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The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle Diwyanto, Kusuma; Inounu, I
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 19, No 2 (2009): JUNE 2009
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (159.637 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v19i2.926

Abstract

Artificial Insemination (AI) in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C), 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.   Key words: Artificial insemination, crossbreeding, reproduction, beef cattle
Improvement of frozen semen quality of Garut Sheep through the addition of α-tocopherol into yolk egg-skim milk diluent ., Herdis; ., Kusuma; Surachman, M; Sutama, I.K; Riza, M; Inounu, I; Purwantara, B; Arifiantini, I
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 7, No 1 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (147.408 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i1.269

Abstract

The sperm is very fragile to lipid peroxide reaction, that it can easily broken during the process of freezing. To eliminate this consequences an antioxidant agent added into the extender. A research was done to observe the effect of antioxidant agent α-tocoferrol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) presence in the extender on the quality of frozen semen. Once week, semen from six male Garut sheep ages about 2.5 years old was collected using artificial vagina and egg yolk skim-milk diluent used as the extender. The semen were treated in egg yolk skim-milk diluent without antioxidant as control, in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol 0,2 g/100 ml diluent and in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with butylated hydroxytoluene 0,2 g/100 ml diluent. The after thawing observation shown that in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol had life percentage (75.0 ± 3.5% vs 64.8 ± 7.8%) and membrane intact percentage (65.8 ± 6.8 % vs 55.2 ± 8.3%) significantly higher than control (P<0,05) but insignificantly different from with BHT addition. The presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent, the motility percentage consideraly higher (P<0.05) than (45.8 ± 3.8%) using BHT addition (40.0 ± 4.5%) but not different from control (41.7 ± 4.1%); while acrosomal intake percentage after α-tocoferrol (54.8% ± 3.3%) expressively higher (p,0.05) than BHT addition (49.7 ± 3.6%) or control (49.8 ± 3.5%). In conclusion the presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent could improve the quality of Garut sheep frozen semen.   Key words: Antioxidant, sperm, Garut sheep
Milk production capacity of priangan prolific sheep: II. The lactation curve Tiesnamurti, B; Inounu, I; ., Subandriyo; Martojo, H
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 8, No 1 (2003)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (159.545 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v8i1.369

Abstract

A calculation was made for the lactation curve of Priangan sheep using Wood equation to find out how much differences actual milk production of uncorrected ewes compared to those corrected using parity and litter size born. Milk production was measured using weighing of the lambs before and shortly after suckling, with average of daily and total milk production were 519.5 g/head and 43.6 kg head-1 lactation-1, respectively. The average of parameter a, which reflected milk production at the beginning of the lactation period was 6.296 that equivalent to 571.5 g/head and significantly affected (P<0.05) by parity. The b parameter which reflected the rate of milk increment at the beginning of the lactation period was found to be 0.528 and significantly affected (P<0.05) by parity. The c parameter which reflected the rate of milk decline at the end of lactation period was found to be -0.20 and significantly affected (P<0.05) by parity. The average persistency which reflected the duration of maximum milk production was found to be 22.58 days without any significant contribution of parity and the number of lamb born. The average time to reach maximum milk production was found to be at week 3.5 after lambing without any significant contribution of parity and litter size. The average estimation of maximum milk production was 708.4 g/head and significantly affected (P<0.05) by ewe parity.   Key words: Milk production, lactation curve, Priangan sheep
Relative superiority analysis of Garut dam and its crossbred Inounu, I; ., Subandriyo; Tiesnamurti, B; Hidajati, N; Nafiu, La Ode
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 10, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v10i1.473

Abstract

In attemp to increase the productivity of Garut sheep, Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production has crossed Garut sheep (GG) with St. Croix sheep (HH) that has high frame body size and adaptable to the hot climate (in 1995) and with Moulton Charollais sheep (MM) that has high body weight gain and good milk production to raise multiple birth (in 1996). The objective of this research was to evaluate the ewe productivity of Garut sheep and its crosses with St. Croix and Moulton Charollais. This research was conducted at Animal Research Station, Bogor from 1995 to 2002. In this study the crossing was done using frozen semen of M. Charollais and ram of St. Croix so that the real performance of these sheep under Indonesian condition is not known. So that the relative superiority of these crosses is calculated from the percentage of the differences between traits mean of crossbred and purebred divided by trait means of purebred Garut, except for the threeway crosses (MHG and HMG) is calculated from the difference between the means of threeway crossbred trait with the means of two parents (MG and HG). It is concluded that HG and MHG show higher dam productivity than GG, it can be seen from their litter weight at birth and weaning. In poor feed condition GG showed higher productivity than the crossbred sheep (MG and HG), but MHG/MHG showed higher relative superiority compare to their parents (MG and HG). In good feed condition HG and MHG/HMG sheep showed higher productivity than Garut sheep. The relative superiority of HG sheep is 26.40% over GG and for MHG/HMG is 11.24% over their parents (MG and HG).       Key Words: Garut Sheep, St. Croix Sheep, M. Charollais Sheep, Relative Superiority
The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle Diwyanto, Kusuma; Inounu, I
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 19, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (159.637 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v19i2.926

Abstract

Artificial Insemination (AI) in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C), long calving interval and low calf crop. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.   Key words: Artificial insemination, crossbreeding, reproduction, beef cattle
The relative superiority of milk production of Garut sheep and its crossbred Inounu, I; Sukmawati, S; Noor, R.R
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 11, No 4 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v11i4.541

Abstract

Garut sheep (GG) is one of some native sheep that had been well known to the people of West Java. This sheep have some advantages including their ability to produce multiple birth, reach sexual maturity faster and resistant to internal parasite. However, this sheep have also some disadvantages including low milk production, high mortality and low weaning weight. Crossbreeding is one way to improve animal genetic quality. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the Garut, St.Croix cross (HG), and Moulton Charollais cross (MG) are superior in milk production when compared to Garut sheep. This study was conducted at small ruminant experimental station of Research Institute for Animal production from June to August 2002.  The superiority of the crossed sheep was determined by subtracting the average milk production of the crossed sheep (HG or MG) and Garut sheep and then divided the values by the average milk production of Garut sheep, except for the threeway crosses (MHG and HMG) is calculated from the difference in milk production between the means of threeway crossbred with the means of two parents (MG and HG). The data had been corrected by parity and type of birth.  The General Linear model of SAS was used to calculate the least square means. Average milk production from GG, MG, HG, MHG and HMG ewes in this study were respectivelly 53.41, 59.48, 55.89, 44.87 and 54.66 kg. The relative superiority for milk production of MG and HG were 11% and 5% over Garut sheep respectively and for the threeway crossbred MHG/HMG  was -14% over their parents (MG and HG). Key Words: Milk Production, St.Croix, Moulton Charollais, Garut, Crossing
Performances and phylogenic relationships among local sheep in Indonesia by morphological analysis Sumantri, C; Einstiana, A; Salamena, J.F; Inounu, I
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v12i1.563

Abstract

The morphological discriminant and canonical analysis were carried out to estimate the phylogenic relationship and determine the discriminant variables between Indonesian local sheep of thin tail sheep from Jonggol (Bogor) and Garut and fat tail sheep from Indramayu (originated from East Java), Donggala, Madura, Kisar, Rote and Sumbawa. The number of sheep used  was totally 818 heads collected from 8 populations, were Jonggol (185), Garut (74), Indramayu (100), Donggala (60), Madura (86) Kisar (231), Rote (52), and Sumbawa (30). Discriminant analysis used for body weight and body measurements were body length, wither height, chest width, chest depth, chest circumference, skull length, skull width, skull height, tail lenght, tail width, ear length and ear width. SAS package program was used to analyze the data. The results from analysis variant showed that the body weight and body measurenment of Garut sheep almost the same with sheep from Indramayu and significantly higher (P<0,05) compared to another breeds. Whereas, Kisar and Rote have body weight and body measurenment significantly lower (P<0,05) compared to another breeds. The results from Mahalanobis distance (phenogram tree) and canonical analyses showed that breeds were divided into five groups, the first group is Garut, the second is thin-tail sheep which existed in Jonggol, the third was fat-tailed sheep which existed in Kisar, Rote, and Sumbawa, the fourth is fat-tail sheep which existed in Donggala, and the fiveth was fat-tailed sheep which existed in Indramayu and Madura. The groups of sheep between Kisar and Rote had the smallest genetic distance value equal to 1,623 and groups between Donggala and Garut had the biggest genetic distance value equal to 7,994. The highest similarity between individual inside the group was obtained from Sumbawa (100%) and the lowest similarity was from Rote (72,41%). The results from canonical analyses showed that tail lenght, ear width, ear lenght, skull lenght, body lenght, and tail width were the most discriminant variables to determine the diferences between breeds. Key Words: Sheep, Genetic Distance, Analysis Discriminant and Cannonica
Polymorphism of Calpastatin gene and its effect on body weight of local sheeps Sumantri, C; Diyono, R; Farajallah, A; Inounu, I
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 13, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v13i2.604

Abstract

The objectives of this research were to identify polymorphism of calpastatin gene and to investigate any association of calpastatin genotype on body weight of local sheeps. A total number of DNA samples were collected from 288 heads of local sheeps from 8 populations. Two local sheep samples were medium tail sheeps (MTSs) of a Garut fighting type from Ciomas/Bogor (29) and a Garut meat type from Margawati (29). The remaining six local sheep population were one thin tail sheep (TTS) from Jonggol (36); and five fat tail (FTSs) from Indramayu (43), Madura (43), Sumbawa (26), Rote (36) and Donggala (46) respectively. Genomic DNAs of those blood of local sheeps were extracted by a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and amplified using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. PCR reaction was carried out in a thermocycler (Takara PCR of Thermal Cycler MP4) and PCR products were digested with Msp 1 enzyme restriction using a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique. The PCR-RFLP products were separated at 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE).  A silver-staining method then was applied to detect fragments. Genetic variations between local sheep populations were calculated based on frequencies of genotypes and alelles. The association between genotype of calpastatin gene and body weight of local sheeps were calculated by General Linear Model method by SAS version 6.12. A length of 622 base pairs (bp) of the calpastatin gene of the Indonesian local sheeps was successfully amplified by the PCR technique. An MspI restriction enzyme cut the PCR product into two different length fragments, those were 336 bp and 286 bp designated as M allele of the CAST-Msp1; whilst that unsuccessfully cut PCR product resulted one fragment 622 bp designated as N allele of the CAST-Msp1. Locus of the CAST-Msp1 gene in most local sheeps studied was polymorphic, the exception was in the FTS from Rote of which monomorphic. The highest frequency of the M allele was in the fighting Garut sheep from Ciomas (0.29), whilst the lowest was in the FTS from Rote (0.00). However, frequencies of the M allele of FTSs from Sumbawa and Madura were similar (0.04). Further, frequencies of the M allele of local sheeps from Margawati, Jonggol, Indramayu, and Donggala were 0.24, 0.16, 0.13 and 0.12 respectively. The highest frequency of MN genotype was observed in the Garut fighting sheep from Ciomas (0.58), but the lowest was in the FTS from Rote (0.00). The heterosigosity was observed differently  among populations. The highest heterosigosity was also identified in the Garut fighting sheep in Ciomas (0.43), whilst FTSs both in Sumbawa and Madura were for the lowest (0.08). Results of this study showed that there was a definit association betwen calpastatin genotype and body weight of male sheeps from which the MN genotype significantly related to a higher body weight compared to that of the NN genotype. Key Words : Local Sheeps, Calpastatin Gene, Polymorphism, Live Weight
Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in Mono Amine Oxidase A (MAO-A) Gene as a genetic marker for aggressiveness in sheep Handiwirawan, Eko; Noor, Ronny R; Sumantri, C; ., Subandriyo; Inounu, I
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 17, No 4 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v17i4.692

Abstract

In the population, there are aggressive sheep in a small number which requires special management those specific animal house and routine management. The purpose of this study was to identify the variation of DNA marker SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) as a genetic marker for the aggressive trait in several of sheep breed. The identification of point mutations in exon 8 of MAO-A gene associated with aggressive behavior in sheep may be further useful to become of DNA markers for the aggressive trait in sheep. Five of sheep breed were used, i.e.: Barbados Black belly Cross sheep (BC), Composite Garut (KG), Local Garut (LG), Composite Sumatra (KS) and St. Cross Croix (SC). Duration of ten behavior traits, blood serotonin concentrations and DNA sequence of exon 8 of MAO-A gene from the sheep aggressive and nonaggressive were observed. PROC GLM of SAS Ver. 9.0 program was used to analyze variable behavior and blood serotonin concentrations. DNA polymorphism in exon 8 of MAO-A gene was analyzed using the MEGA software Ver. 4.0. The results show that the percentage of the aggressive rams of each breed was less than 10 percent; except for the KS sheep is higher (23%).  Based on the duration of behavior, aggressive sheep group was not significantly different with non aggressive sheep group, except duration of care giving and drinking behavior. It is known that concentration of blood serotonin in aggressive and non aggressive rams was not significantly different. The aggressive trait in sheep has a mechanism or a different cause like that occurs in mice and humans. In this study, aggressive behavior in sheep was not associated with a mutation in exon 8 of MAO-A gene. Key Words: Sheep, Aggressive, Exon 8 Of MAO-A Gene, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
The relative superiority of milk production of Garut sheep and its crossbred Inounu, I; Sukmawati, S; Noor, R.R
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 11, No 4 (2006): DECEMBER 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (279.146 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v11i4.541

Abstract

Garut sheep (GG) is one of some native sheep that had been well known to the people of West Java. This sheep have some advantages including their ability to produce multiple birth, reach sexual maturity faster and resistant to internal parasite. However, this sheep have also some disadvantages including low milk production, high mortality and low weaning weight. Crossbreeding is one way to improve animal genetic quality. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the Garut, St.Croix cross (HG), and Moulton Charollais cross (MG) are superior in milk production when compared to Garut sheep. This study was conducted at small ruminant experimental station of Research Institute for Animal production from June to August 2002.  The superiority of the crossed sheep was determined by subtracting the average milk production of the crossed sheep (HG or MG) and Garut sheep and then divided the values by the average milk production of Garut sheep, except for the threeway crosses (MHG and HMG) is calculated from the difference in milk production between the means of threeway crossbred with the means of two parents (MG and HG). The data had been corrected by parity and type of birth.  The General Linear model of SAS was used to calculate the least square means. Average milk production from GG, MG, HG, MHG and HMG ewes in this study were respectivelly 53.41, 59.48, 55.89, 44.87 and 54.66 kg. The relative superiority for milk production of MG and HG were 11% and 5% over Garut sheep respectively and for the threeway crossbred MHG/HMG  was -14% over their parents (MG and HG). Key Words: Milk Production, St.Croix, Moulton Charollais, Garut, Crossing