EDWAN KARDENA
Water and Wastewater Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung

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Improving the Effectiveness of Crude-Oil Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Employing Azotobacter chroococcum as Co-Inoculant PARNADI, PUJAWATI SURYATMANA; KARDENA, EDWAN; RATNANINGSIH, ENNY; WISJNUPRAPTO, .
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (2007): April 2007
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Azotobacter chroococcum has a great potential as biosurfactant producing bacteria and was used as co-inoculant to promote the rate of hydrocarbon biodegradation. The rate of hydrocarbon biodegradation were 0.01212, 0.01582, and 0.01766 per day for Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus cereus and the consorsium culture respectively. On the other hand, the rates of biodegradation using Azotobacter as co-inoculant were 0.1472, 0.01612, and 0.02709 g per day. Azotobacter chroococcum co-inoculant has the capability of increasing biodegradation efficiency of crude oilhydrocarbon. The biodegradation efficiency of petroleum hidrocarbon was increated by 13.4, 14.6, and 14.4% within the Petrobacter cultures.
PERFORMA OKSIDASI METAN PADA REAKTOR KONTINYU DENGAN PENINGKATAN KETEBALAN LAPISAN BIOCOVER LANDFILL Kurniasari, Opy; Padmi, Tri; Kardena, Edwan; Damanhuri, Enri
REAKTOR Volume 14, No. 3, APRIL 2013
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

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PERFORMANCE OF METHANE OXIDATION IN CONTINUOUS REACTOR BY BIOCOVER LANDFILL FILM THICKNESS IMPROVEMENT. Municipal solid waste (MSW) handling in Indonesia is currently highly dependent on landfilling at the final disposal facility (TPA), which generally operated in layer-by-layer basis, allowing the anaerobic (absent of oxygen) process. This condition will certainly generate biogas in the form of methane (CH4) and CO2. Methane is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential greater than CO2, and can absorb infrared radiation 23 times more efficient than CO2 in the period of over 100 years. One way that can be done to reduce methane gas from landfills that escape into nature is to oxidize methane by utilizing landfill cover material (biocover) as methane-oxidizing microorganism media. Application of compost as landfill cover material is a low-cost approach to reduce emissions so are suitable for developing countries. The compost used in this study was compost landfill mining, which is degraded naturally in landfill. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of biocover to oxidize the methane on a certain layer thickness with a continuous flow conditions. Three column reactors were used, which were made of flexy glass measuring 70 cm in high and 15 cm in diameter. The methane flowed from the bottom of the reactor continuously at a flow rate of 5 ml/minute. The columns were filled with biocover compost landfill mining with layer thickness of 5, 25, 35 and 60 cm. The results showed that the thicker layer of biocover, the higher the efficiency of methane oxidation. The oxidation efficiency obtained in each layer thickness of 15, 25, 35 and 60 cm was 56.43%, 63.69%, 74.58% and 80, 03% respectively, with the rate of oxidation of 0.29 mol m-2 d-1 and the fraction of oxidation of 99%. The oxidation result was supported by the identification of bacteria isolated in this experiment, namely metanotrophic bacteria that have the ability to oxidize methane through the form of methanol metabolite. ABSTRAKPenanganan sampah kota di Indonesia pada umumnya dilakukan pada tempat pemrosesan akhir sampah (TPA), yang sebagian besar dilakukan dengan cara pengurugan (landfilling) yang cenderung bersifat anaerob (tidak ada oksigen). Cara pengurugan ini biasanya dioperasikan lapis perlapis sehingga memungkinkan terjadinya proses anaerob. Pada kondisi ini dipastikan biogas, yaitu gas metana (CH4) dan CO2, akan muncul. Metana adalah gas rumah kaca dengan potensi pemanasan global lebih besar dari CO2, dan dapat mengabsorpsi radiasi infra merah 23 kali lebih efisien dari CO2 pada periode lebih dari 100 tahun. Salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengurangi gas metana dari landfill yang lepas ke alam adalah dengan mengoksidasinya dengan memanfaatkan material penutup landfill (biocover) sebagai media mikroorganisma pengoksidasi metana. Aplikasi kompos sebagai material penutup landfill merupakan pendekatan dengan biaya rendah untuk mereduksi emisi gas dari landfill sehingga cocok untuk negara berkembang. Biocover yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah kompos landfill mining, yaitu kompos yang terdegradasi secara alami di landfill. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi kemampuan biocover kompos landfill mining dalam mengoksidasi metana pada ketebalan lapisan tertentu dengan kondisi aliran kontinyu. Tiga buah reaktor kolom yang digunakan terbuat dari flexy glass berukuran tinggi 70 cm dan diameter 15 cm. Gas metana dialirkan dari bawah reaktor secara kontinyu dengan laju alir 5 ml/menit. Kolom diisi dengan biocover kompos landfill mining dengan ketebalan lapisan 5, 25, 35 dan 60 cm. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa semakin tebal lapisan biocover, semakin tinggi efisiensi oksidasi metana. Efisiensi oksidasi yang diperoleh pada setiap ketebalan lapisan 15, 25, 35 dan 60 cm adalah masing-masing 56,43%, 63,69%, 74,58% dan 80,03%, dengan laju oksidasi 0,287 mol m-2 d-1 dan fraksi oksidasi 97%. Hasil oksidasi yang diperoleh tersebut diperkuat  dengan identifikasi bakteri yang berhasil diisolasi, yaitu bakteri metanotrofik yang memiliki kemampuan dalam mengoksidasi metana melalui metabolit antara berupa metanol.  
PENGARUH JENIS ANODA PADA PROSES PEMULIHAN LOGAM NIKEL DARI TIRUAN AIR LIMBAH ELECTROPLATING MENGGUNAKAN SEL ELEKTRODEPOSISI Dhaenudin, Djaenudin; Syafila, Mindriany; Kardena, Edwan; Nurdin, Isdiriayani
REAKTOR Volume 14, No. 3, APRIL 2013
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

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EFFECT OF ANODES TYPES ON NICKEL RECOVERY FROM SYNTHETIC ELECTROPLATING WASTE ELECTRODEPOSITION CELLS. A study concerning the recovery of nickel from electroplating wastewater artificial solution. The study was conducted with a batch system using electrodeposition cell consisting of two spaces separated by water hyacinth leaf, copper cathode plate, H2SO4 solution anolyte, catholyte solution of NiSO4 plus NaCl supporting electrolyte and anode varied. Electrodeposition performed at the direct current of 5V power for 4 hours each run. The research objective was to obtain the best anode in nickel electrodeposition process of electroplating waste artificial solution. Graphite, stainless steel type AISI 316 and the lead were used as a variation of the anode. Concentration of nickel in the catholyte at baseline 2200 mg/L. The results showed that the anode was a graphite anode with best value decreased by 72.44% nickel concentration, deposition of nickel on the cathode of 0.188 grams and specific energy values ​​of 6.1625 kWh/kg.nickel.   Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pemulihan logam nikel dari larutan tiruan air limbah electroplating. Penelitian dilakukan dengan sistem batch menggunakan sel elektrodeposisi yang terdiri dari dua ruang yang dipisahkan dengan daun eceng gondok, katoda pelat tembaga, anolit larutan H2SO4, katolit larutan NiSO4 ditambah elektrolit pendukung larutan NaCl dan anoda divariasikan. Elektrodeposisi dilakukan pada listrik searah sebesar 5V selama 4 jam setiap tempuhan. Tujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh anoda terbaik pada proses elektrodeposisi nikel dari larutan tiruan limbah electroplating. Grafit, Stainless Steel  tipe AISI 316 dan timbal digunakan sebagai variasi jenis anoda. Konsentrasi nikel dalam katolit pada awal penelitian 2200 mg/L. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa anoda grafit merupakan anoda yang paling baik dengan nilai penurunan konsentrasi nikel sebesar 72,44%, deposisi nikel di katoda sebesar 0,188 gram dan nilai energi spesifik sebesar 6,1625  kWh/kg.nikel.
KEBERADAAN ANILIN DI SUNGAI CITARUM HULU AKIBAT PENGGUNAAN AZO DYES PADA INDUSTRI TEKSTIL Suhendra, Edward; Purwanto, Purwanto; Kardena, Edwan
METANA Vol 9, No 02 (2013): METANA VOLUME 9 NO. 02 DESEMBER 2013
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract The dyeing and printing processes in textile industry produces wastewater containing residual dyes. The most widely used textile dyes are azo dyes. The textile industry is one of the main industries in West Java province, where one of the textile industry centers is Majalaya textile industry center. Majalaya textile industry center had begun since the 1910s, where in Majalaya subdistrict located the most textile companies which produced textile wastewater. Textile wastewater which contained azo dyes discharged into the Citarum Hulu River directly or after treatment in the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) owned by the company. One of the product metabolites produced from azo dyes biodegradation by bacteria in anaerobic conditions are various anilines. Several anilines which are persistent, could flow to downstream of Citarum Hulu River. Various anilines, referred to as total anilines, could be analyzed by the colorimetric method using visual spectrophotometer. Total anilines in water samples after biodegradation by anaerobic bacteria was 14.46 mg/l highest. While total aniline in river water samples was 3.58 mg/l highest. And at the downstream of Citarum Hulu River, there was total of aniline 1,825 mg/l highest in the river sediment samples. DO in the river water samples were 4.25 - 7.8 mg/l, while pH of the river water samples were 7.1 - 10.7. The occurence of total aniline in textile wastewater and river water samples in Citarum Hulu River (Majalaya subdistrict) and in river sediments at the downstream of Citarum Hulu indicated biodegradation of azo dyes from textile wastewater by anaerobic bacteria. Key words : Citarum Hulu River, textile wastewater, azo dyes, total aniline
TANAH PENUTUP LANDFILLMENGGUNAKAN SAMPAH LAMA SEBAGAI MEDIA OKSIDASI METANA UNTUK MENGURANGI EMISI GAS METANA Kurniasari, Opy; Damanhuri, Enri; Padmi, Tri; Kardena, Edwan
Bumi Lestari Vol 14, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Udayana University

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Metana adalah gas alam yang dilepaskan ke atmosfir oleh proses biologi yang terjadi pada lingkungan anaerobik melalui proses metanogenesis. Metana mempunyai kekuatan  21 kali lebih besar terhadap kenaikan suhu dibandingkan COdalam periode waktu 100 tahun.Landfill adalah sumber kegiatan manusia terbesar yang menghasilkan metana. Salah satu cara yang sederhana dan murah untuk mengurangi gas metana dari landfill yang lepas ke alam  adalah dengan mengoksidasi metana dengan memanfaatkan tanah penutup landfill sebagai media mikroorganisma pengoksidasi metana, sehingga dapat mengurangi kontribusi metana pada pemanasan global. Tujuan penelitian yaitu untuk mengidentifikasi empat jenis sampah lama (kompos landfill mining)dari beberapa TPA di Kota dan Kabupaten Bandung sebagai alternatif untuk tanah penutup landfill yang dapat mendukung oksidasi metana.Sampel yang akandiidentifikasi  adalah sampah lama dari 4 (empat) TPA (Tempat Pemrosesan Akhir Sampah) yaitu TPA Jelekong, TPA Pasir Impun , TPA Leuwi Gajah  dan TPA Sarimukti. Hasil identifikasimenunjukkan bahwa sampah lama dari keempat TPA mempunyai karakteristik untuk dapat menjadi alternatif  tanah penutup landfill sebagai media yang mendukung oksidasi metana dan sampah lama dari TPA Jelekong mempunyai potensi oksidasi yang lebih besar dibandingkan  dari TPA lainnya
The Distribution of Microalgae in a Stabilization Pond System of a Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Tropical Environment (Case Study: Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant) Ariesyady, Herto Dwi; Fadilah, Rifka; Kurniasih, Kurniasih; Sulaeman, Aminudin; Kardena, Edwan
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Vol 48, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : ITB Journal Publisher, LPPM ITB

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The Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) serves to treat domestic wastewater originating from Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. An abundant amount of nutrients as a result of waste decomposition increases the number of microalgae populations present in the pond of the wastewater treatment plant, thereby causing a population explosion of microalgae, also called algal blooming. In a stabilization pond system, the presence of algal blooming is not desirable because it can decrease wastewater treatment performance. More knowledge about the relationship between the nutrients concentration and algae blooming conditions, such as microalgae diversity, is needed to control and maintain the performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Therefore this study was conducted, in order to reveal the diversity of microalgae in the stabilization pond system and its relationship with the water characteristics of the comprising ponds. The results showed that the water quality in the stabilization pond system of Bojongsoang WWTP supported rapid growth of microalgae, where most rapid microbial growth occurred in the anaerobic pond. The microalgae diversity in the stabilization ponds was very high, with various morphologies, probably affiliated with blue-green algae, green algae, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and diatoms. This study has successfully produced information on microalgae diversity and abundance profiles in a stabilization pond system.