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Optimasi transplantasi menggunakan sel donor dari ikan gurame muda dan ikan nila triploid sebagai resipien ., Alimuddin; Junior, M. Zairin; Arfah, Harton
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 15, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Testicular cell transplantation technology can be used in fish seed production engineering. In this study, optimization of transplantation using donor cells from young gouramy and triploid tilapia (3N) as recipient. Triploid tilapia is produced using heat shock method. The testes of male gouramy (body weight of 400- 850 g) was dissociated using 0.5% trypsin. Dissociated testicular cells was injected into the peritoneal cavity of tilapia larvae. Analysis of donor cell colonization was carried out using PCR method with DNA template that had been extracted from the gonad of 2-month-old tilapia. PCR was performed using specific primers for the growthhormone gene and (3-actin as an internal control of DNA loading. The results of nucleoli preparation showed thatthe success of triploidyzation was 88.5%. The gonad size of diploid (2N) and 3N recipient were relatively similar, while in not transplanted 3N tilapia was rudimentary. PCR results showed that the transplanted 3N tilapia has a DNA band of the same size with gouramy, while in control was not. This indicated that donor cells have been colonized in the gonads of recipient. The donor cell colonization in recipient 3N (78%) was higher than that of 2N (50%). Further research is required to determine the ability of donor cells differentiate into sperm and eggs in recipient gonad.Keywords : Spermatogonia, cell transplantation, triploid, giant gouramy.
Feeding Broodstock on a Diet Containing Vitamin E and Fish Oil Improve Eggs and Larval Quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Darwisito, S.; Junior, M. Zairin; Sjafei, D.S.; Manalu, W.; Sudrajat, A. Oman
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary vitamin E and n-3 fatty acids on the gonad maturation, egg and larva quality of Nile tilapia. Fish were treated by various combinations of dietary dosage of vitamin E (50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg feed) and fish oil (10, 20, 30, and 40 g/kg feed). Three hundreds and twenty pairs of broodstock fish (female at stage of maturity II) were selected and used for this experiment. Fish were fed on the experimental diets three times a day at satiation. The tested of parameters such as gonad somatic index, egg diameter, fecundity, number of spawned fish, hatching rate, and survival rate. Results of the experiment indicated that supplementation of vitamin E and fish oil stimulated gonad development and increased fecundity, hatching rate and survival rate of Nile tilapia larva. Combination of vitamin E 150 mg/kg feed and fish oil 30 g/kg feed significantly improved egg and larva quality of Nile tilapia. Thus, combination of vitamin E in 150 mg/kg diet with fish oil in dose 30 g/kg diet give the best reproduction performance. Keywords: Nile tilapia,  fish oil, vitamin E, reproduction performance   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan kadar kombinasi vitamin E dan asam lemak esensial n-3 untuk pematangan gonad, kualitas telur dan larva ikan nila. Adapun dosis dari masing-masing perlakuan terdiri dari 4 taraf. Untuk vitamin E yaitu: 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg,  dan 200 mg/kg pakan  sedangkan minyak ikan yaitu: 10 g/kg, 20 g/kg, 30 g/kg dan 40 g/kg pakan. Ikan uji yang digunakan sebanyak 320 ekor induk betina dan 320 ekor induk jantan dan diseleksi.  Setiap hari ikan diberi pakan uji 2 kali sehari (pagi dan sore) secara at satiation. Selama periode pemeliharaan parameter yang diamati meliputi: indeks gonad somatik, diameter telur, fekunditas, jumlah induk yang memijah, derajat tetas telur, dan ketahanan hidup larva. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pakan dengan kombinasi dosis vitamin E 150 mg/kg dan minyak ikan 30 g/kg memberi respons terhadap perkembangan gonad, fekunditas, derajat tetas telur dan ketahanan hidup larva ikan nila.  Kombinasi vitamin E 150 mg/kg dan minyak ikan 30 g/kg pakan memberi pengaruh signifikan dalam meningkatkan kualitas telur dan larva ikan nila. Dengan demikian, kombinasi vitamin E 150 mg/kg dan minyak ikan 30 g/kg pakan adalah memberi hasil terbaik pada performa reproduksi. Kata kunci: ikan nila, minyak ikan, vitamin E, performa reproduksi
Ovarian development of female mud crab, Scylla serrata supplemented with cholesterol and injected with serotonin Pattiasina, Betsy J.; Junior, M. Zairin; Mokoginta, I.; Affandi, R.; Manalu, W.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 9, No 1 (2010): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

Cholesterol is known to play an important role in nutrition of crustacean and function as a precursor for steroids synthesis, while neurohormone of serotonin could induce ovarian maturation in crustacean. Ovarian development of adult females Scylla serrata was induced by adding cholesterol in the diet and serotonin injection. This research was designed to study the effectiveness of cholesterol supplementation and serotonin injection in ovarian development. Broodstocks were stocked in nine experimental units in three fiber tanks. The fiber tank was equipped with sands substrate and flow through seawater system. The experimental crabs were assigned into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement. The first factor was cholesterol supplementation in the diet with 3 levels (0, 0,5 and 1,0%). The second factor was serotonin injection with 3 levels (0, 5 and 10 μg/g BW). Samples of broodstock were taken every four days to evaluate the stages of ovarian maturity and parameters were used to evaluate the ovarian maturation stage are gonad index (GI) and oocyte diameter, concentration of estradiol 17β, yolk protein concentrations, and fecundity. Results showed that female crabs supplemented with 0,5% cholesterol and a combination of cholesterol 0,5% supplementation and injection serotonin with a dose of 10 μg/g BW had better reproduction development. It is concluded that ovarian development of Scylla serrata could be improved by cholesterol supplementation and serotonin injection. Key words: Cholesterol, serotonin, ovarian development, Scylla serrata   ABSTRAK Kolesterol diketahui merupakan nutrien spesifik yang berperan dalam sisntesis hormon steroid dan mengontrol reproduksi, sementara serotonin merupakan salah satu neurohormon yang dilaporkan dapat merangsang pematangan ovari dan pemijahan pada krustase. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh tingkat pemberian kolesterol yang optimal dalam pakan buatan, serta dosis penyuntikan serotonin yang efektif untuk mempercepat proses perkembangan dan pematangan ovarium induk kepiting bakau Scylla serrata. Pemeliharaan induk dilakukan dengan menggunakan tiga buah bak fiber. Bak pemeliharaan dilengkapi dengan substrat pasir dan sistim air laut mengalir. Eksperimen menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) pola faktorial, dengan 9 satuan percobaan. Faktor pertama, suplemen kolesterol didalam pakan dengan 3 tingkat dosis (0; 0,5; dan 1%) dan faktor kedua, injeksi serotonin dengan 3 tingkat dosis (0, 5, dan 10 μg/g bobot tubuh). Pengamatan terhadap tingkat kematangan ovari dilakukan setiap 4 hari sekali. Paramater pengambilan sampel meliputi  tingkat kematangan ovari, indeks gonad dan diameter oosit, konsentrasi estradiol 17β, konsentrasi protein yolk, dan fekunditas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk kepiting yang disuplementasi dengan dosis kolesterol 0,5% dan induk kepiting yang mendapat perlakuan kombinasi, suplementasi kolesterol 0,5% dan injeksi serotonin dosis 10 μg/g bobot tubuh dapat menghasilkan perkembangan ovari yang terbaik. Jadi kolesterol dan serotonin dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan perkembangan ovari. Kata-kata kunci: Kolesterol, serotonin, perkembangan ovari, Scylla serrata
Requirement of n-6 and n-3 Fatty Acid in Broodstock Diets on Reproductive Performance of Green catfish, Hemibagrus nemurus Blkr. Utiah, Adharto; Junior, M. Zairin; Mokoginta, I.; Affandi, R.; Sumantadinata, K.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 6, No 1 (2007): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum dietary level of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on reproduction performance of green catfish. Four experimental diets with different level of n-6 and n-3 fatty acid (diet A: 0.77% n-6 fatty acid, 0.07% n-3 fatty acid; diet B: 1.56%,0.10 %; diet C: 1.74%, 0.13 % and diet D: 2%, 0.28%) were used in this experiment during seven month. Diets given twice every day in the morning and evening. The 28 broodstock used in this research with density every waring seven broodstock. Samples of eggs were analyzed for fatty acid composition. The diameter of eggs, fecundity, hatching rate of the eggs, survival rate and percentage of abnormal larvae were determined. Results showed that different dietary level of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids of the broodstock significantly affect the reproductive performance especially fecundity and hatching rate of eggs. The maximum fecundity, egg diameter, and hatching rate were produced broodstock fed on 1.56% n-6 fatty acid and 0.10 % n-3 fatty acid in diet by at the level of 12.29% lipid. Keywords : n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, reproduction performance, green catfish, Hemibagrus nemurus.   Abstrak Penelitian ini dilakukan pada berbagai level asam lemak n-6 dan n-3 dalam pakan untuk melihat pengaruhnya terhadap penampilan reproduksi dari ikan baung. Penelitian dilaksanakan selama 7 bulan.  Empat jenis pakan  digunakan dalam percobaan ini dengan perbedaan kandungan asam lemak n-6 dan n-3 (pakan A: 0,77% asam lemak n-6, 0,56% asam lemak n-3; pakan B: 1,56%, 0,78%; pakan C: 1,74%, 1,00% and pakan D: 2,03%, 1,82%). Dalam penelitian ini 28 ekor induk digunakan dan ditebarkan kedalam waring dengan kepadatan 7 ekor tiap waring. Pakan diberikan pagi dan sore hari secara at satiation.  Sampel telur dan larva dianalisa komposisi asam lemak. Penampilan reproduksi yang diamati adalah diameter telur, fekunditas, derajat penetasan telur, derajat kelangsungan hidup larva dan persentase larva abnormal. Hasil penilitian menunjukan bahwa perbedaan kandungan asam lemak n-6 dan n-3 dalam pakan berpengaruh pada komposisi asam lemak n-6 dan n-3 telur dan juga memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda nyata terhadap penampilan reproduksinya khusus pada fekunditas dan derajat penetasan telur. Lama waktu matang yang dicapai oleh tiap induk relatif sama antar perlakuan.  Fekunditas, diameter telur, derajat penetasan telur dan derajat kelangsungan hidup larva tertinggi diperoleh pada induk yang memperoleh pakan yang mengandung 1,56% asam lemak n-6 dan 0,78% asam lemak n-3. Kata kunci:  Asam lemak n-6 and n-3, penampilan reproduksi, ikan baung, Hemibagrus nemurus.
Effect of Estradiol-17β Injection on Gonad Development of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Tarsim, .; Junior, M. Zairin; Riani, E.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 6, No 1 (2007): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

The methods for hormonal control of shrimp reproduction are very limited, and only eyestalk ablation is used to induce ovarian development and spawning in shrimp farming. The occurrence of vertebrate-type steroid hormones in crustaceans have been reported, however, their physiological role are not sufficiently understood. The present study analyzed the effect of estradiol-17β injection on gonad development of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The estradiol-17β dose 0.10 μg/g body weight were used. The treatments consisted of control, single injection (day 0) and double injection (day 0 and 6). The females broodstock were cultured for 12 days. The result showed that estradiol-17β had positive effect on gonad development. The gonado somatic index (GSI) and oocytes diameter in treatment larger than the control. Double injection had highest effect with ∆GSI and oocytes diameter was 0.453  and 23.97 µm, respectively. The only oocytes previtelogenesis was found in gonad. It indicated that estradiol-17β important to induce endogenous vitellogenesis. Gonad development probably affected by gonad inhibiting hormone in the eyestalk. It was inhibited oocyte maturation. The polypeptide sub unit was observed in vitellin of ovari by SDS-PAGE. The molecular weights of approximately 95, 98, 109 and two units higher than 118 kDa of protein marker. Keywords: Gonad, estradiol-17β, oocyte, Litopenaeus vannamei   ABSTRAK Teknologi reproduksi dalam pembenihan udang belum mengalami perkembangan yang signifikan.  Pada umumnya untuk mempercepat kematangan gonad induk udang digunakan teknik ablasi. Mekanisme dan peranan hormon pada proses reproduksi udang belum banyak diketahui. Keberadaan hormon steroid pada krustase telah dikemukaan oleh beberapa peneliti, tetapi peranannya belum banyak diketahui.  Pada penelitian ini dikaji pengaruh penyuntikan hormon estradiol-17β pada perkembangan gonad induk udang putih (Litopenaeus vannamei).  Penelitian ini menggunakan dosis 0,10 μg/g bobot tubuh dengan perlakuan penyuntikan tunggal (hari ke-0) dan ganda (hari ke-0 dan ke-6). Sebagai pembanding dilakukan uji tanpa perlakuan (kontrol). Untuk melihat respon perkembangan gonad, pemeliharaan induk dilakukan selama 12 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa estradiol-17β berpengaruh positif pada perkembangan gonad. Gonado somatic index (GSI) dan rata-rata diameter oosit pada perlakuan relative lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Penyuntikan ganda memberikan pengaruh paling besar dengan peningkatan GSI sebesar 0,453  dan rata-rata diameter oosit 23,97 µm.  Oosit pada gonad hanya mampu berkembang hingga tahap previtelogenesis.  Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa estradiol-17β berperang dalam vitelogenesis endogenous. Keberadaan hormon penghambat perkembangan yang dihasilkan tangkai mata diduga menyebabkan oosit tidak dapat mencapai matang. Analisis SDS-PAGE menunjukkan bahwa protein kuning telur pada gonad terdapat  5 sub unit dengan perkiraan bobot 95, 98, 109 kDa dan dua unit >118 kDa. Kata kunci: Gonad, estradiol-17β, oosit, Litopenaeus vannamei
Effect of LH-RHa Injection trough W/O/W LG (C-14) Emulsion on Gonad Development of Catfish (Pangasious hypophthalmus) Potalangi, N.; Toelihere, M.; Junior, M. Zairin; Supriyono, Eddy
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 3, No 3 (2004): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

The objective of this research was to study the effect of LHRHa gonad maturity in broodstock of P. hypophthalmus through W/O/W LG (C-14) emulsion injection. The treatments consisted of control (A), 50 µg/kg fish wight (B), and 100 µg/kg fish weight (C), with five replications of each. Fish weight at the beginning of experiment was 2.0 kg/individual. The result showed that LHRHa in W/O/W emulsion had positive effect on egg maturation. This was shown by the value of average of eggs diameter. The maximum size of egg diameter for fish 701.52 ± 17.56 µm. The size of eggs was more homogenous in group B than those of group C and A. it was concluded that injection of LHRHa in W/O/W LG (C-14) emulsion if effective in promoting gonad maturation and oocyte development in the catfish
Feminization of Betta Fish (Betta splendens Regan) Through Embryo Immersion in Estradiol-17β Hormone Solution at the Dosages of 400 µg/I for 6, 12, 18 and 24 Hours Purwati, S.; Carman, Odang; Junior, M. Zairin
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 3, No 3 (2004): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

The experiment was carried out to study the effect of embryo immersion in estradiol-17β hormone solution on sex ratio, hatching rate and survival rate of betta fish. Eyed embryo were immersed in 400 µg/I estradiol-17β for 0 (control), 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours, and then the larva were reared until reaching three month old. Immersion in estradiol-17β hormone increased percentage in female, and the highest value was achieved at 12 hours of immersion. Increasing treatment duration to 24 hours decreased the survival rate of betta fish. The lowest value of hatching rate was found at 24 hours of immersion. Key words: Feminization, betta fish, betta splendens, sex ratio, survival rate and hatching rate
Effect of Thyroxine Hormone Administration in Female Broodstock on Metamorphosis and Survival Rates of Marble Goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata, BLKR.) Larva Hermawan, .; Junior, M. Zairin; Raswin, M.M.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 3, No 3 (2004): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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The experiment was conducted to study the effect of thyroxine hormone injection on female marble goby on metamorphosis and survival rate of their larva. Thyroxine hormone was injected into female at the dosage of 0,25 and 50 µg/g body weight. And then the female were reared with males in spawning tanks. Spawned eggs were hatched and the larva was observed for organogenesis, yolk absorption and growth in length. Formation of eye spot, swim bladder and body pigment becoming faster as the increase in thyroxine hormone dose. Yolk volume in larva that was obtained form thyroxine injected female decreased faster than those of control. Thyroxine hormone did not affected length growth and survival rate Key words: Marble goby, broodstock, thyroxine, metamorphosis, survival rate, larva
Masculinization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by administration of bull testes meal Muslim, .; Junior, M. Zairin; Priyo Utomo, Nur Bambang
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 10, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

The synthetic steroid 17α-Methyltestosteron (MT) is commonly used as a feed additive to produce male population of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The use of synthetic testosterone hormone is not recommended in Indonesia. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of natural testosterone hormone in bull testes meal (BTM) on the masculinization of Nile tilapia using validated aceto carmine squash method of gonads of the fish. Experimental design was utilized two factors experiments in completely randomized design. Fry kept in 40-L glass aquaria at a density of 40 fry/aquarium. Fry (7 dph) received the BTM  for 7 days (T1), 14 days (T2) and 21 days (T3) and doses 0% (D1), 3% (D2), 6% (D3), and 9% (D4).  When treatment was these results, indicated that significant (P≥0.05) masculinization occurred only in the group treated of BTM and no treated of BTM. In the group treated of BTM, doses and duration treatment is not significant. The percentage of male fish 83.3% (9%-7d, 9%-21d, 6%-21d: doses and duration, respectively), higher than all group. Survival rate of fry (95-99.5%) is not affected by treatment BTM (no significant P≥0.05). Fish growth was significantly affected by treatment BTM compare with no treated of BTM. The highest growth performance of fry were obtained with the 9% BTM. Key words: masculinization, nile tilapia, bull testes meal   ABSTRAK Steroid sintetik 17α-Methyltestosteron (MT) umumnya digunakan sebagai aditif pakan untuk menghasilkan populasi ikan nila jantan (Oreochromis niloticus). Penggunaan hormon testosteron sintetis tidak dianjurkan di Indonesia. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh hormon testosteron alami dalam makanan testis banteng (BTM) pada maskulinisasi ikan nila menggunakan metode divalidasi aceto carmine squash, dari gonad ikan. Desain eksperimental dimanfaatkan dua eksperimen faktor dalam desain benar-benar acak. Fry disimpan dalam 40-L akuarium kaca pada kepadatan 40 fry/akuarium. Fry (7 DPH) menerima BTM selama 7 hari (T1), 14 hari (T2) dan 21 hari (T3) dan dosis 0% (D1), 3% (D2), 6% (D3), dan 9% (D4). Ketika pengobatan hasil ini, menunjukkan signifikan (P ≥ 0,05) hanya terjadi maskulinisasi pada kelompok perlakuan dari BTM dan tidak diperlakukan BTM. Pada kelompok diobati BTM, dosis dan durasi pengobatan tidak signifikan. Persentase ikan jantan 83,3% (9%-7d, 9%-21d, 6%-21d: dosis dan durasi, masing-masing), lebih tinggi dari kelompok semua. Tingkat kelangsungan hidup benih (95-99,5%) tidak dipengaruhi oleh pengobatan BTM (tidak ada P yang signifikan ≥ 0,05). Pertumbuhan ikan secara signifikan dipengaruhi oleh BTM pengobatan dibandingkan dengan tidak diobati BTM. Kinerja pertumbuhan tertinggi fry diperoleh dengan BTM 9%. Kata kunci: maskulinisasi, ikan nila, tepung testis sapi  
Pair replacement on the spawning success of broodstock Seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) Syafiuddin, .; Junior, M. Zairin; Jusadi, Dedi; Carman, Odang; Affandi, Ridwan
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 10, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Seahorse, (Hippocampus barbouri) is one of marine living resources having high commercial values and has commonly been traded especially as live ornamental aquarium fish, raw material of traditional medicine and as souvenirs. This expriment was conducted to determine the succces of spawning rate by replacing the broodstock pair of seahorse. This study was done experimentally with treatment of replacement of broodstock pair after spawning under control condition. The experiment was designed to apply completely randomize design by using the following treatments: Treatment A, without replacement neither male nor female. Treatment B, spawned female broodstock  was being mated with her unpaired male broodstock.  Treatment C, a male broodstock that still brood was being mated with his unpaired female broodstock.  Treatment D, a spawned male broodstock that has released larva was being mated with his unpaired female broodstock.  Results showed that under control condition the replacement of broodstock pairs of seahorse had significantly influenced the spawning interval, number of eggs released and number of juveniles produced (P0,05).  It can be concluded that seahorse is not monogamous, either male or female after being spawned may accept other pair for the next spawning. Key words: pair replacement, broodstock, success spawning, Hippocampus barbouri   ABSTRAK Kuda laut, (Hippocampus barbouri) merupakan salah satu sumberdaya hayati laut yang memiliki nilai komersial dan telah banyak diperdagangkan terutama sebagai ikan hias, bahan baku obat tradisional dan juga sebagai suvenir. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengkaji tingkat keberhasilan pemijahan dengan penggantian pasangan induk kuda laut pada wadah budidaya. Percobaan ini dilakukan secara ekperimental dengan perlakuan penggantian pasangan induk setelah pemijahan dalam wadah budidaya. Percobaan dirancang dengan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan perlakuan sebagai berikut: Perlakuan  A, pemijahan   sepasang  induk kuda laut (tanpa pergantian). Perlakuan B, pemijahan induk betina yang telah memijah dengan induk jantan bukan pasangannya. Perlakuan C, pemijahan  induk  jantan  yang telah memijah (mengerami telur) dengan induk betina bukan pasangannya. Perlakuan D, pemijahan induk jantan yang telah melahirkan dengan induk betina bukan pasangannya. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa penggantian pasangan induk pada wadah budidaya sangat berpengaruh terhadap interval pemijahan, jumlah telur yang dikeluarkan dan jumlah juwana yang dihasilkan (P0,05). Dari hasil penelitian ini disimpulkan bahwa kuda laut, tidak bersifat monogami, artinya baik jantan maupun betina setelah memijah dapat menerima pasangan lain untuk pemijahan berikutnya. Kata kunci: induk, keberhasilan pemijahan, pergantian pasangan, Hippocampus barbouri