Articles

KRITIK SHAḤRUR TERHADAP KONSEP SUNNAH Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi
Mutawatir : Jurnal Keilmuan Tafsir Hadith Vol 6 No 2 (2016): DESEMBER
Publisher : Program Studi Perbandingan Agama, Fakultas Ushuluddin dan Filsafat, Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Sunan Ampel Surabaya

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Shaḥrûr methodology and legal implications have been widely written by researchers, but only some researchers elaborate Sunnah in depth analysis. In discussing Sunnah, Shaḥrûr mentioned the problems that have serious implications, such, whether all the words, actions and silence of Muhammad is the result of revelation or ijtihâd of Muhammad himself? Shaḥrûr assumed that Sunnah is actually the result of ijtihâd of Muhammad himself and it is not revelation. Therefore, definition that has been established on Sunnah (everything that comes from Muhammad either of the words, deeds and statutes) is not appropriate. Dissolving this definition for Shaḥrûr became possible because these definitions are not made by Muhammad himself, but by the next generations. According to him, Sunnah is derived from the word sanna which means the ease and flow smoothly. Thus, what is said, done and set by Muhammad is an example of how such limits practiced in space and time of Muhammad. He is not the last and not the only laws that must be done. Based on the definition that has been made, Shaḥrûr divided Sunnah into two categories, namely sunnah risâlah and sunnah nubûwah. Sunnah risâlah maintains on law, morals, and good manners, while sunnah nabûwah preserves objective sciences. Further, it implies that the adherence to sunnah risâlah is an obligation, adherence to sunnah nubûwah is non-compulsory.
PENGARUH WAKTU REAKSI DAN PENAMBAHAN KATALIS PADA PEMBUATAN GLISEROL MONOOLEAT DARI GLISEROL DAN ASAM OLEAT Parhusip, Rinance; Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi; Miskah, Siti
Jurnal Teknik Kimia Vol 18, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Teknik Kimia
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Sriwijaya

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Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi dan densitas gliserolmonooleat pada reaksi esterifikasi asam oleat dengan gliserol pada berbagai variasi penambahan katalis dan variasi waktu reaksi. Gliserol monooleat merupakan bahan pengemulsi makanan yang dihasilkan dari reaksi antara asam oleat dengan gliserol. Variable yang diteliti adalah penambahan berat katalis yaitu dari 0,02 gram, 0,04 gram, 0,06 gram, 0,08 gram, 0,1 gram.waktu reaksi yaitu 50 menit,60 menit,70 menit,80 menit,90 menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi gliserolmonooleat terbaik adalah 98% diperoleh pada penambahan katalis 0,1 gram dan waktu reaksi 70 menit.densitas yang paling mendekati produk adalah 0,9622 diperoleh pada penambahan katalis 0,1 gram dan waktu reaksi 80 menit.
BIODISTRIBUSI RADIOFARMAKA 99mTc(V)-DMSA Z., Nurlaila; Suminar, Mimin Ratna; Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi
Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka Vol 2, No 1/2 (1999): JURNAL PRR 1999
Publisher : Jurnal Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka

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BIODISTRIBUSI RADIOFARMAKA 99mTc(V)-DMSA. Telah dilakukan pengamatan biodistribusi radiofarmaka 99mTc(V)-DMSA pada hewan percobaan tikus putih. Uji biodistribusi menunjukkan bahwa penimbunan aktivitas pada ginjal relatif kecil (3,8 ± 0,4 %) dibandingkan dengan radiofarmaka 99mTc(lV)-DMSA (22,3 ± 0,2 %) pada selang waktu 30 menit setelah penyuntikan secara intra vena. Penimbunan aktivitas terjadi juga pada kulit, tulang dan paru-paru. Radiofarmaka 99mTc(V)-DMSA mempunyai waktu clearance darah yang cepat, dalam waktu 30 menit setelah penyuntikan, aktivitas 99mTc(V)-DMSA hanya tinggal 1,2 ± 0,6 % per gram darah. Sebagian besar radiofarmaka 99mTc(V)-DMSA diekresikan melalui urine dengan aktivitas di dalam urine tinggal 2,6 ± 1,6 % per mL urine dalam waktu 24 jam setelah penyuntikan. BIODISTRIBUTION OF 99mTc(V)-DMSA RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL. Study of biodistribution of 99mTc(V)-DMSA radiopharmaceutical in normal white rat has been carried out. Biodistribution showed a smaller activity accumulation per gram renal (3,8 ± 0,4 %), in comparison to that 99mTc(lV)-DMSA (22,3 ± 0,2 %) at 30 minutes after intra venous injection. Also, the accumulation of activity was apparent in skin, bone and lung. Since 99mTc(V)-DMSA has a short blood clearance time, 1,2 ± 0,6 % of 99m(V)-DMSA activity remained in the blood after 30 minutes from the injection. The mayor route of excretion was via the urine, within 24 hours after injection, 99mTc(V)-DMSA was 2,6 ± 1,6 % of the activity per mL urine.
Biodistribution and Imaging of The 99mTc-Glutathione Radiopharmaceutical in White Rats Induced with Cancer Wongso, H.; Zainuddin, N.; Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi
Atom Indonesia Vol 39, No 3 (2013): December 2013
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

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99mTc-glutathione (99mTc-GSH) is a radiopharmaceuticalwhich is potentially used as a cancer diagnostic kit. As with other radiopharmaceuticals, before applied in humans, including in clinical trials, 99mTc-GSH needs to go through a series of preclinical trials in animal first. The preclinical trial which has been done in this study is the evaluation of the biological test on biodistribution and imaging of white rats (Rattus norvegicus) which had been induced with cancer. The aims of this research were to obtain data on biodistribution and to image the biodistribution of 99mTc-GSH at 1 hour, 3 hours, and 24 hours post-injection. Biodistribution resultsof 99mTc-GSHin the cancer at the timesof 1 hour, 3 hours, and 24 hours after injection were 0.66% ID/g, 0.95% ID/g, and 0.06% ID/g, respectively. This result shows that the highest accumulation of 99mTc-GSH in canceroccur at 3 hours post-injection. This value indicates that the optimal accumulation of the 99mTc-GSH occur in this time interval.In addition, the results of imaging test also show that the accumulation capacity of 99mTc-GSHin cancer is also highest at 3 hours post-injection.Received:16 January 2013; Revised:15 October 2013; Accepted: 16 October 2013
Pelacakan Kendaraan Bermotor di Jalan Tol Semarang Menggunakan Kalman Filter dan Mixture of Gaussian dengan Video Kualitas Rendah Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi; Purwanto, Yuliman; Soleman, M. Arif; Pramunendar, Ricardus Anggi
Semantik Vol 3, No 1 (2013): Semantik 2013
Publisher : Semantik

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Pelacakan kendaraan  bermotor  merupakan hal yang paling penting digunakan pada Observasi Video Lalu Lintas.  Observasi Video Lalu Lintas penting karena meningkatnya jumlah kendaraan bermotor khususnya di Indonesia. Di makalah ini dibahas mengenai pelacakan kendaraan bermotor di Jalan Tol Semarang menggunakan Kalman Filter dan Mixture of Gaussian (MoG) dengan memasukan nilai  –  nilai parameter seperti  (alpha)  α  sebagai pembelajaran konstan dan T sebagai  nilai  Treshold Background.  Langkah pertama yang dilakukan adalah mengubah file video menjadi urutan gambar, lalu mensubstraksi foreground  yang bergerak  dari backgroundpadasetiap gambar.  Setiap pixel pada gambar dimodelkan menjadi MoG kemudian dianalisis untuk menentukan yang menjadi model background. Pixel yang menjadi anggota dari background akan berkorespondensi dengan warna background. Pixel dengan perbedaan yang besar  dengan nilai pixel background maka akan diberi label sebagai foreground. Setiap pixel  dari background  diubah secara kontinu  mengikuti  perubahan background karena berbagai kondisi.  Langkah kedua adalah untuk menghubungkan objek –  objek yang telah dideteksi pada urutan gambar 1 dengan urutan gambar berikutnya untuk menentukan identitas dan  lokasi dari sebuah objek kendaraan bermotor pada titik yang berbeda dalam sebuah urutan gambar. Untuk menjalankan langkah kedua, setiap objek kendaraan bermotor didesk ripsikan dengan atribut –  atribut seperti : posisinya(x,y), kecepatan dan ukuran, yang disebut sebagai keadaan objek.   Pelacakan posisi kendaraan aktual dapat dilakukan dengan pelacakan keadaan objek menggunakan Kalman filter.  Dari hasil eksperimen, pelacakan kendaraan di Jalan Tol Semarang lebih akurat menggunakan Kalman filter dipadukan dengan MoG dibandingkan hanya menggunakan MoG atau dengan metode Optical Flow.  Nilai α  dan T bergantung pada kondisi video lalu lintas berdasarkan cuaca, pencahayaan dan gangguan lainnya.
EVALUASI ASPEK FARMASETIK DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI SECARA IN-VITRO KIT DIAGNOSTIK 99mTc-KANAMYCIN Widyasari, Eva Maria; Sriyani, Maulana Eka; Halimah, Iim; Wongso, Hendris; Wibawa, Teguh Hafiz Ambar; Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi; Sidik, Ahmad
Jurnal Iptek Nuklir Ganendra Vol. 18, 1 Januari 2015
Publisher : BATAN

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Angka kematian akibat infeksi dari tahun ke tahun terus meningkat. Berbagai usaha terus dilakukan guna menekan angka kematian yang ada, salah satu contohnya dengan pengembangan metode diagnostik berbasis nuklir. 99mTc-Kanamycin merupakan kit diagnostik potensial untuk dikembangkan menjadi senyawa bertanda yang dapat digunakan dalam mendiagnosis penyakit infeksi. Kanamycin adalah sebuah antibiotik berspektrum kerja luas yang telah lama digunakan dalam menekan pertumbuhan bakteri baik itu bakteri Gram positif maupun Gram negatif. Selain harus memenuhi standar sifat fisika dan kimia, 99mTc-Kanamycin juga harus melalui tahapan uji preklinis sebelum diuji cobakan pada manusia (uji klinis). Berbagai aspek farmasetik yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini meliputi uji sterilitas, uji pirogenitas dan uji toksisitas, serta uji aktivitas antibakteri. Dari penelitian ini didapatkan hasil bahwa sediaan 99mTc-Kanamycin steril, bebas pirogen, tidak toksik dan daya hambat terhadap bakteri relatif sama dengan Kanamycin tidak bertanda radioaktif. Uji uptake sediaan terhadap bakteri optimum pada waktu 24 jam inkubasi pada suhu 37 oC. Hasil uji uptake maupun uji daya hambat terhadap bakteri menunjukkan bahwa 99mTc-Kanamycin lebih aktif terhadap bakteri S.aureus dibandingkan terhadap E.coli.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE INTENSITY OF Mycobacterium leprae EXPOSURE TO CHILDREN WHO LIVE IN LOW AND HIGH ALTITUDE IN LOW LEPROSY ENDEMIC AREA OF SOUTH SULAWESI Rachmawati, Rachmawati; Mataallo, Timurleng Tonang; Adam, Safruddin; Adam, A. M.; Amin, Safruddin; Tabri, Farida; Adriaty, Dinar; Wahyuni, Ratna; Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi; Agusni, Indropo
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 4, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Background: The intensity of Mycobacterium leprae exposure to people who live in leprosy endemic area could be measured by serological study and detection of the bacilli in the nose cavity. Different geographical altitude might have some influences to this exposure since the bacilli prefer to live in warm areas. Aim: A combined serological and PCR study of leprosy was conducted in Selayar island, South Sulawesi to 80 school children (40 from low land and 40 from highland altitudes) in order to compare the exposure intensity between the two areas. Method: Anti PGL-1 IgM antibody (ELISA) and PCR study to detect M.leprae in the nasal cavity were performed simultaneously from each person. Result: Seropositive cases were found in 23/40 children from low land compared to 16/40 children from high land, but statistically no significant difference (p>0.05). PCR positive for M.leprae in the nasal cavity only found in 1/40 children, both in low and high altitude. Conclusion: It is concluded that although the existence of M.leprae in nasal cavity is minimal, the intensity of exposure to this bacilli still high as indicated by serological study.
PENGARUH SENI RUPA ISLAM TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN SENI LUKIS MODERN DI EROPA Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan CAKRAWALA PENDIDIKAN, EDISI 2,1997,TH.XVI
Publisher : LPPMP Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

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Ada dugaan kuat, bahwa percikan-percikan ckspmi x n i rupa Islam dapatmenjadi inrpirasi para perupa modern. Pengaruh ini mulai tern, kclib Islam masuk diAndalusia, Spanyol pada tahun 711 M. Setelah melewati mas perangsalib pada abad XI - XII, seni Islam krpengaruh kembali mclalui masa renairsns dan herlanjul sampaimasa modern.BerdasarLan pengalaman dcngan memiliki xni Huik yang kncmakan gereja.mab seni rupa modern yang bcrkembang di Empa telah mcnyngkat harkat parancruru untuk men~enhuiia ti dirinva. Dalam dunia.wni me& kbar.mcnciotakanbiiintar. ~cn~amibi~uaLunr -unsu; Islam o~chpe rupa modern, mcrupabn pengcmh.raan mcrcka dalam mcnciplakan puncak brya seni pada sbad XX.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE INTENSITY OF Mycobacterium leprae EXPOSURE BETWEEN HOUSEHOLD AND NONHOUSEHOLD CONTACT OF LEPROSY Arsyad, Yuniarti; Jifanti, Friska; Amiruddin, Muhammad Dali; Anwar, Anis Irawan; Adriaty, Dinar; Wahyuni, Ratna; Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi; Agusni, Indropo
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 3, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Leprosy stills a public health problem in West Sulawesi which has a Case Detection Rate (CDR) around 43.69/100.000 population. Household contacts of leprosy are a high risk group to be infected, due to droplet infection mode of transmission of the disease. A nose swab examination and serological study was conducted to detect exposure of M. leprae of people who live in leprosy endemic area. Detection of M. leprae in the nasal cavity will represent the exposure rate from outside and the measurement of specific antibody is represented the result of exposure to the immune system. Two group of inhabitants (30 household contacts of leprosy and 30 nonhousehold contacts) were involved in the study. They live in Banggae district, a leprosy endemic area of Majene Regency, West Sulawesi. Sixty nose swab samples and sixty capillary blood samples from the same invidividuals of the two groups were collected and sent to Leprosy laboratory of the Institute of Tropical Disease, Airlangga University Surabaya. A Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to the nose swab samples for detection of M. leprae. The blood samples were examined serologically to measure the level of anti PGL-1 antibody. PCR examination of nose swab samples showed 1/30 positive result in the household contact group and also 1/30 positive result in non-household contact of leprosy (statistically no significant difference, p > 0.05). Serological study showed higher sero-positive result in the household contact group (15/30 or 50%) compared to non-household contact (11/30 or 36%), but statistical calculation revealed no significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05) on sero-positive results of leprosy. It is concluded that household and non-household contact in leprosy have the same risk to be affected by the disease. The term of household and non-household contact need to be redefined. The possible role of exposure from the environment was also discussed, especially from non-human resource of M. leprae.
DAMPAK KULTURSTELSEL TERHADAP KEHIDUPAN SOSIAL EKONOMI DI DAERAH PACITAN PADA ABAD XIX Iswahyudi, Iswahyudi
HUMANIORA Vol 5, No 2: 2000
Publisher : HUMANIORA

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Abstract The purpose of this research was to reconstruct the Culturstelsel implementation in Afdeling Pacitan during 19th century. The background of this study was the issue of Cultuurstelsel causing poverty for the people, however in Afdeling Pacitan Culturstelsel improved the welfare of the people. That positive impact was resulted from the internal factors, such as: the large number of land workers and the type of plant matched with the land. The external factors were that the land rent or land tax policy tended to reduce as substituted by the coffee price. This welfare condition was also supported by the native coffee plantation  or “kopi pagar” that was not a commercial crop categories. Keywords: Cultuurstelsel, penanaman coffee, social change