Kardono Kardono
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

Published : 12 Documents
Articles

Found 12 Documents
Search

Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Pengaturan Optimal LQR untuk Menjaga Kestabilan Hover pada Quadcopter

Jurnal Teknik ITS Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Teknik ITS (ISSN 2301-9271)
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat (LPPM), ITS

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1837.196 KB)

Abstract

Quadcopter adalah pesawat terbang yang memiliki potensi untuk lepas landas, hover, terbang manuver, dan mendarat bahkan di daerah kecil. Seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi modern, saat ini quadcopter banyak digunakan untuk pengawasan area, pengambilan foto/video, pelaksanaan misi yang beresiko tinggi dan lain-lain. Kestabilan hover pada quadcopter sangatlah penting dan harus dimiliki quadcopter agar pemanfaatannya dapat maksimal. Kontrol hover merupakan prioritas utama dalam setiap upaya pengendalian quadcopter baik pada pengendalian fase take-off, landing, dan trajectory, hal ini dikarenakan kesalahan yang kecil saja yang terjadi pada sudut dan atau ketinggian quadcopter dapat menyebabkan quadcopter bergerak baik terhadap sumbu x, y, maupun z. Dalam Tugas Akhir ini dibahas desain sistem kontrol pada quadcopter agar dapat melakukan proses hover secara otomatis dengan stabil dan metode yang digunakan adalah kontroler Linier Quadratic Regulator (LQR). Pada Tugas Akhir ini, didapatkan nilai parameter kontrol LQR dari hasil tuning diperoleh parameter R=1 dan Q=Q4 yang pada simulasi dapat terbang hover pada ketinggian 2 m, dan dapat mengatasi gangguan dengan rise time selama 0,1332detik. Respon hasil implementasi pada quadcopter tidak sebaik dengan hasil simulasi, terbang hover dengan set point ketinggian 100 cm masih berisolasi antara 50cm sampai 200cm, dan respon kestabilan sudut lebih lambat yaitu 0,23detik.

APPLICATION OF US-EPA METHOD 29: SAMPLING OF METALS EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCE

JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN Vol 8, No 2 (2007): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

This report summaries the results of sampling (and analyses) of stack flue gas of P.T. Semen Cibinong’s Kiln, located at Jl. Raya Narogong, Desa Nambo, Cileungsi, Bogor. The test was aimed to determine concentrations of emitted metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and Tl) concentrations. The conditions of the kiln tested were maintained at its normal operation. The metals were sampled from the flue gas at 3 (three) replicates. The metals concentrations in all three tests were well below the standard as stipulated in Kep-06/BAPEDAL/02/1999. This stack sampling work was carried out with the strict procedures specified by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA), Method No. 29. The laboratory analysis of metals were conducted by Analitika Sejahtera Lingkungan (ASL) laboratory, Bogor. The procedures of both stack sampling and laboratory analyses have followed a quality assurance/ quality control (QA/QC) program as an integral part of the overall technical effort.

LANDFILL GAS FOR ENERGY: ITS STATUS AND PROSPECT IN INDONESIA

JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN Vol 9, No 1 (2008): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Indonesia, a nation with more than 230 million population, is the world’s largest archipelagic state located between Asia and Australia continents. In 2000, the production of municipal solid waste (MSW) or refuse in 384 Indonesian cities was about 80,235 tons or 320,940 m3 per day. Refuse generation is predicted to increase five times by 2020. Waste composition is influenced by external factors, such as geographical location, the population’s standard of living, energy source, and weather. Generally, ahigh percentage of organic matter of refuse is between 61 and 72 per cent by weight. The presence of paper, plastic, glass, and metal ranges from 0.4 to 13 per cent. The current handling of refuse in Indonesia is mostly used the disposal land of unhealthy landfill in the form of open dumping. Around 450 units of open dumping have been in operation in Indonesian big cities. These open dumping landfills cause some problems ranging from odor to health problems. Center of Environmental Technology, BPPT has been preparing to carry out landfill mining both for its compost and gas. The gassampling must be done first before it is pumped for energy use. The gas is suggested to be utilized for generating energy, for example for electricity. Initial test indicated that the composition of methane gas (CH4) is around 50%, which is a good enough for energy generation. If the percentage of burnable gas is too low to be used for generating electric energy, it might be mixed with high content of heating value of natural gas (dual fuel system). This paper will present the conditions of open dumping of landfill inIndonesia, and the status and the distribution of its containing gas. From this knowledge of the amount and distribution of landfill gas, it will be analyzed for suggestion how the mined gas will be suitably utilized by the people.

PERSYARATAN LABORATORIUM LINGKUNGAN DAN KONDISINYA DI INDONESIA

JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN Vol 9, No 2 (2008): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

The level of environmental quality is indicated by how much the pollutants enter into and stay in it, that is whether they are still below or already above the regulated pollutants standard. In knowing pollutant concentration in the environment, pollutantmeasurement must be done by employing appropriate instrument and using qualified/ certified operator. Therefore, the role of environmental laboratory is crucial in preparing instrumentation, operator, as well as standard operating procedure (SOP) in order for sampling and analysis of pollutants to work properly and result qualified data. This type of laboratory is strongly determined by how the laboratory is operated with the standard mechanism, called good laboratory practice (GLP). GLP will be met by the laboratory that owns the current state of the art instrumentation, capability and experience of the operator/analyst in conducting sampling and analysis, availability of SOP, capability to control thequality (Quality Control) and to assure the quality (Quality Assurance) of its work and the results. Some of laboratory in Indonesia has received certification from National Committee on Acreditation (KAN). However, the granted certification from the KAN must be first checked whether it is for all or part of the laboratory capabilities. Second, whether during the analysis it is already checked the accuracy and preciseness of the instrument employed. Unlike in developed countries, this type of such check has not so far been done in Indonesia. In term of QualityAssurance, the institution that grants the laboratory certification, for example KAN in Indonesia, will send blind samples to targeted laboratory to analyze how much the concentration of certain pollutants detected by this laboratory. Third, whether the operators have strongly followed the existing SOP. Thus, in order to operate laboratory in a right procedure and accuracy, a lot of work must be done carefully in order to result a qualified data. This paper is going to describe and to evaluate how the environmental laboratory is operated and how their condition in Indonesia.

PERSYARATAN LABORATORIUM LINGKUNGAN DAN KONDISINYA DI INDONESIA

Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan Vol 9, No 2 (2008): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology - Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (81.147 KB)

Abstract

The level of environmental quality is indicated by how much the pollutants enter into and stay in it, that is whether they are still below or already above the regulated pollutants standard. In knowing pollutant concentration in the environment, pollutantmeasurement must be done by employing appropriate instrument and using qualified/ certified operator. Therefore, the role of environmental laboratory is crucial in preparing instrumentation, operator, as well as standard operating procedure (SOP) in order for sampling and analysis of pollutants to work properly and result qualified data. This type of laboratory is strongly determined by how the laboratory is operated with the standard mechanism, called good laboratory practice (GLP). GLP will be met by the laboratory that owns the current state of the art instrumentation, capability and experience of the operator/analyst in conducting sampling and analysis, availability of SOP, capability to control thequality (Quality Control) and to assure the quality (Quality Assurance) of its work and the results. Some of laboratory in Indonesia has received certification from National Committee on Acreditation (KAN). However, the granted certification from the KAN must be first checked whether it is for all or part of the laboratory capabilities. Second, whether during the analysis it is already checked the accuracy and preciseness of the instrument employed. Unlike in developed countries, this type of such check has not so far been done in Indonesia. In term of QualityAssurance, the institution that grants the laboratory certification, for example KAN in Indonesia, will send blind samples to targeted laboratory to analyze how much the concentration of certain pollutants detected by this laboratory. Third, whether the operators have strongly followed the existing SOP. Thus, in order to operate laboratory in a right procedure and accuracy, a lot of work must be done carefully in order to result a qualified data. This paper is going to describe and to evaluate how the environmental laboratory is operated and how their condition in Indonesia.

APPLICATION OF US-EPA METHOD 29: SAMPLING OF METALS EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCE

Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan Vol 8, No 2 (2007): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology - Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (136.639 KB)

Abstract

This report summaries the results of sampling (and analyses) of stack flue gas of P.T. Semen Cibinong’s Kiln, located at Jl. Raya Narogong, Desa Nambo, Cileungsi, Bogor. The test was aimed to determine concentrations of emitted metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and Tl) concentrations. The conditions of the kiln tested were maintained at its normal operation. The metals were sampled from the flue gas at 3 (three) replicates. The metals concentrations in all three tests were well below the standard as stipulated in Kep-06/BAPEDAL/02/1999. This stack sampling work was carried out with the strict procedures specified by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA), Method No. 29. The laboratory analysis of metals were conducted by Analitika Sejahtera Lingkungan (ASL) laboratory, Bogor. The procedures of both stack sampling and laboratory analyses have followed a quality assurance/ quality control (QA/QC) program as an integral part of the overall technical effort.

ANALISIS KIMIA LIMBAH B3 UNTUK MENENTUKAN EFISIENSI PENGHANCURAN DALAM UJI BAKAR DI INSINERATOR

Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan Vol 13, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology - Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (512.742 KB)

Abstract

Salah satu cara efektif mengurangi limbah bahan berbahaya dan beracun (B3) yaitu dengan membakarnya dalam insinerator. Berbagai keuntungan pembakaran limbah dalam insinerator mendorong usaha memanfaatkannya untuk menghacurkan limbah B3 di Indonesia. Keputusan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup (Men-LH) no. 18/2009memungkinkan orang mendapat ijin pengolahan limbah B3 melalui insinerator, tetapi berdasarkan Keputusan Kepala BAPEDAL No.: Kep-03/1995, mereka harus memenuhi persyaratan efisiensi penghancuran (DRE) sebesar 99,99% atau lebih, dan juga persyaratan lainnya. Pembuktian efisiensi penghancuran dilakukan melalui kegiatanuji bakar (TBT). Sebelum uji bakar dilakukan, analisis kimia limbah harus dilakukan di laboratorium. Senyawa yang paling sulit terbakar dalam uji bakar dapat dipilih berdasarkan nilai bakar senyawa dari hasil analisis tersebut. Dalam penelitian ini analisis kimia dari tiga jenis limbah B3, sarung tangan terkontaminasi, lumpur dari instalasi pengolahan limbah dan limbah infeksius rumah sakit, telah dilakukan. Hidrokarbon organic utama (POHC) yang dianalisis dari ketiga limbah ini adalah 1.1 Dichlorethylene, 1.1.1 Trichloroethylene dan Tetrachloroethylene dengan konsentrasi masing-masing  sebesar 1.411, 0.311, dan 0.166 mg/kg. Hasil perhitungan indek panas pembakarannya masing-masing adalah 38.45, 57.78 and 84.20. Jadi, Tetrachloroethylene merupakan POHC yang paling sulit terbakar sehingga terpilih sebagai wakil semua POHC yang mungkin terkandung dalam limbah B3 tersebut dalam uji bakar. Sampling untuk emisi Tetrachloroethylene menggunakan metode baku US EPA No. 30. Dalam uji bakar disarankan untuk mengukur emisi partikulat, logam-logam berat, asam khlorida (HCl) dan gas-gas emisi lainnya ((O2, CO, CO2, laju alir gas emisi, kadar air gas) dengan metode sampling baku. Data-data ini dapat digunakan untuk melakukan koreksi dan membantu dalam perhitungan hasil sampling. Kata Kunci: Limbah Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun (B3), Uji Bakar (TBT), Efisiensi Penghancuran (DRE), Indek Panas Pembakaran (I), Senyawa Hidrokarbon Organic Utama (POHC). AbstractOne effective way to reduce industrial hazardous wastes is to burn them in the incinerators. A variety of advantages of the waste incineration has caused businesses on employing incinerator for hazardous waste destruction in Indonesia. Regulation of the State Minister for the Environment No. 18/2009 allows business people to have licensesto treat hazardous waste through incinerator but according to the Decree of the Head of the Environmental  Management Agency (BAPEDAL) No.: Kep-03/1995 they must meet requirement of achieving 99.99% or more destruction removal efficiency (DRE) and other requirements. A demonstration of achieving DRE is done through a trial burn test (TBT). Prior to TBT, the chemical analyses of the wastes need to be done in the laboratory.Themost difficult compund to be burned in the TBT can be selected based on concentrations and heating values of those results. In this research, chemical analyses of three kinds of waste, contaminated gloves, wasterwater treatment sludge, and infectious medical wastes, have been carried out. The principal organic hydrocarbons (POHCs) analyzedare found to be 1.1 Dichlorethylene, 1.1.1 Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene with the respective average concentrations of 1.411, 0.311, and 0.166 mg/kg. The respective calculated heat of combustion indexs are 38.45, 57.78 and 84.20. Thus, Tetrachloroethylene is a POHC that is most difficult to be burned and therefore it ischosen to be a representation of all POHCs of the wastes for TBT. Sampling method of Tetrachloroethylene emission uses US EPA Method 30 –Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST). During TBT it is also suggested to measure particulate, metals, chloride acid (HCl), and other emitted gases (O2, CO, CO2, gaseous emission rate, gas watercontent) with standard sampling methods. These data could be use to standarize and support the calculationn of the sampling results. Key words: Hazardous wastes, Trial Burn Test (TBT), Destruction Removal Efficiency (DRE), Heat of Combustion Index (I), Principal Organic Hydrocarbons (POHCs).

LANDFILL GAS FOR ENERGY: ITS STATUS AND PROSPECT IN INDONESIA

Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan Vol 9, No 1 (2008): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology - Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (92.628 KB)

Abstract

Indonesia, a nation with more than 230 million population, is the world’s largest archipelagic state located between Asia and Australia continents. In 2000, the production of municipal solid waste (MSW) or refuse in 384 Indonesian cities was about 80,235 tons or 320,940 m3 per day. Refuse generation is predicted to increase five times by 2020. Waste composition is influenced by external factors, such as geographical location, the population’s standard of living, energy source, and weather. Generally, ahigh percentage of organic matter of refuse is between 61 and 72 per cent by weight. The presence of paper, plastic, glass, and metal ranges from 0.4 to 13 per cent. The current handling of refuse in Indonesia is mostly used the disposal land of unhealthy landfill in the form of open dumping. Around 450 units of open dumping have been in operation in Indonesian big cities. These open dumping landfills cause some problems ranging from odor to health problems. Center of Environmental Technology, BPPT has been preparing to carry out landfill mining both for its compost and gas. The gassampling must be done first before it is pumped for energy use. The gas is suggested to be utilized for generating energy, for example for electricity. Initial test indicated that the composition of methane gas (CH4) is around 50%, which is a good enough for energy generation. If the percentage of burnable gas is too low to be used for generating electric energy, it might be mixed with high content of heating value of natural gas (dual fuel system). This paper will present the conditions of open dumping of landfill inIndonesia, and the status and the distribution of its containing gas. From this knowledge of the amount and distribution of landfill gas, it will be analyzed for suggestion how the mined gas will be suitably utilized by the people.

CONDITION OF WATER RESOURCE IN INDONESIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

Jurnal Air Indonesia Vol 3, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Air Indonesia
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (324.219 KB)

Abstract

Water resource is one of the most important resources for life and development. In Indonesia, the increasing population and development results the increased demand of water. On the other hand, water resource availability has become limited and has been at critical level for several locations. Around 65% Indonesian population (~ 125 Million people) live in Java island which is only 7% of total Indonesia continental area. The decrease of water resource is caused by some factors, namely pollution, deforestation, heavy agricultural activities, and the change of the function of  catchment area. This paper will give some brief description how water resource in Indonesia distributes and what the appropriate technologies have been used for the treatment of low quality of water in order to fulfill the human life needs.  Keywords: water resource, pollution, climate change, health impact.

IDENTIFYING LOW CARBON TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA

Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan Vol 15, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology - Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (533.699 KB)

Abstract

As a developing country, Indonesia has voluntarily committed to reduce its green-house gases(GHGs) emissions by 26% with its self-financing, or 41% with addition of foreign aids, by year 2020.This target will carry consequences for Indonesia to make an action plan and at the same time tochoose which low carbon technologies (LCTs) are employed in reducing its GHGs. This paper willfocus on introducing LCTs for energy sector of Indonesia. LCTs option for reducing CO2 emissionin Indonesia is suggested for both energy supply and energy demand sides. Energy technology forsupply side is prioritized for clean coal, geothermal and renewable energy technologies includingtechnologies for biomass, hydro, wind and solar. Prioritized energy technology for demand sideis applied to energy efficiency for industries, residential and commercial buildings. Besides, softtechnologies such as energy audit, energy rating and labeling are also proposed. For public bustransportation and taxi, a cleaner fuel of gas as a substitution to fossil fuel or gasoline is highlysuggested to be used. Transport demand management is also proposed to be improved, like usingintelligent transportation system (ITS) and mass rapid transport system (MRTS)