Articles

The Use of Phytase Enzyme to Increase Phosphorus Bioavailability of the Diets and Growth Performance of Catfish (Clarias sp) Amin, Mohammad; Jusadi, Dedi; Mokoginta, Ing
SAINTEK PERIKANAN Vol 6, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Saintek Perikanan
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ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary phytase supplementation on phosphorus (P) bioavailability of the diets and growth performance of catfish (Clarias sp) as well as P loading. Four experimental diets were used in this experiment. Diet (A), as a control, was supplemented with inorganic P; diet (B) supplemented with phytase, without inorganic P; diet (C ) supplemented with phytase and citric acid, without inorganic P; and diet (D) without phytase and inorganic P. Phytase was added to the diet at 50 mg/100 g soy bean meal and pollard. Ten fishes with initial body weight of 6.3 ± 0.05 g distributed into an aquarium. Fish fed on the diets for 60 days, there time daily, at satiation. Results indicated that P digestibility increased from 68.55% to 86.1% by the addition of phytase. P digestibility in diet B and C was higher than diet A and D. Daily growth rate of fish from diet B and C were significantly higher than that of diet D, but similar with diet A. Food conversion ratio (FCR) of fish from diet A, B, and C was better than diet D. P concentration in the whole body, bone, and plasma, of fish from diet A,B, and C was higher than diet D, but the Ca and Zn concentration  in the whole body, bone, plasma was the same in all treatments. P loading by fish fed diet with phytase ware 58% lower than that of the fish fed control diet. Keyword: Clarias sp, phytase, phosphorus, bioavailability
The Effect of Dietary Chromium-Yeast on the Growth Performance of Baung Fish (Hemibagrus nemurus Blkr) Purnama Sari, Endang; Mokoginta, Ing; Jusadi, Dedi
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan dan Perikanan Indonesia Vol 16, No 1 (2009): Juni 2009
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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A triplicate experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary chromium on the growth performance of baung fish (Hemibagrus nemurus Blkr). This experiment used four diets contain different level of chromium yeast (0.0, 1.47, 3.20, and 4.59 mg/kg). Twenty fish with the initial body weight 7.0 ± 0.2 g were placed in each aquarium (50x40x35 cm). Fish were fed on the experimental diets three times daily, at satiation for 60 days. The results showed that chromium diets produced body protein level, ratio RNA/DNA and protein retention higher than that of non chromim diet. However, diet contained chromium yeast 3.20 mg/kg produced the highest protein deposition. Finally, it also produced the highest daily growth rate and feed efficiency. The liver and carcass glycogen level increased as the chromium level of diets was elevated, on the other side, body lipid level decreased as the chromium level of diets was elevated.Keywords: chromium, baung, growth.
Pair replacement on the spawning success of broodstock Seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) Syafiuddin, .; Junior, M. Zairin; Jusadi, Dedi; Carman, Odang; Affandi, Ridwan
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 10, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Seahorse, (Hippocampus barbouri) is one of marine living resources having high commercial values and has commonly been traded especially as live ornamental aquarium fish, raw material of traditional medicine and as souvenirs. This expriment was conducted to determine the succces of spawning rate by replacing the broodstock pair of seahorse. This study was done experimentally with treatment of replacement of broodstock pair after spawning under control condition. The experiment was designed to apply completely randomize design by using the following treatments: Treatment A, without replacement neither male nor female. Treatment B, spawned female broodstock  was being mated with her unpaired male broodstock.  Treatment C, a male broodstock that still brood was being mated with his unpaired female broodstock.  Treatment D, a spawned male broodstock that has released larva was being mated with his unpaired female broodstock.  Results showed that under control condition the replacement of broodstock pairs of seahorse had significantly influenced the spawning interval, number of eggs released and number of juveniles produced (P0,05).  It can be concluded that seahorse is not monogamous, either male or female after being spawned may accept other pair for the next spawning. Key words: pair replacement, broodstock, success spawning, Hippocampus barbouri   ABSTRAK Kuda laut, (Hippocampus barbouri) merupakan salah satu sumberdaya hayati laut yang memiliki nilai komersial dan telah banyak diperdagangkan terutama sebagai ikan hias, bahan baku obat tradisional dan juga sebagai suvenir. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengkaji tingkat keberhasilan pemijahan dengan penggantian pasangan induk kuda laut pada wadah budidaya. Percobaan ini dilakukan secara ekperimental dengan perlakuan penggantian pasangan induk setelah pemijahan dalam wadah budidaya. Percobaan dirancang dengan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan perlakuan sebagai berikut: Perlakuan  A, pemijahan   sepasang  induk kuda laut (tanpa pergantian). Perlakuan B, pemijahan induk betina yang telah memijah dengan induk jantan bukan pasangannya. Perlakuan C, pemijahan  induk  jantan  yang telah memijah (mengerami telur) dengan induk betina bukan pasangannya. Perlakuan D, pemijahan induk jantan yang telah melahirkan dengan induk betina bukan pasangannya. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa penggantian pasangan induk pada wadah budidaya sangat berpengaruh terhadap interval pemijahan, jumlah telur yang dikeluarkan dan jumlah juwana yang dihasilkan (P0,05). Dari hasil penelitian ini disimpulkan bahwa kuda laut, tidak bersifat monogami, artinya baik jantan maupun betina setelah memijah dapat menerima pasangan lain untuk pemijahan berikutnya. Kata kunci: induk, keberhasilan pemijahan, pergantian pasangan, Hippocampus barbouri
Survival Rate of Sand Goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Blkr.), Fed by Carrot-Enriched Rotifers, Brack ion us sp. Effendi, Irzal; Jusadi, Dedi; Nirwana, A.I.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 3, No 1 (2004): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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The aim of this experiment is to know survival rate of sand goby larvae were fed carrot-enriched rotifers. Two days old larvae (3,56-3,57 mm body length) were reared in conical fiberglass tanks filled 100 1 of water with stocking density 23 fish per 1 (2.300 fish per tank). The tanks were placed in transparent-roofed room and the water was aerated softly by 3 unit of aeration stones. Larvae were fed carrot-enriched rotifers and without enrichment as a control. Stocking density of rotifers was 40 individual per ml or 4x106 individual per tank and it maintained for 10 days of rearing. Rotifers were incubated in media which contained (60 g per 1) sieved carrot (100 urn) for 2,5 hours before fed to the larvae. The survival rate of sand goby larvae, which fed by carrot-enriched rotifers (29,9%), was higher (p
Effect of Artemia Nauplii Enriched with Different Kind of Lipid on the Growth and Brain Volume of Larval Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Jusadi, Dedi; Hasyim, B.A.; Mokoginta, Ing
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 3, No 1 (2004): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Triplicate experiment was conducted using 4-day-old larval tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Thirty fishes were cultured in aquarium contained 2 litres water for 14 days. During rearing period, fish were fed on Artemia nauplii enriched with fish oil, corn oil or coconut oil. It was found that brain volume of fish fed on Artemia enriched with corn oil was significantly larger than two other groups of fish. The brain volume of fish related with linoleic acid content in the diet, which was highest in Artemia enriched with corn oil. Key words: Fish oil. corn oil, coconut oil, brain, fatty acid, tilapia. Oreochromis niloticus.   ABSTRAK Tiga puluh ekor larva ikan nila umur 4 hari dipelihara di dalam stoples berisi 2 1 air selama 14 hari. Selama pemeliharaan. larva diberi makan Artemia yang telah diperkaya dengan minyak ikan. minyak kelapa atau minyak jagung. Di akhir penelitian, larva ikan yang diberi makan Artemia yang diperkaya dengan minyak jagung memiliki volume otak (8,33 x 105 μm3) yang lebih besar dari otak ikan di dua perlakuan lainnya. Hal ini diduga sebagai akibat tingginya kandungan asam lemak linoleat Artemia setelah diperkaya dengan minyak jagung. Namun. perbedaan komposisi asam lemak Artemia di tiga perlakuan mempunyai pengaruh yang sama terhadap pertumbuhan larva ikan nila. Kata kunci: Minyak ikan. minyak jagung, minyak kelapa, otak, asam lemak, ikan nila, Oreochromis niloticus.
The Effect of Enriched Daphnia sp. with Different Source of Oil on the Survival Rate and the Growth of Oreochromis niloticus Larvae Mokoginta, I.; Jusadi, Dedi; Pelawi, T.L.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 2, No 1 (2003): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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This experiment was conducted to evaluate best source of oil to enriched Daphnia sp. before fed it to Oreochromis niloticus larvae. Four treatments were used in this experiment; first, Daphnia sp. without encrichment, second Daphnia sp. enriched with fish oil, third Daphnia sp. enriched with corn oil and the fourth Daphnia sp. enriched with coconut oil. Three days old larvae fed on Daphnia sp. with size of £ 0,5 mm at the first week and 0,6 – 1,0 mm as the second week of this experiment. Larvae fed on Daphnia sp. 5 times daily, ad libitum, for 14 days. Larvae was reared in the small cages (2,25 l), and all cages was placed in the aquarium. Larvae density was 48 larvae/l. This experiment showed that the lipid level in Daphnia sp. enriched with oil was higher than that of no enrichment Daphnia sp. The highest n3- fatty acid level was found in Daphnia sp. enriched with fish oil, and the highest n6- fatty acid level was found in Daphnia sp. enriched with corn oil. Larvae fed on Daphnia sp. enriched with oil have a higher relative growth rate than that fed on Daphnia sp. without enrichment. The highest survival rate of larvae was found by feeding them with Daphnia sp. enriched with corn oil (p < 0,05). Key words : Daphnia sp., enrichment, larvae, Oreochromis niloticus   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi sumber minyak yang terbaik bagi pengkayaan Daphnia sp. sebelum diberikan ke larva ikan nila, Oreochromis niloticus. Ada 4 perlakuan dalam penelitian ini yaitu Daphnia sp. yang tidak diperkaya minyak; Daphnia sp. yang diperkaya minyak ikan; Daphnia sp. yang diperkaya minyak jagung; dan Daphnia sp. yang diperkaya minyak kelapa. Larva ikan nila, Oreochromis niloticus berumur 3 hari ditebar dalam hapa kecil (volume 2,25 l) sebanyak 48 ekor/l, dan seluruh hapa diletakkan dalam akuarium berukuran 100x50x40 cm. Daphnia sp. diperkaya terlebih dahulu dengan minyak sesuai perlakuan sebelum diberikan ke larva. Pada minggu pertama pemeliharaan larva, ukuran Daphnia sp. yang digunakan adalah £ 0,5 mm dan pada minggu ke dua 0.6 – 1.0 mm. Daphnia sp. diberikan sebanyak 5 kali dalam sehari secara ad libitum dan pemberian pakan dilakukan selama 14 hari. Hasil penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa kadar lemak Daphnia sp. yang diperkaya minyak lebih tinggi dari Daphnia sp. yang tidak diperkaya, dan hal ini berpengaruh pula pada kadar lemak tubuh larva. Kadar asam lemak –n3 tertinggi terdapat pada Daphnia sp. yang diperkaya minyak ikan dan kadar asam lemak –n6 tertinggi terdapat pada Daphnia sp. yang diperkaya minyak jagung. Larva yang diberi Daphnia sp. yang diperkaya dengan minyak mempunyai pertambahan bobot relatif dan tingkat kelangsungan hidup yang lebih tinggi dari larva yang diberi Daphnia sp. yang tidak diperkaya; dan tingkat kelangsungan hidup larva yang tertinggi dihasilkan oleh perlakuan pemberian Daphnia sp. yang diperkaya minyak jagung (P < 0,05), walaupun pertumbuhan bobot relatifnya sama dengan perlakuan lainnya (p > 0,05). Kata kunci : Daphnia sp., pengkayaan, larva, Oreochromis niloticus
Effects of Probiotic Bacillus sp. on Food Convertion and Growth of Catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Jusadi, Dedi; Gandara, E.; Mokoginta, Ing
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 3, No 1 (2004): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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A triplicate experiment was conducted to evaluate the addition of probiotic Bacillus sp. into the diet on feed convertion and growth of catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. Twenty fish with an initial body weight of 1,85 ± 0,09 g were stocked in a 60-1 aquarium. During rearing period, fish were fed on the diet three times a day at satiation. Prior the feeding, probiotic (contained Bacillus sp. 4,2x106 CFU.ml-1) were added into the diet at a dosage of 0, 5, 15 or 25 ml.kg-1 diet. The probiotic were added once a day at the noon. The results showed that maximum protein retention, lipid retention, growth rate, and minimum feed convertion was found in the group of fish fed on the diet supplemented with 15 ml probiotic kg-1 diet. Irrespective to the dosage of probiotic, food consumption and survival rate of fish were the same among the treatments. Key words : Probiotic. Bacillus sp.. catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dosis yang optimal dari probiotik Bacillus sp. yang ditambahkan pada pakan komersil terhadap konversi pakan dan pertumbuhan benih ikan patin Pangasius hypophthalmus. Dua puluh ekor ikan patin dengan bobot rata-rata 1.85 ± 0,09 g ditebar dalam setiap akuarium frekuensi 50x40x35 cm yang diisi air 60 1. Selama 40 had masa pemeliharaan. ikan diberi pakan buatan berkadar protein 27% dengan frekwensi tiga kali sehari, at satiation. Sebelum diberikan ke ikan, pakan tersebut ditambah produk probiotik (mengandung Bacillus sp. 4,2 x 106 CFU/ml) dengan dosis 0, 5, 15 atau 25 ml/kg pakan. Pakan yang mengandung probiotik hanya diberikan sekali setiap hari, yakni pada pukul 13.00. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adanya penambahan probiotik dalam pakan sampai dosis 15 ml/kg pakan menyebabkan terjadinya peningkatan retensi protein, retensi lemak dan laju pertumbuhan harian ikan, serta menurunkan konversi pakan. Penambahan probiotik lebih lanjut (25 ml/kg pakan) menurunkan kinerja pertumbuhan di atas. Sementara itu. kelompok ikan di setiap perlakuan mengkonsumsi pakan dalam jumlah yang tidak berbeda nyata, yaitu antara 132,43 g sampai 137,84 g. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa penambahan probiotik di dalam pakan tidak memberikan adanya perbedaan yang nyata terhadap tingkat kelangsungan hidup ikan, yaitu antara 98,3% - 100%. Kata kunci: Probiotik. Bacillus sp.. ikan patin Pangasius hypophthalmus
The effectiveness of sheep rumen liquor enzyme addition on the reduction of cocoa-pod husk meal fiber content and its digestibility in tilapia diet Jusadi, Dedi; Ekasari, Julie; Kurniansyah, Azis
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2013): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
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ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of sheep rumen liquor enzyme addition on the reduction of cocoa-pod husk meal (CPHM) fiber content, and the digestibility of hydrolyzed CPHM for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In the first trial, sheep rumen liquor enzyme was added with various concentration, i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 mL/kg CPHM with three different incubation periods, namely 0, 12, and 24 hours. In the second trial, digestibility was determined by the addition of Cr2O3 as the indicator in both reference and experimental diets, i.e. feed with hydrolyzed CPHM and unhydrolyzed CPHM. Tilapia with an average body weight of 3.86±0.44 g were stocked at a density of 15 fish/aquarium and were maintained for 15 days. In the first trial, CPHM hydrolyzed with 150 mL/kg and incubated for 12 and 24 hour showed the lowest crude fiber content (21.38% and 21.67%). Apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed CPHM was 33.95%, which was higher than unhydrolyzed CPHM (10.97%). According to the results in these experiment, it can be concluded that sheep rumen liquor enzyme addition was effective to decrease crude fiber content of CPHM and improve the apparent digestibility coefficient of CPHM for tilapia diet. Keywords: sheep rumen liquor enzyme, cocoa-pod husk meal, digestibility, tilapia  ABSTRAK Dua tahap penelitian dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi penambahan enzim cairan rumen domba dalam menurunkan kandungan serat kasar kulit buah kakao (KBK) dan mengevaluasi ketercernaan KBK yang telah dihidrolisis dengan enzim cairan rumen domba dalam pakan ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus. Pada penelitian tahap satu, enzim cairan rumen domba ditambahkan dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda yaitu 0, 50, 100, dan 150 mL/kg KBK dengan lama inkubasi yang berbeda yaitu 0, 12, dan 24 jam. Pada penelitian tahap dua, nilai ketercernaan ditentukan dengan menggunakan indikator Cr2O3 yang ditambahkan ke dalam pakan acuan dan pakan perlakuan, yaitu pakan dengan penambahan KBK yang telah dihidrolisis dengan dosis terbaik pada penelitian tahap satu (KBKe) dan kulit buah kakao tanpa hidrolisis (KBK). Ikan nila yang digunakan mempunyai bobot rata-rata 3,86±0,44 g ditebar dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/akuarium dan dipelihara selama 15 hari. Hasil penelitian tahap satu menunjukkan hidrolisis KBK dengan menggunakan cairan rumen 150 mL/kg dan lama waktu inkubasi 12 jam dan 24 jam mempunyai nilai serat kasar KBK terendah yaitu sebesar 21,38% dan 21,67%. Sedangkan pada uji ketercernaan terlihat bahwa nilai ketercernaan bahan KBKe lebih tinggi (33,95%) dibandingkan dengan KBK (10,97%). Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa penambahan enzim cairan rumen domba dapat menurunkan kandungan serat kasar kulit buah kakao dan meningkatkan ketercernaan kulit buah kakao pada pakan ikan nila. Kata kunci: enzim cairan rumen domba, kulit buah kakao, ketercernaan, ikan nila
Pemberian Daun Kayu Manis Cinnamomun Burmanni dalam Pakan Terhadap Kinerja Pertumbuhan dan Komposisi Nutrien Tubuh Ikan Patin Pangasius Hypopthalmus Setiawati, Mia; Jusadi, Dedi; Marlinda, Shella; Syafruddin, Dadang
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 19, No 2 (2014): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomun burmanni) as a suplement inthe diet due to growth performance and nutriet composition of patin (Pangasius hypothalamus). A triplicateexperiment was conducted using fish with an initial body weight of 7.27 ± 0.28 g. Fish were culture in aquaria 50 x40 x 35 cm at a density of 10 fish/aquaria. Fish were fed on the diet contained either 0, 0.5, 1; or 1.5% respectively.Fish fed on the diet at satiation for 30 days. The result shows that the suplementation of cinnamon leaf powder inthe diet 0 to 1.5% was insignificantly affected feed consumption, specific growth rate, and survival rate of fish.However, the addition of Cinnamomumn burmanni up to 1% was significantly increased the level of total feeddigestibility twice, the protein digestibility to 87.39%, and protein retention 1.5 higher than the control (withoutcinnamon leaf powder). On the other hand, the diet of 1% Cinnamomumn burmanni were the optimal result of thisresearch with the feed efficient, decrease 30% of fat and have more compact flesh texture.Keywords: cinnamon, growth, nutrien composition, patin
Stress responses of transportation on red tilapia which given feed containing chromium Rakhmawati, Rakhmawati,; Suprayudi, Muhammad Agus; Setiawati, Mia; Widanarni, Widanarni,; Junior, Muhammad Zairin; Jusadi, Dedi
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 17, No 1 (2018): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : ISSA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.16-25

Abstract

ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate stress responses of transportation on red tilapia Oreochromis sp. which given feed containing chromium. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental feeds were prepared, these diets were control (without chromium), CrPic 1 mg/kg, and CrYst 2 mg/kg supplementation in feed, all group were arranged triplicate. Satiation feeding was done three times a day. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the experimental fishes were fasted and distributed in polyethylene bags (N=60 fish/bag) containing 3 L of water, subjected to condition of transport simulation for 13 hours. Survival rate, levels of plasma cortisol, blood glucose, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) enzyme were observed at before transportation, after transportation, one day, and two days after transportation. The result showed that chromium supplementation reduced the levels of plasma cortisol before and after transportation, one day, and two days after transportation. Also, it decreased blood glucose compared with control significantly before transportation and one day after transportation. The SOD enzyme concentration increased significantly after fish was fed with feed containing chromium for 30 days, while the MDA enzyme concentration increased significantly after two days of transportation. However, there was no significant difference in the survival of red tilapia between treatments. The best result was obtained in the treatment of fish which fed with feed containing chromium. CrPic supplementation 1 mg/kg and CrYst 2 mg/kg increased the body resistance in red tilapia by decreasing the negative effect of stress while transportation. Keywords: stress, transportation, red tilapia, chromium  ABSTRAKPenelitian dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi respons stres transportasi ikan nila merah Oreochromis sp. yang diberikan pakan yang mengandung kromium. Pada penelitian ini digunakan tiga jenis pakan, terdiri atas pakan tanpa suplementasi kromium (kontrol), pakan bersuplementasi kromium pikolinat (CrPic 1 mg/kg), dan kromium yeast (CrYst 2 mg/kg), semua perlakuan diulang sebanyak tiga ulangan. Pemberian pakan sebanyak tiga kali sehari dan dilakukan secara at satiation. Setelah 30 hari pemeliharaan, ikan uji dipuasakan dan didistribusikan dalam plastik polietilen (N=60 ekor ikan/kantong plastik) yang berisi 3 L air, dilakukan dengan simulasi transportasi selama 13 jam. Parameter yang diamati pada penelitian ini adalah kelangsungan hidup, kortisol, glukosa darah, enzim superoksida dismustase (SOD), dan malondialdehida (MDA) saat sebelum transportasi, sesaat setelah transportasi, sehari, dan dua hari setelah transportasi. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah suplementasi kromium menurunkan konsentrasi kortisol secara signifikan sebelum transportasi, sesaat, sehari, dan dua hari setelah transportasi. Suplementasi kromium menurunkan glukosa darah secara signifikan pada saat sebelum transportasi dan sehari setelah transportasi. Konsentrasi enzim SOD meningkat secara signifikan setelah pemberian pakan bersuplementasi kromium selama 30 hari, sedangkan konsentrasi enzim MDA meningkat secara signifikan setelah dua hari transportasi pada ikan yang diberi pakan bersuplementasi kromium. Namun, tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan pada kelangsungan hidup ikan nila merah antarperlakuan. Hasil terbaik diperoleh pada perlakuan ikan dengan suplementasi kromium. Suplementasi 1 mg/kg CrPic dan 2 mg/kg CrYst dapat meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh pada budidaya ikan nila merah dengan menurunkan pengaruh negatif stres akibat transportasi. Kata kunci: stres, transportasi, nila merah, kromium