Abubakar Karim
Program Studi Ilmu Tanah, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Analisis Kesesuaian Lahan Kakao di Kabupaten Simeulue Nofelman, T.; Karim, Abubakar; Anhar, Ashabul
Jurnal Manajemen Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Volume 1, Nomor 1, Juni 2012
Publisher : Program Studi Magister Konservasi Sumberdaya Lahan, Pascasarjana, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk; (1) mengetahui kelas kesesuaian lahan tanaman kakao rakyat di Kabupaten Simeuleu, (2) menentukan satu atau lebih faktor penentu tinggi rendahnya produksi kakao rakyat di Kabupaten Simeulue, (3) untuk mengetahui hubungan antara sesama sifat-sifat lahan antara sifat-sifat lahan dan produksi serta kualitas biji kakao di Kabupaten Simeulue. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kabupaten Simeulue yang dimulai dari bulan Mei 2011 sampai dengan Agustus 2011. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode klasifikasi kesesuaian yang di kembangkan oleh FAO, dengan menggunakan kriteria yang disusun oleh Pusat Penelitian Kakao dan Kopi Indonesia. Evaluasi kesesuaian lahan dimulai dengan menentukan tapak pengamatan, yang ditetapkan pada kebun kakao rakyat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kelas kesesuaian lahan aktual di Kabupaten Simeulue terdiri dari kelas S3 (sesuai marginal) dengan faktor pembatas utama adalah curah hujan yang tinggi. Ketinggian tempat berkorelasi nyata negatif dengan kedalaman efektif, fraksi liat, pH H2O, C-organik, N-total, Na-dd, Ca-dd, Al-dd, H-dd, KTK dan kejenuhan basa. Kelerengan berkorelasi nyata  negatif dengan kedalaman efektif, fraksi debu, fraksi liat, pH H2O, C-organik, N-total, P-av, Na-dd, Ca-dd, Mg-dd, KTK dan kejenuhan basa. Kedalaman efektif berkolerasi nyata negatif dengan fraksi debu, pH H2O, C-organik, N-total, P-av, K-dd, Na-dd, H-dd, KTK dan kejuhan basa. Selain ketinggian tempat dan lereng, karakteristik lahan yang mempengaruhi produksi dan mutu buah kakao adalah kedalaman efektif, C-organik, N-total, H-dd, kapasitas tukar kation,fraksi pasir, K-dd, Ca-dd.Analysis of Cacao Land Suitability in Simeulue DistrictAbstract. This research aims to; (1) figure out the class level of the cocoa land suitability of the people in Simeulue regency, (2) specifies one or more factors determining the level of cocoa productivity of the people in Simeulue regency, (3) and clarify the relationship of the land characteristics, land productivity and cocoa bean quality in Simeulue regency. The study was conducted in Simeulue regency from May to August 2011. The suitability classification method developed by FAO combined to the criteria drafted out by Coffee and Cocoa Research Center Indonesia was adapted in this research. The land suitability evaluation started by determining the tread observation which was set in the cocoa farm. The result suggests the actual class level of the land suitability for cacao in Simeulue regency consists of class S3 (marginally suitable) with the major barrier factor is the high rainfall. Location altitude shows a significant negative correlation to the soil effective depth, clay fraction, pH H2O, C-organic, N-total, Na-exchange, Ca-exchange, Al-exchange, H-exchange, CEC and base saturation. The slope of the site suggests a significant negative correlation to the soil effective depth, silt fraction, clay fraction, pH H2O, C-organic, N-total, P-avilable, Na-exchange, Ca-exchange, Mg-exchange, CEC and base saturation. The soil effective depth indicates a significant negative correlation to the silt fraction, pH H2O, C-organic, N-total, P-avilable, K-exchange, Na-exchange, H-exchange, CEC and base saturation. In addition to the altitude and slope of the location, characteristics of the land that affecting cocoa productivity and quality are the effective depth, C-organic, N-total, H-exchange, CEC, silt fraction, K-exchange and Ca-exchange.
Analisis Kriteria Kesesuaian Lahan Terhadap Produksi Kakao pada Tiga Klaster Pengembangan di Kabupaten Pidie Liyanda, Mizar; Karim, Abubakar; Abubakar, Yusya’
Jurnal Agrista Vol 16, No 2 (2012): Volume 16 Nomor 2 Agustus 2012
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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ABSTRAK. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kesesuaian lahan tanaman kakao sehingga diketahui hubungan antara karakteristik lahan dengan produksi dan kadar lemak kakao serta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya. Metode survai digunakan untuk mendapatkan karakteristik lahan, tingkat pengelolaan dan produksi tanaman kakao. Satuan peta lahan (SPL) masing-masing klaster dibentuk berdasarkan tumpang tindih peta jenis tanah, peta lereng dan peta penggunaan lahan. Evaluasi kesesuaian lahan pada setiap SPL menggunakan metode klasifikasi kesesuaian lahan yang dikembangkan oleh FAO. Untuk mengetahui hubungan antar karakteristik dilakukan analisis korelasi antara karakteristik lahan dengan karakteristik produksi serta kadar lemak. Analisis linier berganda dilakukan pada karakteristik lahan yang berpengaruh nyata terhadap komponen produksi dan kadar lemak. Hasil evaluasi lahan Klaster Padang Tiji dan Keumala memiliki kelas kesesuaian lahan aktual sesuai marginal (S3) sedangkan Tangse cukup sesuai (S2) dan sesuai marginal (S3). Kelas kesesuaian lahan potensial Klaster Padang Tiji sesuai marginal (S3), sedangkan Klaster Keumala dan Tangse cukup sesuai (S2) dan sesuai marginal (S3). Hubungan antara karakteristik lahan terhadap produksi diperoleh hubungan yang sangat erat (R2=0,95), sedangkan karakteristik lahan terhadap kadar lemak diperoleh hubungan yang erat (R2=0,64). Penentu produksi adalah ketinggian tempat, lereng, fraksi pasir, fraksi liat, pH H2O, pH KCl, C-organik, N total, P tersedia, Na, kejenuhan Al, kapasitas tukar kation, kejenuhan basa dan salinitas, sedangkan penentu kadar lemak adalah ketinggian tempat, C organik, N total, P tersedia, Ca dan Mg.Analysis of Land Suitability Criteria for Cocoa Production of Three Cluster Development in Pidie DistrictABSTRACT. This study was aimed at the analysis of land suitability for cocoa in order to understand relationships between characteristics of the land and production and fat content of cocoa and factors that influence it. Method used was a survey method to obtain land characteristics, management and production levels of cocoa. Land Unit Map (LUM) of each cluster was formed by overlapping maps of soil type, slope, and land use. Evaluation of land suitability on each LUM was done by suitability classification method developed by FAO. Relationships between characteristics of land and production and fat levels were analyzed using correlation analysis. Multiple linear analysis were carried out for land characteristics that significantly affect production components and fat content. The results showed that clusters of Keumala and Padang Tiji had actual land suitability classes of marginal suitable (S3), while Tangse had those of adequately suitable (S2) and marginal suitable (S3). Potential land suitability classes of Padang Tiji cluster was marginal suitable (S3), while clusters of Keumala and Tangse were adequately suitable (S2) and marginal suitable (S3). Results showed that there was a very close relationship (R2=0.95) between characteristics of land and production, while a close relationship (R2=0.64) between characteristics of the land and fat content. Determinants of production were altitude, slope, sand fraction, clay fraction, pH H2O, pH KCl, organic C, total N, available P, Na, Al saturation, cation exchange capacity, base saturation and salinity, while determinants of fat content were altitude, organic C, total N, available P, Ca, and Mg.
Analisis Indikasi Geografis Kopi Arabika Gayo Ditinjau dari Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Kabupaten Ellyanti, Ellyanti; Karim, Abubakar; Basri, Hairul
Jurnal Agrista Vol 16, No 2 (2012): Volume 16 Nomor 2 Agustus 2012
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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ABSTRAK. Indikasi Geografis (IG) Kopi Arabika Gayo adalah suatu tanda yang menunjukkan daerah asal kopi Arabika Gayo,  karena faktor lingkungan geografis yang memberikan ciri dan kualitas pada produk yang dihasilkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: menganalisis kesesuaian wilayah IG Kopi Arabika Gayo dengan ketinggian tempat, menganalisis kawasan yang telah ditetapkan sebagai kawasan budidaya, serta menghitung persentase penyimpangan penggunaan lahan untuk Kopi Arabika Gayo di DTG berdasarkan RTRW Kabupaten Bener Meriah, Aceh Tengah dan Gayo Lues dan IG kopi Gayo. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif. Analisis spasial dilakukan dengan metode tumpang tindih (overlay analysis) dan menambahkan seluruh data dan informasi yang sudah didapatkan berdasarkan ground survey dengan bantuan alat Global Positioning System. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa wilayah Indikasi Geografis (IG) Kopi Arabika Gayo di DTG yang sesuai dengan ketinggian tempat di atas permukaan laut adalah 160.856,70 ha. Wilayah IG Kopi Arabika Gayo yang sesuai dengan kawasan yang telah ditetapkan sebagai kawasan budidaya di dalam Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (RTRW) Kabupaten Bener Meriah, Aceh Tengah dan Gayo Lues adalah seluas 151.151,60 ha. Persentase penyimpangan IG Kopi Arabika Gayo di DTG berdasarkan RTRW masing-masing kabupaten adalah sebesar 9.705,10 ha (6,03%).Analysis of Geographical Indication of Gayo Coffee Based on Spatial Planning of Districts ABSTRACT. Geographical Indication (GI) of Arabica Gayo coffee is a sign which indicates the origin of Arabica Gayo coffee, because geographical environments provide characteristics and quality of the product. The objectives of the study were: analyze suitability of Gayo coffee GI with altitude, analyze suitability of Gayo coffee GI with the region that has been designated as a cultivated area, and calculate deviations of Gayo coffee’s land use in the Gayo Highlands based on the Spatial Planning of Bener Meriah, Central Aceh and Gayo Lues Districts and Gayo coffee GI area. The method used in this research was descriptive.  Spatial analysis was carried out by an overlay analysis method and added all the data and information from a ground survey with the help of Global Positioning System. The results showed that the region of Geographical Indications of Gayo coffee suitable with altitude in the Gayo Highlands was 160.856,70 ha. Gayo Coffee GI region suitable with the region that has been designated as a cultivated area in the Spatial Planning of Bener Meriah, Central Aceh and Gayo Lues Districts was 151.151,60 ha. Percentage deviation of Gayo Coffee GI in the Gayo Highlands based on the Spatial Planning of the Districts was 9.705,10 ha (6,03%).
Populasi Mikroorganisme pada Tanah yang Dicemari Oli Bekas dan Usaha Perbaikannya Karim, Abubakar; Hifnalisa, Hifnalisa; Anas, Iswandi
Jurnal Agrista Vol 1, No 1 (1997): Volume 1 Nomor 1 April 1997
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Abstrak.
Kajian Potensi Produksi Hijauan Pakan pada Lahan Eksisting dan Potensial untuk Meningkatkan Populasi Ternak Ruminansia di Kabupaten Aceh Besar Delima, Mira; Karim, Abubakar; Yunus, M.
Jurnal Agripet Vol 15, No 1 (2015): Volume 15, N0. 1, April 2015
Publisher : Agricultural Faculty

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(The study of prospective forage production on existing and potential land use to support increasing livestock population in Aceh Besar) ABSTRACT. The purpose of this research was to find out the width and scattered location of existing land use which its land capability class suitable for pastures; forage production prospective, and land carrying capacity. The combination of survey and evaluation method was used in this study. The primary data were obtained by field observation and compiling documents, while the secondary data were obtained from various sources, including Bappeda Aceh, and Dinas Peternakan Aceh Besar. Land capability classification was defined based on a modified USDA method and land capability class mapping was prepared based on overlay method by geoprocessing of Geographic Information Systems. The attributes delineating land capability classification included slope, erosion potential and soil depth. Spatial and attributes data were processed using ArcGIS 9.3. Interpretation of land use map derived from satellite imagery analysis results. Brachiaria humidicola green production (tons/year) was determined by assumption-based on obtaining data from various sources. Present livestock population and increasing of population target up to 2017 were obtained from Dinas Peternakan Aceh Besar. The results showed that the existing land use area was 28,632.23 ha (59.03 %), whereas the potential land use area was 19,875.73 ha (40.97%). Land use area for pastures in the district of Aceh Besar, both existing and potential, were sufficient to support the achievement of livestock population increasing program.
Evaluasi Kriteria Kesesuaian Lahan Kelapa Sawit di Kebun Baru PT. Perkebunan Nusantara-I, Langsa Karim, Abubakar
Jurnal Agrista Vol 12, No 3 (2008): Volume 12 Nomor 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Evaluation of Land Suitability Criteria for Oil Palm at Kebun Baru PT. Perkebunan Nusantara-I, LangsaABSTRACT. The obtain land suitability classes in accordance with plant production, the appropriate of land suitability classification from land suitability classification system is required. The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate the suitability of classification system for land planted with oil palm at Kebun Baru PT. Perkebunan Nusantara I Langsa and (2) to evaluate the relationship between soil characteristics (criteria) and the production of oil palm in the Kebun Baru PT. Perkebunan Nusantara I Langsa. The characteristics observed in the area of land that formed homogenous classes were based on the uniformity of slope, soil type on the rate of oil palm production. From each homogenous area soil samples were taken for analyze of physical and chemical soil properties. The result showed there was none of the system of land suitability classification can be applied directly in Kebun Baru PT. Perkebunan Nusantara I Langsa. A significant correlation was found among the land characteristics and slope was very evident and determined other land characteristics, including the production of oil palm. The oil palm production in Kebun Baru PT. Perkebunan Nusantara-I Langsa was determined by slope, C-organic, P-available, K-exchangeable, Ca-Exchangeable, base saturation, and salinity. The relationship between oil palm production and land characteristics was described as multiple regression: Y = 5,55 – 0,41x1 + 2,77x6 + 0,24x8 + 8,57x9 - 1,96x10 + 0,39x13 – 2,83x14; R2 = 0,93**   x1 = Slope, x6 = C-organic, x8 = P-available, x9 = K-exchangeable, x10 = Ca-exchangeable, x13 = base saturation, x14 = salinity; R = determination value. To achieve the best fit between the classification of land suitability and oil palm production in Kebun Baru PT. Perkebunan Nusantara I Langsa, the modification of land suitability classification system is required.
Penilaian Karakteristik Lahan untuk Kedelai di Kabupaten Bireuen Karim, Abubakar; Sugianto, Sugianto; Hajar, Siti
Jurnal Agrista 2008: Edisi Khusus Nomor 1 November 2008
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Assesments of Land Characteristics of Soybean at Bireuen DistrictABSTRACT. Bireuen district has been known as soybean production centre in Aceh Province. However, average yield obtained is still under national yield. This research aimed: (1) to find out a relationship between land suitability and soybean yield, (2) to evaluate a relationship between land characteristics and soybean yield, (3) to determinate the land characteristics as determinable factor for soybean yield. There were nine characteristics sites were used under soybean farming that have land heterogeneity among sites and homogeneity within sites: 4 under rice field and 5 under rainfed. Natures of land morphology was evaluated each sites, and then soil samples were taken for soil properties evaluation in laboratory. The parameter of land morphology properties, physical and chemical were then adjusted according to the need of land suitability for soybean. Level of land management and its yield done by farmers were also evaluated. Yield from each plot (2 x 3 m2) was at random determined. The land suitability class was determined by comparing the land characteristics/land quality with soybean growth specification. Criteria made by Agriculture Department was used as a guidance. Futhermore, in order to determine determinable land characteristics were arranged in multiple linear regression analyses, in which yield of soybean as a Y and land characteristics as a X. Research result showed that the class of land suitability established were in parallel with soybean yields measure under relatively good management plots. Of the land characteristics that can be used as determinable factor were slope, rainfall, texture, drainage, and nutrient storage (pH). A multiple linear regression equation was established for soybean yield as follow: Y= -1.133 – 0.018X1 + 0.001X2 – 0.001X3 + 0.009X4 + 19.555X5 + 0.025X6 + 0.781X7 – 0.019X8; R2= 0.98, where : X1 = slope, X2= soil susceptibility to erosion, X3= rainfall, X4= sand fraction, X5= N-total, X6= P-available, X7= K-exchange, X8= base saturation, and R2= determination coefficient.
Kajian Awal Varietas Kopi Arabika Berdasarkan Ketinggian Tempat di Dataran Tinggi Gayo Hifnalisa, Hifnalisa; Karim, Abubakar
Jurnal Agrista 2008: Edisi Khusus Nomor 1 November 2008
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Early Study on Arabica Coffee Varieties Base on Altitude Position on Gayo Highland AreaABSTRACT. Farmer cultivated mixed-varieties of arabica coffee in an area. As result no specific tasted for specific variety found. This result aims to observe the best coffee to be recommended for various altitude cultivation. There are nine altitude variations, 100 m interval from 700 to 1600 m above sea level (asl). For each internal altitude, coated-red coffee been harvested at farmers coffee farms at almost the same management and growth. The variables of arabica coffee bean quality physically observed were coated-red raw bean, coffee beans, coffee quality , beans passed on various filters, bean shape and tasted. The result showed that arabica coffee bean quality physically is getting better till 1400 m asl and then tends to decrease the quality till 1600 m asl as shown in export quality percentages, no passed at 7.50 mm filter, the percentage of normal beans, and tasted scores. However for coated-red raw asl. In contrast, floating coated-bean, floating bean and normal beans is decrease. Catimor Jaluk Variety of coffee arabica is suitable for all altitudes observed, followed by arabusta, Lini-S, Bergendal, and USDA. To avoid the dissimilarity of specific taste to highland arabica coffee, the varieties could be extended at different areas even though the same altitude.
Flavor of arabica coffee grown in Gayo Palteau as affected by varieties and processing techniques Abubakar, Yusya; Karim, Abubakar; Fahlufi, Fachrizal
Proceedings of The Annual International Conference, Syiah Kuala University - Life Sciences & Engineering Chapter Vol 1, No 1 (2011): Life Sciences
Publisher : Syiah Kuala University

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Coffee (Coffea sp) is one of the most popular drinks in Indonesia, as well as in the world. Coffee plantation has been grown in several areas in Indonesia, including Aceh province, and has become one of the most important plantation products with promising economic value. Both Arabica and Robusta are found in Aceh, however Arabica coffee grown more in the area because of its popularity in International market. This popularity is related to Arabica coffee distinctive flavor and aroma. To grow well, Arabica coffee requires land with altitude 1000 m or more above sea level. Therefore, in Aceh, it is grown in the Gayo Plateau with total area more than 90.000 hectares.  As International market requires higher standard coffee, there is a need to provide a better quality coffee with a better taste, flavor and aroma.  Several coffee varieties have been cultivated in the area for a long time, however the relation between variety and taste & flavor has not been fully investigated. Other factors that may affect the taste, flavor and aroma is processing technique applied during postharvest and handling. Both wet hulling and dry hulling are practiced by small holders and farmers in the area. This study is aimed to investigate taste and flavor of Arabica coffee as affected by varieties and processing technique. The already grown varieties used in this study were Ateng Super (V1), Bergendal (V2), Bor-Bor (V3), Tim-Tim (V4) and Lini_S (V5). The processing techniques to be considered were Dry Hulling (TA) and Wet Hulling (TB). Observations to be recorded were organoleptic test (fragrance, acidity, body, flavor, aftertaste, balance), pH analysis and caffeine content. The result shows that the Tim-Tim variety get the highest organoleptic score, while between the two techniques, wet hulling provide a better acceptance from the panelist (get higher organoleptic scores)
Analisis Citarasa Kopi Arabika Organik pada Beberapa Ketinggian Tempat dan Cara Pengolahannya di Datararan Tinggi Gayo Wahyuni, Eka; Karim, Abubakar; Anhar, Ashabul
Jurnal Manajemen Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 2, No 3 (2013): Volume 2, Nomor 3, Juni 2013
Publisher : Program Studi Magister Konservasi Sumberdaya Lahan, Pascasarjana, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Analysis of Taste Quality of Organic Arabica Coffee in Several Altitudes and Processing Techniques in Gayo HighlandsAbstract. In general several varieties of Arabica are cultivated at the same altitude, which cause loss of their unique flavor of Arabica Gayo Highlands. This research was aimed to find out of superior varieties of Arabica coffee with a unique flavor score at a certain altitude and specific processing technique in the Gayo Highlands. There were five varieties of Arabica coffee observed. (Borbor, Bergendal, Ateng Super, Tim-Tim and Lini-S), in four altitudes: (1. < 1.000 m; 2. 1.000 -1.200 m; 3. 1.200 1.400 m; and 4. > 1.400 m above sea level). A survey method with descriptive analysis was used, based on altitude and land use maps on 20 observation sites. Ideal altitude of varieties were identified as nell as soil and barriers samples were analyzed. Arabica coffee varieties was determined by cluster analysis, correlations, followed by multiple regression. Evaluation scores of flavor varieties of Arabica coffee and altitude showed that Borbor variety was suitable at altitude > 1.400 above sea level, Tim-Tim < 1.200 m, and Ateng super at altitude 1.200 -1.400 m above sea level. Processing method of organic Arabica coffee which produced high flavor quality (taste) was a semi wash processing. Result of multiple regression analysis showed a very close relationship between land characteristics and score flavor criteria, R2 was 0.894. Determinants of the best and unique flavor is the altitude, climate and processing of organic Arabica coffee beansAbstrak. Beberapa varietas kopi Arabika umumnya dibudidayakan dan dikembangkan pada ketinggian tempat yang sama yang menyebabkan mulai hilangnya citarasa khas (unik) kopi Arabika dataran tinggi Gayo. Penelitian ini bertujuan menetapkan varietas unggul kopi Arabika organik yang mempunyai citarasa unik pada berbagai ketinggian tempat dan cara pengolahannya. Ada lima varietas kopi Arabika, yaitu: Borbor, Bergendal, Ateng Super, Tim-Tim dan Lini-S yang diamati pada masing-masing ketinggian tempat; (1. < 1.000 m, 2. 1.000 -1.200 m, 3. 1.200 -1.400 m dan 4. > 1.400 m di atas permukaan laut). Metode yang digunakan adalah metode survei dengan analisis deskriptif. Berdasarkan peta ketinggian tempat, penggunaan lahan dan varietas kopi yang ditemui maka diperoleh 20 tapak pengamatan. Pada setiap tapak pengamatan dilakukan identifikasi varietas, pengambilan contoh gelondong buah kopi matang dan contoh tanah. Untuk menentukan ketinggian tempat yang ideal serta masing-masing varietas-varietas kopi Arabika dilakukan analisis gerombol, analisis korelasi antar karakteristik lahan yang dilanjutkan dengan regresi berganda. Berdasarkan hasil menunjukkan varietas Borbor sesuai pada ketinggian tempat > 1.400 m, varietas Tim-Tim < 1.200 m, dan Ateng Super pada semua ketinggian 1.200 -1.400 m diatas permukaan laut. Pengolahan biji kopi Arabika organik yang menghasilkan mutu kualitas citarasa yang terbaik dan khas (unik) adalah pengolahan basah cara basah. Hasil analisis regresi berganda antara karakteristik lahan dengan kriteria citarasa kopi Arabika pengolahan basah cara basah diperoleh hubungan yang sangat erat (R2) adalah 0,894. Penentu citarasa yang terbaik dan unik adalah Ketinggian tempat, iklim dan pengolahan biji kopi Arabika organik.