN A TWIN SCREW EXTRUDER Kartika, Ika Amalia
Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian Vol 18, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Publisher : Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian

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Abstract

ABSTRACTSunflower oil was extracted from whole sunflower seeds using methyl ester as the solvent. Experiments were conducted in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The oil extraction yield was measured as function of screw configuration and solvent-to-solid (S/S) ratio. The position of the reverse screw elements affected oil extraction yield. Higher oil recovery was produced as the S/S ratio was increased. Up to 90% of the oil was removed from seeds under S/S ratio of 0.65. The methyl ester is thus a promising alternative solvent for extraction of sunflower oil.   Keywords : twin-screw extruder,  sunflower oil,  methyl ester and extraction
Optimization Of Rubber Seed (Hevea Brasiliensis) Drying In Rubber Seed Oil Extraction For Chamois Leather Tanning Suparno, Ono; Kartika, Ika Amalia; Muslich, .; Andayani, Gita N.; Sofyan, Kurnia
Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian Vol 19, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Publisher : Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian

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Abstract

Drying is one of the important steps in oil extraction using mechanical pressing.  It can decrease oil hydrolysis and increase yield of oil due to the decrease of oil affinity on the material surface and protein coagulation.  Therefore, the oil will be released easily from seed in the oil extraction using the hydraulic pressing. Objectives of this research were to determine a combination of temperature and duration of drying of rubber seed prior to oil extraction in order to produce oil with the best yield and physico-chemical properties for chamois leather tanning, and to observe the potency of the rubber seed oil as a leather tanning agent.  This research consisted of sortation of rubber seed, rubber seed drying using an oven, oil extraction using a hydraulic pressing, and analysis of physico-chemcal properties of the oil and residue of rubber seed after extracting its oil.  Results of the research shows that the higher temperature and duration of rubber seed drying, the higher oil content in residue and colour of the oil, whereas yield, iodine number, acid number, free-fatty acid content of the oil, as well as water content of the rubber seed decreased.  Based on the highest of yield and iodine number, the best treatment for the rubber seed drying was drying at 70oC for one hour.  This condition resulted in oil with physico-chemical characteristics of oil: yield of 20.52%, colour of  4077 PtCo unit; density of 0.924, viscosity of 160 centipoises, iodine number of 146, acid number of 2.08, FFA of 1.04 %, saponification number of 184.58, and peroxide number of 30.46.  The treatment gave oil content in the residue of   9.84 %. The rubber seed oil was potential for substituting fish oil as tanning agent, as it had iodine number of higher than 120.Keywords: drying, rubber seed, oil, oil tanning, tanning agent, chamois leather.
Deacidification And Decoloration (Jatropha Curcas L.) Using Membrane Microfiltration Kartika, Ika Amalia; Yuliani, Sri; Dyahjatmayanti, Dhiani
Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian Vol 19, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Publisher : Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian

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Abstract

This study focused on the deacidification and decoloration of crude jatropha oil using microfiltration membrane. The experiment was conducted with hydraulic-pressed jatropha oil and polypropylene (PP) membrane hollow fiber with a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.01 μm and a permeation area of 1 m2. Several tests were carried out to define the best performance (permeate flux, free fatty acid reduction and clarity) by studying the influence of duration and frequency of backflush.  Permeate flux was low but remained stable for a long period.  No long-term fouling appeared during the membrane processing. The permeate flux increased with transmembrane pressure. In addition, the backflush treatment can recover and increase permeate flux.   The higher permeate flux of 8.42 l/m2.h was obtained under duration and frequency of backflush of 6 seconds and 15 times, respectively. Furthermore, microfiltration membrane was found to have a positive effect on color reduction, but was not affective for deacidification. Keyword:   Microfiltration, Polypropylene, Jatropha oil, Backflush.
Transesterifikasi In Situ Biji Jarak: Pengaruh Kadar Air dan Ukuran Partikel Bahan terhadap Rendemen dan Kualitas Biodiesel Kartika, Ika Amalia; Yuliani, Sri; Ariono, Danu; Sugiarto, Sugiarto
Agritech Vol 31, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (165.101 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9750

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate in situ transesterification process allowing to realize directly biodiesel production from jatropha seeds. The influence of moisture content (0.5, 2, 3 and 4 %) and particle size (10, 20 and 35 mesh) of jatropha seeds was examined to determine the best performance of the biodiesel production yield and its quality. Generally, the moisture content and particle size of jatropha seeds affected biodiesel production yield. An increase of biodiesel production yield was observed as moisture content and particle size of jatropha seeds were decreased. Highest biodiesel production yield (71 %) was obtained under seed moisture content of 0.5 % and particle size of 35 mesh. Effect of the moisture content and particle size of jatropha seeds on biodiesel quality was less important. In all experiments tested, the biodiesel quality was very good. The acid value was below 0.3 mg KOH/g of biodiesel, water and sediment content was very poor (< 0.05 %), viscosity was low (< 3.5 cSt), soap and ester values were high (> 210 mg KOH/g of biodiesel). In addition, quality of biodiesel produced under optimum process condition was in accord with Indonesian Biodiesel Standard.ABSTRAKKegiatan penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari proses produksi biodiesel secara langsung dari biji jarak melalui proses transesterifikasi in situ. Parameter kondisi proses yang dipelajari adalah pengaruh kadar air (0,5, 2, 3 dan 4 %) dan ukuran partikel bahan (10, 20 dan 35 mesh) terhadap rendemen biodiesel dan kualitasnya. Kadar air dan ukuranpartikel bahan berpengaruh nyata terhadap rendemen biodiesel. Semakin kecil kadar air dan ukuran partikel bahan, rendemen biodiesel dan efektifitas proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak semakin meningkat. Rendemen biodiesel tertinggi (71 %) dihasilkan dari perlakuan kadar air dan ukuran partikel bahan 0,5 % dan 35 mesh. Biodiesel yangdihasilkan dari proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak mempunyai bilangan asam, viskositas, air dan sedimen yang relatif rendah, yaitu 0,27 mg KOH/g biodiesel, < 3,5 cSt dan < 0,05 %, serta memenuhi Standar Biodiesel Indonesia. Pengaruh kadar air dan ukuran partikel bahan terhadap air dan sedimen, bilangan asam dan viskositas biodiesel tidaksignifikan untuk seluruh perlakuan yang diuji pada penelitian ini. Biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari proses transesterifikasi in situ biji jarak juga mempunyai bilangan penyabunan dan ester yang cukup tinggi, yaitu > 210 mg KOH/g biodiesel. Ukuran partikel bahan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap bilangan penyabunan dan ester biodiesel, sedangkan kadar airbahan menunjukkan pengaruh yang nyata.
METHYL ESTER EXTRACTION OF SUNFLOWER OIL IN A TWIN SCREW EXTRUDER Kartika, Ika Amalia
Journal of Agroindustrial Technology Vol 18, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Publisher : Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

ABSTRACTSunflower oil was extracted from whole sunflower seeds using methyl ester as the solvent. Experiments were conducted in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The oil extraction yield was measured as function of screw configuration and solvent-to-solid (S/S) ratio. The position of the reverse screw elements affected oil extraction yield. Higher oil recovery was produced as the S/S ratio was increased. Up to 90% of the oil was removed from seeds under S/S ratio of 0.65. The methyl ester is thus a promising alternative solvent for extraction of sunflower oil.   Keywords : twin-screw extruder,  sunflower oil,  methyl ester and extraction
Deacidification And Decoloration (Jatropha Curcas L.) Using Membrane Microfiltration Kartika, Ika Amalia; Yuliani, Sri; Dyahjatmayanti, Dhiani
Journal of Agroindustrial Technology Vol 19, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Publisher : Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

This study focused on the deacidification and decoloration of crude jatropha oil using microfiltration membrane. The experiment was conducted with hydraulic-pressed jatropha oil and polypropylene (PP) membrane hollow fiber with a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 0.01 ?m and a permeation area of 1 m2. Several tests were carried out to define the best performance (permeate flux, free fatty acid reduction and clarity) by studying the influence of duration and frequency of backflush.  Permeate flux was low but remained stable for a long period.  No long-term fouling appeared during the membrane processing. The permeate flux increased with transmembrane pressure. In addition, the backflush treatment can recover and increase permeate flux.   The higher permeate flux of 8.42 l/m2.h was obtained under duration and frequency of backflush of 6 seconds and 15 times, respectively. Furthermore, microfiltration membrane was found to have a positive effect on color reduction, but was not affective for deacidification. Keyword:   Microfiltration, Polypropylene, Jatropha oil, Backflush.
Pemisahan Gum Dari Minyak Jarak Dengan Membran Mikrofiltrasi Yuliani, Sri; Kartika, Ika Amalia; Harimurti, Niken; Sumangat, Djajeng
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian Vol 5, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jpasca.v5n1.2008.1-9

Abstract

Pemisahan gum (degumming) merupakan salah satu tahap pemurnian minyak nabati yang menentukan mutu produk dan efisiensi proses lanjutan. Dalam penggunaan langsung sebagai bahan bakar, adanya gum dalam minyak dapat menyebabkan penyumbatan aliran minyak melalui saluran atau sumbu dalam kompor. Gum dalam minyak juga dapat mengganggu jalannya proses esterifikasi/transesterifikasi untuk produksi biodiesel. Aplikasi teknologi membran untuk memisahkan gum merupakan alternatif teknik pemisahan gum yang dianggap ramah lingkungan dan hemat energi. Untuk mendapatkan efisiensi pemisahan gum yang tinggi, diperlukan kajian kondisi operasi membran. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh kondisi operasi membran (lama filtrasi dan lama backflush) pada fluks dan rejeksi gum (fosfolipid). Lama filtrasi dan lama backflush yang dikaji masing-masing terdiri atas tiga taraf (berturut-turut 2, 4 dan 6 menit, dan 2, 4 dan 6 detik). Membran yang digunakan berupa membran polipropilen dengan ukuran pori 0,01 µm yang dilengkapi dengan pompa diafragma dan dioperasikan pada tekanan 1 bar. Lama filtrasi dan lama backflush berpengaruh pada fluks dan pengurangan fospolipid. Kombinasi perlakuan lama filtrasi 4 menit dan lama backflush 2 detik memberikan pemisahan fosfolipid tertinggi (25,47%), sedangkan fluks tertinggi (8,42 l/m2) diperoleh dari kombinasi perlakuan lama filtrasi 2 menit dan lama backflush 6 detik. Filtrasi membran juga dapat memisahkan fosfolipid non-hydratable yang ditunjukkan dengan menurunnya kadar mineral (kalsium, magnesium dan besi) di dalam minyak jarak.Separation of Gum From Jatropha Oil by Using MicrofiltrasiDegumming is an oil-refining step determining 'product quality and further processing efficiency. In direct use of oil for stove fuel, the presence of gum can block the oil channel or wick. Gum can also lower the efficiency of esterification/transesterification process in biodiesel production. The use of membrane filtration is an environmentally friendly and low energy approach for separating gum. Study on membrane process condition is required to obtain high separation efficiency. This reseach was aimed at investigating the influence of membrane operation conditions (length of filtration and backflushing time) on the oil fluxes and rejections of gum (phospholipid). The experiment was conducted in factorial completely randomised design with two factors (length of filtration and backflushing time) and three levels (2, 4 and 6 minutes, and 2, 4 dan 6 seconds, respectively). A polypropylene membrane (average por; size of 0.01/m) equipped with diaphragm pump was operated at 1 bar for the whole experiments. Length of filtration and backflushing time influenced oil fluxes and rejection of phospholipids. Length of filtration time of 4 minutes and length of backflushing time of 2 seconds gave the highest phospholipid separation (25.47%). The highest flux (8.42 1/m2h) was observed at length of filtration time of 2 minutes and length of backflushing time of 6 seconds. Membrane filtration also separated non-hydratable phospholipids indicated by the decrease in mineral contents (calcium, magnesium, iron) in jatropha oils.
Optimization Of Rubber Seed (Hevea Brasiliensis) Drying In Rubber Seed Oil Extraction For Chamois Leather Tanning Suparno, Ono; Kartika, Ika Amalia; Muslich, .; Andayani, Gita N.; Sofyan, Kurnia
Journal of Agroindustrial Technology Vol 19, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Publisher : Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Drying is one of the important steps in oil extraction using mechanical pressing.  It can decrease oil hydrolysis and increase yield of oil due to the decrease of oil affinity on the material surface and protein coagulation.  Therefore, the oil will be released easily from seed in the oil extraction using the hydraulic pressing. Objectives of this research were to determine a combination of temperature and duration of drying of rubber seed prior to oil extraction in order to produce oil with the best yield and physico-chemical properties for chamois leather tanning, and to observe the potency of the rubber seed oil as a leather tanning agent.  This research consisted of sortation of rubber seed, rubber seed drying using an oven, oil extraction using a hydraulic pressing, and analysis of physico-chemcal properties of the oil and residue of rubber seed after extracting its oil.  Results of the research shows that the higher temperature and duration of rubber seed drying, the higher oil content in residue and colour of the oil, whereas yield, iodine number, acid number, free-fatty acid content of the oil, as well as water content of the rubber seed decreased.  Based on the highest of yield and iodine number, the best treatment for the rubber seed drying was drying at 70oC for one hour.  This condition resulted in oil with physico-chemical characteristics of oil: yield of 20.52%, colour of  4077 PtCo unit; density of 0.924, viscosity of 160 centipoises, iodine number of 146, acid number of 2.08, FFA of 1.04 %, saponification number of 184.58, and peroxide number of 30.46.  The treatment gave oil content in the residue of   9.84 %. The rubber seed oil was potential for substituting fish oil as tanning agent, as it had iodine number of higher than 120.Keywords: drying, rubber seed, oil, oil tanning, tanning agent, chamois leather.
MOISTURE SORPTION BEHAVIOR OF JATROPHA SEEDS AT 20 °C AS A SOURCE OF VEGETABLE OIL FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION Kartika, Ika Amalia
Journal of Agroindustrial Technology Vol 19, No 3 (2009): Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Publisher : Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

This research studied the moisture sorption behavior of jatropha seeds by developing a model that correlates the equilibrium moisture (EMC) and Free Fatty Acids (FFA) contents as a function of water activity and EMC, respectively. Two sets of sorption-isotherm experiments were performed to describe the relationship of EMC and FFA contents with water activity, both for fresh and dried seeds of Banten and Lampung varieties. The seeds are conditioned in a series of vessel with saturated salts at certain water activity. The EMC were increased following an increase in water activity in either desorption or adsorption. The hysteresis effect is more pronounced at Banten variety than Lampung one. The FFA content of fresh seeds was increased with an increase in water activity, while the FFA content of dried seeds is relatively constant. The moisture sorption behavior of jatropha seeds reveals that like most product, it exhibits the sigmoid pattern. The BET, GAB, Harkins-Jura, Halsey and Oswin models are recommended to be adequate in predicting the amount of moisture adsorbed or desorbed at known humidity. The relationship between EMC and FFA contents shows that the polynomial equation is the best for fresh seeds, and constant equation for dried seeds.Keyword: moisture sorption; jatropha seeds; water activity; equilibrium moisture content;