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Karakteristik Minyak Ikan dari Limbah Pengolahan Filet Ikan Patin Siam (Pangasius hypopthalmus) dan Patin Jambal (Pangasius djambal) Hastarini, Ema; Fardiaz, Dedi; Irianto, Hari Eko; Budhijanto, Slamet
Agritech Vol 32, No 4 (2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9584

Abstract

Patin (Pangasius sp) with the common name is catfish, has been well-known as a highly economic freshwater fish in Indonesia. Its high lipid content is considered as source of unsaturated fatty acids including omega-3 which brings advantages for human health. This research project aimed to obtain characteristics of the purified oil derived from the waste of Siam (Pangasius hypothalamus) and Jambal (Pangasius djambal) catfish fillet production, particularly on its fatty acids profile. During the catfish fillet processing, besides of getting the flesh-fillet as the main product, it leaves the other parts of fish (waste) that can be classified into 6 components i.e. head, spin-fin, skin, belly flap, trimmed flesh, and viscera. Fish oil extraction is conducted by using a modified wet rendering method. The head, belly flap, and viscera are considered to be the potential parts used for raw material in fish oil production that could yield the crude oil of 9.84%, 28.52%, and 20.34%, respectively derived from Siam, while 9.54%, 25.60% dan 30.05% derived from Jambal catfish. Fatty acids profile derived from both Siam and Jambal catfish showed that the palmitic and oleic acids were the major components. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid showed a higher amount as againts saturated fatty acid from the total amount of fatty acids, that were 53.24%, 54.38%, 52.74% respectively derived from head, belly flap, and viscera of Siam, and 62.70%, 62.92%, 61.97% derived from  Jambal catfish. Even though in small amount, omega-3 fatty acids i.e. linoleic, EPA and DHA were detected in this experiment from both species. DSC results demonstrated the 3 zones of melting point of Siam catfish oil, i.e range of -30 to-16°C, range of -16 to  25°C, and range of 25 – 46°C. While in Jambal catfish oil, it was earlier detected, i.e. at -34°C at the range up to 42°C.ABSTRAKIkan Patin merupakan salah satu ikan air tawar ekonomis penting di Indonesia yang dikenal dengan sebutan catfish. Ikan patin memiliki kandungan lemak yang tinggi dan merupakan sumber asam lemak tidak jenuh termasuk asam lemak omega 3 yang memiliki fungsi positif bagi kesehatan manusia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan data karakteristik minyak ikan dari limbah pengolahan fillet ikan patin jenis Siam (Pangasius hypopthalmus) dan Jambal (Pangasius djambal) terutama mengenai profil asam lemaknya. Proses pengolahan filet menghasilkan filet sebagai produk utama dan sisanya berupa 6 komponen limbah yang terdiri dari kepala, tulang-ekor, kulit, daging trimm (sisa perapian fillet), daging belly flap (daging bagian perut) dan isi perut. Ekstraksi minyak ikan dilakukan menggunakan metode wet rendering yang dimodifikasi. Bagian kepala, daging belly flap dan isi perut merupakan bagian yang potensial digunakan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan minyak ikan dengan rendemen minyak ikan kasar yang dihasilkan berturut – turut sebesar 9,84%, 28,52% dan 20,34% untuk ikan patin Siam dan 9,54%, 25,60% dan 30,05% untuk ikan patin Jambal. Profil asam lemak dari minyak ikan patin Siam maupun Jambal menunjukkan bahwa asam lemak palmitat dan oleat merupakan komponen utama. Persentase asam lemak tak jenuh memiliki jumlah yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan asam lemak jenuh dari total asam lemak secara keseluruhan yaitu sebesar 53,24%, 54,38%, 52,74% dan 62,70%, 62,92%, 61,97% berturut–turut untuk ikan patin jenis Siam dan Jambal bagian kepala, daging belly flap dan isi perut. Asam lemak omega 3 yaitu linolenat, EPA dan DHA terdeteksi pada kedua jenis minyak ikan patin dengan jumlah yang relatif kecil. Hasil analisis DSC minyak ikan patin Siam menunjukkan tiga kisaran zona pencairan minyak yang terdeteksi, yaitu pada kisaran suhu – 30 sampai – 16 oC, kisaran suhu – 16 sampai 25 oC, dan kisaran suhu 25 sampai 46 oC. Pada patin Jambal pencairan minyak terdeteksi lebih awal yaitu pada suhu -34 oC dengan kisaran suhu sampai dengan 42 oC.
Pengaruh Jenis Asam dalam Isolasi Gelatin dari Kulit Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus) terhadap Karakteristik Emulsi Suryanti, Suryanti; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso; Indrati, Retno; Irianto, Hari Eko
Agritech Vol 37, No 4 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.13025

Abstract

The isolation of gelatin from nila fish (Oreochromis niloticus) skin with two types of acid (acetic acid 0,10 M and citric acid 0,05 M) was carried out on the characteristics of the emulsion to know the ability of gelatin as an emulsifier. The observation has been made for gelatin including native molecule weight with non-SDS PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), pH, isoelectric point, and amino acid content. The characteristics of emulsion were analysed for the emulsion properties (activity and stability), viscosity, particle size, microstructure, and zeta potential. The concentrations of gelatin used in the formation of the emulsion were 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% with soybean oil ratio was 3:1 (v/v). The results showed that the molecular weight of native gelatin from acetic acid 0.10 M was > 260 kD, whereas from citric acids 0.05 M was 260 kD. The isoelectric point of both gelatin was at pH 8.5 whereas the pH of gelatin obtained using acetic acid 0.10 M was 5.35 and citric acid 0.05 M was 4.33. The level of lipophilic amino  acid was higher than hydrophilic amino acid with the highest amount was glycine. The emulsifying properties of gelatin obatined from both acids reached the highest value of EAI (Emulsion Activity Index) at a concentration of 0.5% which decreased with the increasing of concentration. In contrary, the value of ESI (Emulsion Stability Index) and viscosity increased with the increasing of concentration. The particle size and microstructure of gelatin emulsion with acetic acid 0.10 M were greater than those with citric acid 0.05 M at the same concentration and showed to increase with the increasing of concentration. Zeta potentials of both gelatin were positive charge at all concentrations which increased with the increasing of concentration. ABSTRAKIsolasi gelatin dari kulit ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus) dengan dua jenis asam (asam asetat 0,10 M dan asam sitrat 0,05 M) terhadap karakteristik emulsi telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui kemampuan gelatin sebagai emulsifier. Pengamatan terhadap gelatin meliputi berat molekul native dengan non-SDS PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), titik isoelektrik, pH dan asam amino. Pengamatan terhadap karakteristik emulsi meliputi sifat (aktivitas dan stabilitas), viskositas, ukuran partikel, dan mikrostruktur emulsi serta zeta potensial. Konsentrasi gelatin yang digunakan dalam pembentukan emulsi yaitu 0%, 0,5%, 1,0%, 2,0%, dan 3,0% dengan menambahkan minyak kedele pada rasio 3:1 (v/v). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan berat molekul gelatin native dari asam asetat 0,10 M adalah > 260 kD sedangkan dari asam sitrat 0,05 M sebesar 260 kD. Titik isoelektrik kedua gelatin pada pH = 8,5 sedangkan pH gelatin dari asam asetat 0,10 M sebesar 5,35 dan dari asam sitrat 0,05 M sebesar 4,33. Kandungan asam amino lipofilik dari kedua gelatin lebih banyak daripada asam amino hidrofilik dengan kandungan yang terbesar adalah glisin. Sifat emulsi gelatin dari kedua proses asam tersebut memiliki nilai EAI (Emulsion Activity Index) tertinggi pada konsentrasi 0,5%, yang semakin menurun dengan semakin meningkatnya konsentrasi. Sebaliknya nilai ESI (Emulsion Stability Index) dan viskositas emulsi semakin meningkat dengan semakin meningkatnya konsentrasi. Ukuran partikel droplet dan mikrostruktur emulsi gelatin dari proses asam asetat 0,10 M lebih besar daripada proses asam sitrat 0,05 M pada konsentrasi yang sama dan menunjukkan peningkatan dengan semakin meningkatnya konsentrasi. Zeta potensial kedua gelatin bernilai positif pada semua konsentrasi dan meningkat dengan semakin besarnya konsentrasi.
Penelitian Pemanfaatan Kulit Cucut Irianto, Hari Eko; Hak, Nurul
Agritech Vol 8, No 4 (1988)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.19035

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Utilization of Black Tiger Shrimp Flesh Waste for Pop Shrimp Processing Irianto, Hari Eko; Putri, Dian Dwi; Nurbani, Siti Zahro
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Department of Aquatic Product Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (435.17 KB) | DOI: 10.17844/jphpi.v20i1.16395

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A study on the utilization of black  tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) flesh waste in the processing of pop shrimp has been carried out.  So far, shrimp flesh waste is used for the production of shrimp paste, and shrimp cracker.   The objective of this study was to develop a fomula for pop shrimp production using shrimp flesh waste. Experimental design applied in this study was three-variables mixture design, in which variables observed were shrimp flesh waste, surimi and tapioca flour. Pop shrimp obtained was evaluated for sensory properties. The best product processed using a selected formula was analysed chemically and microbiologically, particularly for proxymate composition and total plate count respectively. Selected formula of pop shrimp consisted of 50.91% shrimp flesh waste, 18.18% surimi, 3.64% tapioca flour, 10.91% onion, 2.18% garlic, 0.73% pepper powder, 1.45% sugar, 0.36% monosodium glutamate, 0.73% ginger, 1.45% salt, 4.44% butter mix, 1.38% corn flour (maizena) and 3.64% bread crumb. Proxymate composition of the best pop shrimp was 70.52% moisture, 0.73% ash, 0.39% fat, and 7.44% protein, while microbiological load in terms of total plate count was 3.3x103 colonies/g.
MODEL MANAJEMEN RANTAI PASOK INDUSTRI PERIKANAN TANGKAP BERKELANJUTAN DI PROPINSI MALUKU (The Ideal Model of Supply Chain Management of Sustainability Industrial Capture fisheries in Maluku Province) Batubara, Siti Chairiyah; Maarif, M. Syamsul; Marimin, .; Irianto, Hari Eko
Marine Fisheries : Journal of Marine Fisheries Technology and Management Vol 8, No 2 (2017): Marine Fisheries - Jurnal Teknologi dan Manajemen Perikanan Laut
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (732.559 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jmf.8.2.137-148

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ABSTRACTDesigning and managing Industrial capture fisheries Supply Chain is complex and its faces socially bound uncertainties such as poor collaboration, communication and information sharing. Such complexity cannot be reduced through quantitative supply chain design and management techniques.  The aim of this study was design an industrial capture fisheries supply chain in Maluku Province using Soft System Methodology. Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS)and SCOR was applied in analyzing situational conditions related to the sustainability and performance of industrial capture fisheries. Analysis on capture fisheries shows in less sustainable category (43.91)and  the performance of both fishermen and company indicate an excellent and good grade. SSM analysis generated root definitions: Ministry of Marine Fisheries, Department of Marine, regional institution and stakeholder of the supply chain (O) realize the sustainable fishing industry and implementation of reliable activities in the fisheries sector and competitive globally (W) which integrates all the units along supply chain and coordinate the flow of materials, information and finance ranging from such aspects : production, downstream industries (handling and processing), up to marketing (T) of the Fishermen, industries processing (C) on the entire supply chain through  effective and efficient mechanism (E) as well as coordination both center and regional institution (A) related to quality and standardization of fishery products, distribution, infrastructure, data and information on fisheries (T)". The supply chain management of sustainable fishing industry model was developed by 20 activties. Improvement of Industrial capture fisheries supply chain in Maluku Province can be reached by doing activities within relevant system.Keywords: industrial capture fisheries, Multi Dimensional Scalling, SCOR, supply chain, SSM ABSTRAKMerancang manajemen rantai pasok industri perikanan tangkap merupakan hal yang kompleks. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendisain model manajemen rantai pasok industri perikanan tangkap yang ideal di Propinsi Maluku. Soft System Methodology (SSM) digunakan sebagai pendekatan kajian yang didukung oleh Multi Dimensional Scalling (MDS) untuk mengukur keberlanjutan industri perikanan tangkap dan Supply Chain Operation Reference(SCOR) untuk menganalisis kinerja industri perikanan tangkap.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keberlanjutan industri perikanan tangkap berada pada kategori kurang berkelanjutan dan kinerjanelayan dan perusahaan berada pada kategori sangat baik dan baik. Analisis SSM menghasilkan root definition “Kementerian Kelautan Perikanan, Dinas Kelautan, PEMDA dan pelaku rantai pasok (O) mewujudkan industri perikanan tangkap yang berkelanjutan dan terselenggaranya aktivitas  di sektor perikanan yang andal dan mempunyai daya saing secara global (W) yang mengintegrasikan  semua unit dalam rantai pasok dan mengkoordinasikan  aliran material, informasi dan keuangan mulai dari aspek produksi, industri hilir (handling dan processing), hingga ke pemasaran (T) dari para Nelayan, industri-industri pengolah (C) pada seluruh rantai pasok  melalui mekanisme yang efektif dan efisien (E) serta koordinasi kelembagaan pusat dan daerah (A) terkait mutu dan standardisasi produk perikanan, distribusi, sarana prasarana, infrasrtuktur serta data dan informasi perikanan (T)”. Model manajemen rantai pasok industri perikanan tangkap di Propinsi Maluku dibangun atas 20 aktivitas. Perbaikan rantai pasok industri perikanan tangkap dapat dicapai dengan melakukan aktivitas-aktivitas dalam model konseptual yang dibangun.Kata kunci:  industri perikanan tangkap, Multi Dimensional Scalling, SCOR, rantai pasok,SSM
Potential Risk of Organic Contaminants to The Coastal Population Through Seafood Consumption from Jakarta Bay Dwiyitno, Dwiyitno; Andarwulan, Nuri; Irianto, Hari Eko; Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Ariyani, Farida; Schwarzbauer, Jan
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 12, No 3 (2017): December 2017
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1152.486 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/squalen.v12i3.289

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A comprehensive study on exposure assessment of the priority organic contaminants via seafood consumption has been conducted to the coastal population of Jakarta Bay. Seafood is essential food source in Indonesia and also important income for the majority of coastal populations. A number of 152 respondents from 4 districts surounding the bay were interviewed to record their frequency and pattern on seafood consumption. In the same time, 13 seafood species were collected directly from Jakarta Bay during the dry and wet seasons for the assessment of organic contaminants. A non-target GC/MS screening identified more than 40 organic contaminants in which 6 of them are potentially considered as priority contaminants including 3 groups of carcinogenic contaminants i.e. dichlorodiphenyl-trichlorethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDXs), dichlorobenzenes (DCB) and carcinogenic PAHs (PAH4). Further exposure analysis suggested cumulative health risk of these contaminants was less than official minimal risk level (MRL) and therefore categorized safe for the corresponding population. However, attention must be paid since additional exposure of either from the different food category or other exposure route may contribute to significantly elevate the health risk on the population as well as potential exposure of emerging contaminants.
Biodiversity of Cellulolytic Bacteria Isolated from the Solid Wastes of Agar Seaweed Processing Industry Munifah, Ifah; Sunarti, Titi Candra; Irianto, Hari Eko; Meryandini, Anja
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 10, No 3 (2015): December 2015
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1896.474 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/squalen.v10i3.129

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Agar is polysaccharide extracted from the seaweed Gracilaria sp. It is commonly used for food, medical, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. The red seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa is the most common material used for the extraction of agar, processed into sheet and powder. A total of 7169 tons solid waste is produced from the agar industry in Indonesia which can further result in 4301.4 tons per year of cellulose. However, solid wastes from agar seaweed processing industry have not been managed and used optimally, and therefore seaweed solid wastes can be used as one of alternative source of cellulose and cellulolytic bacteria. In this research, we reported the isolation of cellulose-producing bacteria from seaweed processing industry wastes using specific media 1 % LIA (Limbah Industri Agar, waste of seaweed processing industry). Sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes amplified from the obtained 7 isolates identified them as Serratia marcescens, Chryseobacterium indovlogenes, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus, Strenatrophomonas maltophila, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NEWLY THERMOSTABLE PROTEASE PRODUCED BY Brevibacillus thermoruber LII ISOLATED FROM PADANG CERMIN HOTSPRING, INDONESIA Zilda, Dewi Zeswita; Harmayani, Eni; Widada, Jaka; Asmara, Widya; Irianto, Hari Eko; Patantis, Gintung; Fawzya, Yusro Nuri
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 9, No 1 (2014): May 2014
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (521.21 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/squalen.v9i1.91

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Thermo stability is among of the vital enzyme characteristics for industrial application. Brevibacillus thermoruber LII was obtained as a potential isolate from the previous researchwhich screened the potential thermostable protease producing bacteria from Indonesian hotspring.The newly thermostable protease produced by thermophilic Brevibacillus thermoruber LII hadbeen purified and characterized. It was predicted that the pure enzyme obtained from Brevibacillusthermoruber LII was homo hexameric, having molecular weight of 36 kDa unit protein and itsnative was 215 kDa. In addition, it was also a neutral metalo serine protease according tobiochemical tests that it was totaly inhibited by PMSF (Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride) and EDTA(Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). It showed optimum activity at pH of 8 and active in acidic buffer(up to pH of 4). All of metal ion in the form of chloride salt (2.5 mM) which were tested on theenzyme enhanced the enzyme activity but Li2+. Ca2+ion increased the activity and the stability ofenzyme against thermal. The enzyme also showed the stability against solvent. The protease LIIhad optimum temperature at 60oC without CaCl 2and 80 – 85oC with addition of 2.5 mM CaCl 2. TheK Mand V maxvalues for the purified protease LII were 27.2 mg/ml or 0.362 – 0.272 M for substrateHammersteinCasein (MM 75–100 kDa) and 261.1 µg/minute/ml, respectively.
SCREENING OF THERMOSTABLE PROTEASE PRODUCING MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM INDONESIAN HOTSPRING Zilda, Dewi Seswita; Harmayani, Eni; Widada, Jaka; Asmara, Widya; Irianto, Hari Eko; Patantis, Gintung; Fawzya, Yusro Nuri
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 7, No 3 (2012): December 2012
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (662.649 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/squalen.v7i3.5

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Although many proteases had been studied and characterized, only a few of them are commercially available.  Protease thermostability is one of the crucial properties for industrialapplication. This research aimed to isolate and to screen the potential isolate which produce thermostable protease. There were 6 isolates (BII-1, BII-2, BII-3, BII-4, BII-6 and LII), isolated using solid Minimal Synthetic Medium (MSM) supplemented with 1.5% skim milk, that have, protease activity. Based on the 16S-rRNA gene sequencing analysis, isolates BII-1, BII-2 and BII- 6 were identified as Bacillus licheniformis, isolates BII-3 and BII-4 were identified as Bacillus subtilis, while isolate LII was identified as Brevibacillus thermoruber. Three isolates (BII-6, BII-4 and LII) were then further investigated for the second screening step using liquid MSM supplemented with 1% skim milk. The isolates (BII-6, BII-4 and LII) optimally produced protease when they were cultivated at 35, 30 and 50o C respectively after 22 h of incubation. Protease produced by BII-6, BII-4 and LII had optimum temperature  of 65, 60 and 85o C, optimum pH at 7-8, 8 and 9 and stable up to 100 min at 55, 60 and 75o C respectively.
TEKNOLOGI PENANGANAN DAN PENYIMPANAN IKAN TUNA SEGAR DI ATAS KAPAL Irianto, Hari Eko
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 3, No 2 (2008): December 2008
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (669.297 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/squalen.v3i2.140

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Indonesia merupakan negara produsen ikan tuna terbesar kelima di dunia. Terdapat  beberapa jenis ikan tuna  yang banyak diperdagangkan di pasar internasional, terutama bluefin tuna, southern bluefin tuna, bigeye tuna, yellowfin tuna, albacore, dan skipjack.  Ikan tuna termasuk komoditas yang cepat mengalami proses kemunduran mutu bila tidak disimpan pada suhu rendah dan juga dapat menghasilkan senyawa histamin yang berbahaya bagi manusia yang mengkonsumsinya. Ikan tuna segar bermutu baik dapat diperoleh dengan menerapkan teknik penanganan dan penyimpanan yang benar segera setelah ikan ditangkap. Cara penanganan ikan tuna setelah ditangkap yang sering diterapkan adalah penggancoan, pendaratan ke atas kapal, pematian, perusakan saluran saraf dengan alat Taniguchi, pembuangan darah, pembuangan insang dan isi perut,  pembersihan, serta penyimpanan dingin. Mutu ikan tuna dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor biologis dan non-biologis. Faktor-faktor biologis yang berpengaruh meliputi spesies, umur, ukuran, tingkat kematangan seksual, dan adanya parasit atau penyakit, sedangkan faktor-faktor non-biologis adalah metode penangkapan, teknik penanganan, teknik pendinginan, dan teknik penyimpanan.