S. Iskandar
Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency Jl. Lebak Bulus Raya No. 49, Jakarta 12440, Indonesia

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Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Monomer onto Starch and Natural Rubber Latex Initiated by Gamma Irradiation Iskandar, S.
Atom Indonesia Vol 37, No 1 (2011): April 2011
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (111.064 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2011.72

Abstract

To obtain the degradable plastic, the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto starch and natural rubber latex was conducted by a simultaneous irradiation technique. Gamma-ray from cobalt-60 source was used as the initiator. The grafted copolymer of starch-polymethyl methacrylate and the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate were mixed in the blender, and dried it in the oven. The dried grafted copolymer mixture was then molded using hydraulic press machine. The effect of irradiation dose, composition of the grafted copolymer mixture, film forming condition and recycle effect was evaluated. The parameters observed were tensile strength, gel fraction and soil burial degradability of grafted copolymer mixture. It was found that the tensile strength of grafted copolymer mixture increased by γ-ray irradiation. Increasing of the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate content, the gel fraction and tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture increased. The tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture was increased from 18 MPa to 23 MPa after recycled (film forming reprocessed) 3 times. The grafted copolymer mixture was degraded completely after soil buried for 6 months. Received: 20 July 2010; Revised: 04 February 2011; Accepted: 10 March 2011
Performance of broiler chicken fed physically and chemically treated jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed meal Pasaribu, Tiurma; Wina, E.; Tangendjaja, B.; Iskandar, S.
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 14, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (111.945 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v14i1.358

Abstract

Jatropha seed meal which is a by-product of biofuel is rich in protein. Its utilization as feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds. An experiment was conducted at the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production to evaluate the effect of jatropha seed meal on broiler performance. Jatropha seed meals were treated physically, chemically or their combination to reduce or eliminate the anti nutritive and toxic compounds. Then, the inclusion of untreated or treated jatropha seed meals in the diet at the level of 4% was evaluated on broiler. The experiment was done in Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatments of feed, i.e 1) control feed, 2) feed containing untreated jatropha seed meal (OO), 3) feed containing physically treated jatropha seed meal (OTO), 4) feed containing chemically treated jatropha seed meal (EHM) and 5) feed containing physically and chemically treated jatropha seed meal (EHMO). Every treatment had 7 replications with 5 chickens for each replication. The treatment diets were given to 7 days old chicken for 14 days. The observed parameter were feed intake, daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. The broiler performance recieved EHMO feed was better that those of OTO or EHM treatment (751.1; 731.2; 498.8 g of body weight for EHMO, EHM and OTO treatments, respectively), however, it was lower than the control treatment (856.3 g). Feed Conversion Ratios of EHM and EHMO treatments were not significantly different from control treatment (1.868; 1.813 vs 1.707), however, they lower than OO (2.532) and OTO (2.249) treatments. Chicken mortality of EHMO treatment was much lower than OO that of treatment (0 vs 34.29%, respectively). In conclusion, the processing technology of jatropha seed meal using combined physical and chemical treatments (EHMO) was the best choice as it gave better chicken performance without mortality compared to other techniques in this experiment. Key words: Jatropha Seed Meal, Detoxification, Broiler Chicken, Performance
The potential of sugar cane juice as the liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry by in vitro Widjaja, Ermin; Toharmat, T.; Santoso, D.A.; ., Sumiati; Ridla, M.; Iskandar, S.
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 16, No 4 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (115.252 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v16i4.623

Abstract

Most of the components of poultry feed (80%) of grains and meal that contains phytic acid which has anti-nutritional factor because it can bind minerals and reduce its availability. Phytic acid can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme phytase. Phytase enzyme naturally found in sugar cane juice, but its use as poultry feed supplements have not been done. The study was conducted using sugar cane juice PS 851 from Jatiroto PTPN XI, Lumajang, East Java in order to get the information potential of sugar cane juice as a liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry viewed from the aspect of nutrient content of sugarcane juice and phytase activity in the release rate of phosphorus. Research conducted at the Faculty of Animal IPB for 10 months. The rate of hydrolysis of phytase on P was tested using rice bran as a substrate. Sugar cane juice is added to the 2.5% level, using 4-level incubation (1, 2, 3 and 4 hours), each level consisting of 37°C and 42°C; pH 2; pH 4.5 and pH 5 with three replications. Study using a Two Factors Experiments in Completely Randomized Design and it was continued by DMRT test. P release rate was measured by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the sugar cane juice has a phytase activity of 0.0766 U / ml, brix level of 22.15%, containing water 73.03%, protein 0.47%, crude fiber 6.43%, minerals Ca 0.03%, P 0,02%, Co 0.14 mg / l, Fe 1.8 mg/l, Mn 1.55 mg/l, Zn 1.37 mg/ l, Cu 0.19 mg/ l, Se 12.63 mcg/100 g, vitamins B3 5.26 mg/100 g, C 0.72 mg/100 g, E 0.08 mg/100 g, sucrose 32.42%, fructose 2.41%, galactose 2% and glucose 1.58%. Supplementation of 2.5% sugar cane juice can increase the P release rate of 112-235% at optimum conditions of pH 5, at 37°C with a long incubation period of 1-4 hours. Key Words: Sugar Cane Juice, Phytase, Phosphorus
Response of laying performance of KUB chicken to dietary protein given during growing period Hidayat, Cecep; Iskandar, S.; Sartika, T
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 16, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (57.214 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v16i2.637

Abstract

One hundred and sixty KUB pullets of 22 weeks of age (KUB = Kampung chicken selected for egg production) were previously raised on different dietary protein level during starter-grower period. During starting period, chicks (0-12 weeks of age) were given dietary protein of: 16% crude protein, CP (R1); 17.5% CP (R2); 19% CP (R3); 20.5% CP (R4); 22% CP (R5). All dietary treatments were iso-energy of 2800 kcal ME (metabolisable energy)/kg. During growing period (12-22 weeks) each group of treatment chick was divided into two regimes of dietary protein levels. One was subjected to the same as treatments given during starting period, and the other one was given diet with reduced dietary protein content up to 1.5%. The treatments were R1-1, having dietary protein of 16.0%; R1-2, having dietary protein of 14.5%; R2-1, having dietary protein of 17.5%; R2-2, having dietary protein of 16.0%; R3-1, having dietary protein of 19.0%; R3-2, having dietary protein of 17.5%; R4-1, having dietary protein of 20.5%; R4-2, having dietary protein of 19.0%; R5-1, having dietary protein of 22% and R5-2, having dietary protein of 20.5%. The energy content of all dietary treatments was the same for all treatments 2800 kkal ME/kg. The hens were then grouped into the treatment as the treatment groups of growing period of 12-22 weeks. Hens were then raised on laying diet, containing 17.11% CP (crude protein) with 2728 kcal ME/kg. The results showed that the change of dietary treatment, given during growing period, influenced (P < 0,05) first lay weight, first egg weight,  weight gain, egg weight, egg width, egg volume of KUB hens age of 22-42 weeks. And the dietary protein treatment, given during starter and growing period, influenced (P < 0.05) first lay body weight, first lay age, feed consumption, egg weight, egg length, egg width of KUB hens age of 22-42 weeks. Key Words: KUB Chicken, Starting and Growing Dietary Protein, Egg Production
The potential of sugar cane juice as the liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry by in vitro Widjaja, Ermin; Toharmat, T.; Santoso, D.A.; ., Sumiati; Ridla, M.; Iskandar, S.
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 16, No 4 (2011): DECEMBER 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (115.252 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v16i4.623

Abstract

Most of the components of poultry feed (80%) of grains and meal that contains phytic acid which has anti-nutritional factor because it can bind minerals and reduce its availability. Phytic acid can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme phytase. Phytase enzyme naturally found in sugar cane juice, but its use as poultry feed supplements have not been done. The study was conducted using sugar cane juice PS 851 from Jatiroto PTPN XI, Lumajang, East Java in order to get the information potential of sugar cane juice as a liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry viewed from the aspect of nutrient content of sugarcane juice and phytase activity in the release rate of phosphorus. Research conducted at the Faculty of Animal IPB for 10 months. The rate of hydrolysis of phytase on P was tested using rice bran as a substrate. Sugar cane juice is added to the 2.5% level, using 4-level incubation (1, 2, 3 and 4 hours), each level consisting of 37°C and 42°C; pH 2; pH 4.5 and pH 5 with three replications. Study using a Two Factors Experiments in Completely Randomized Design and it was continued by DMRT test. P release rate was measured by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the sugar cane juice has a phytase activity of 0.0766 U / ml, brix level of 22.15%, containing water 73.03%, protein 0.47%, crude fiber 6.43%, minerals Ca 0.03%, P 0,02%, Co 0.14 mg / l, Fe 1.8 mg/l, Mn 1.55 mg/l, Zn 1.37 mg/ l, Cu 0.19 mg/ l, Se 12.63 mcg/100 g, vitamins B3 5.26 mg/100 g, C 0.72 mg/100 g, E 0.08 mg/100 g, sucrose 32.42%, fructose 2.41%, galactose 2% and glucose 1.58%. Supplementation of 2.5% sugar cane juice can increase the P release rate of 112-235% at optimum conditions of pH 5, at 37°C with a long incubation period of 1-4 hours. Key Words: Sugar Cane Juice, Phytase, Phosphorus
Response of laying performance of KUB chicken to dietary protein given during growing period Hidayat, Cecep; Iskandar, S.; Sartika, T
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 16, No 2 (2011): JUNE 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (57.214 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v16i2.637

Abstract

One hundred and sixty KUB pullets of 22 weeks of age (KUB = Kampung chicken selected for egg production) were previously raised on different dietary protein level during starter-grower period. During starting period, chicks (0-12 weeks of age) were given dietary protein of: 16% crude protein, CP (R1); 17.5% CP (R2); 19% CP (R3); 20.5% CP (R4); 22% CP (R5). All dietary treatments were iso-energy of 2800 kcal ME (metabolisable energy)/kg. During growing period (12-22 weeks) each group of treatment chick was divided into two regimes of dietary protein levels. One was subjected to the same as treatments given during starting period, and the other one was given diet with reduced dietary protein content up to 1.5%. The treatments were R1-1, having dietary protein of 16.0%; R1-2, having dietary protein of 14.5%; R2-1, having dietary protein of 17.5%; R2-2, having dietary protein of 16.0%; R3-1, having dietary protein of 19.0%; R3-2, having dietary protein of 17.5%; R4-1, having dietary protein of 20.5%; R4-2, having dietary protein of 19.0%; R5-1, having dietary protein of 22% and R5-2, having dietary protein of 20.5%. The energy content of all dietary treatments was the same for all treatments 2800 kkal ME/kg. The hens were then grouped into the treatment as the treatment groups of growing period of 12-22 weeks. Hens were then raised on laying diet, containing 17.11% CP (crude protein) with 2728 kcal ME/kg. The results showed that the change of dietary treatment, given during growing period, influenced (P < 0,05) first lay weight, first egg weight,  weight gain, egg weight, egg width, egg volume of KUB hens age of 22-42 weeks. And the dietary protein treatment, given during starter and growing period, influenced (P < 0.05) first lay body weight, first lay age, feed consumption, egg weight, egg length, egg width of KUB hens age of 22-42 weeks. Key Words: KUB Chicken, Starting and Growing Dietary Protein, Egg Production
Performance of broiler chicken fed physically and chemically treated jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed meal Pasaribu, Tiurma; Wina, E.; Tangendjaja, B.; Iskandar, S.
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 14, No 1 (2009): MARCH 2009
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (111.945 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v14i1.358

Abstract

Jatropha seed meal which is a by-product of biofuel is rich in protein. Its utilization as feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds. An experiment was conducted at the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production to evaluate the effect of jatropha seed meal on broiler performance. Jatropha seed meals were treated physically, chemically or their combination to reduce or eliminate the anti nutritive and toxic compounds. Then, the inclusion of untreated or treated jatropha seed meals in the diet at the level of 4% was evaluated on broiler. The experiment was done in Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatments of feed, i.e 1) control feed, 2) feed containing untreated jatropha seed meal (OO), 3) feed containing physically treated jatropha seed meal (OTO), 4) feed containing chemically treated jatropha seed meal (EHM) and 5) feed containing physically and chemically treated jatropha seed meal (EHMO). Every treatment had 7 replications with 5 chickens for each replication. The treatment diets were given to 7 days old chicken for 14 days. The observed parameter were feed intake, daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. The broiler performance recieved EHMO feed was better that those of OTO or EHM treatment (751.1; 731.2; 498.8 g of body weight for EHMO, EHM and OTO treatments, respectively), however, it was lower than the control treatment (856.3 g). Feed Conversion Ratios of EHM and EHMO treatments were not significantly different from control treatment (1.868; 1.813 vs 1.707), however, they lower than OO (2.532) and OTO (2.249) treatments. Chicken mortality of EHMO treatment was much lower than OO that of treatment (0 vs 34.29%, respectively). In conclusion, the processing technology of jatropha seed meal using combined physical and chemical treatments (EHMO) was the best choice as it gave better chicken performance without mortality compared to other techniques in this experiment. Key words: Jatropha Seed Meal, Detoxification, Broiler Chicken, Performance
Performance of broiler chicken fed physically and chemically treated jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed meal Pasaribu, Tiurma; Wina, E.; Tangendjaja, B.; Iskandar, S.
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 14, No 1 (2009): MARCH 2009
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (111.945 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v14i1.358

Abstract

Jatropha seed meal which is a by-product of biofuel is rich in protein. Its utilization as feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds. An experiment was conducted at the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production to evaluate the effect of jatropha seed meal on broiler performance. Jatropha seed meals were treated physically, chemically or their combination to reduce or eliminate the anti nutritive and toxic compounds. Then, the inclusion of untreated or treated jatropha seed meals in the diet at the level of 4% was evaluated on broiler. The experiment was done in Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatments of feed, i.e 1) control feed, 2) feed containing untreated jatropha seed meal (OO), 3) feed containing physically treated jatropha seed meal (OTO), 4) feed containing chemically treated jatropha seed meal (EHM) and 5) feed containing physically and chemically treated jatropha seed meal (EHMO). Every treatment had 7 replications with 5 chickens for each replication. The treatment diets were given to 7 days old chicken for 14 days. The observed parameter were feed intake, daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. The broiler performance recieved EHMO feed was better that those of OTO or EHM treatment (751.1; 731.2; 498.8 g of body weight for EHMO, EHM and OTO treatments, respectively), however, it was lower than the control treatment (856.3 g). Feed Conversion Ratios of EHM and EHMO treatments were not significantly different from control treatment (1.868; 1.813 vs 1.707), however, they lower than OO (2.532) and OTO (2.249) treatments. Chicken mortality of EHMO treatment was much lower than OO that of treatment (0 vs 34.29%, respectively). In conclusion, the processing technology of jatropha seed meal using combined physical and chemical treatments (EHMO) was the best choice as it gave better chicken performance without mortality compared to other techniques in this experiment. Key words: Jatropha Seed Meal, Detoxification, Broiler Chicken, Performance
Rendemen dan Komposisi Kimia Biji Sorgum yang disosoh dengan Alat Sosoh Batu Gurinda Iskandar, S.; Zainuddin, D.; Kompiang, I.P.
Buletin Ilmu Makanan Ternak Vol 11, No 1 (1991): Buletin Ilmu Makanan Ternak
Publisher : Buletin Ilmu Makanan Ternak

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Nutritive value of sorghum grain can be improved by separating the pericarp (bran) from its endotherm (polished grain) with grindstone polisher. Laboratory scale grindstone polisher, "SATAKE" was used to polish three varieties of dark sorghum grain of No. 46, No. 6C and UPCA-S2. They were subjected to different polishing time (1, 2 and 3 minutes) and moisture content (10%, 12% and 14%). Variety and polishing time significantly (P&lt;0.05) affected the parameters. Polished grain recovered decreased from 60% polished in one minute to 36% in three minutes. More than 88% tannin was removed. About 40% of protein was removed in one minute polishing and 60% was in three minutes. About 56% of ADF was also removed in one minute and 68% in three minutes polishing. Moisture content of the whole grain did not seem significantly to affect all parameters. It is concluded that in order to separate the pericarp from its endotherm of sorghum grain, grindstone polisher can effectively be used. Key words: Sorghum, polishing, yield, chemical composition.
Response of laying performance of KUB chicken to dietary protein given during growing period Hidayat, Cecep; Iskandar, S.; Sartika, T
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 16, No 2 (2011): JUNE 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (57.214 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v16i2.637

Abstract

One hundred and sixty KUB pullets of 22 weeks of age (KUB = Kampung chicken selected for egg production) were previously raised on different dietary protein level during starter-grower period. During starting period, chicks (0-12 weeks of age) were given dietary protein of: 16% crude protein, CP (R1); 17.5% CP (R2); 19% CP (R3); 20.5% CP (R4); 22% CP (R5). All dietary treatments were iso-energy of 2800 kcal ME (metabolisable energy)/kg. During growing period (12-22 weeks) each group of treatment chick was divided into two regimes of dietary protein levels. One was subjected to the same as treatments given during starting period, and the other one was given diet with reduced dietary protein content up to 1.5%. The treatments were R1-1, having dietary protein of 16.0%; R1-2, having dietary protein of 14.5%; R2-1, having dietary protein of 17.5%; R2-2, having dietary protein of 16.0%; R3-1, having dietary protein of 19.0%; R3-2, having dietary protein of 17.5%; R4-1, having dietary protein of 20.5%; R4-2, having dietary protein of 19.0%; R5-1, having dietary protein of 22% and R5-2, having dietary protein of 20.5%. The energy content of all dietary treatments was the same for all treatments 2800 kkal ME/kg. The hens were then grouped into the treatment as the treatment groups of growing period of 12-22 weeks. Hens were then raised on laying diet, containing 17.11% CP (crude protein) with 2728 kcal ME/kg. The results showed that the change of dietary treatment, given during growing period, influenced (P &lt; 0,05) first lay weight, first egg weight,  weight gain, egg weight, egg width, egg volume of KUB hens age of 22-42 weeks. And the dietary protein treatment, given during starter and growing period, influenced (P &lt; 0.05) first lay body weight, first lay age, feed consumption, egg weight, egg length, egg width of KUB hens age of 22-42 weeks. Key Words: KUB Chicken, Starting and Growing Dietary Protein, Egg Production