Ninoek Indriati
Pusat Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Sosial Ekonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Resistensi Antibiotik pada Vibrio parahaemolyticus dari Udang Vaname Asal Pantai Utara Jawa untuk Pasar Ekspor Kusmarwati, Arifah; Yenni, Yusma; Indriati, Ninoek
Jurnal Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 12, No 2 (2017): Desember 2017
Publisher : Balai Besar Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan

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AbstrakKeberadaan bakteri V. parahaemolyticus pada produk udang yang bersifat resisten terhadap antibiotik saat ini menjadi permasalahan serius yang berdampak pada jaminan mutu dan keamanan produk. Hal ini menjadi ancaman serius bagi manusia ketika mengkonsumsi udang tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui resistensi antibiotik dan potensi risiko antibiotik dari bakteri V. parahaemolyticus  pada udang vaname. Pengambilan sampel udang vaname segar dari tambak dilakukan pada musim hujan dan musim kemarau di wilayah Pantai Utara Jawa pada bulan Februari hingga Oktober 2015 dengan metode purposive random sampling. Sebanyak 36 isolat bakteri V. parahaemolyticus yang mewakili 103 sampel udang vaname segar dari tambak udang di Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur telah diuji resistensinya terhadap 8 jenis antibiotik (doksisiklin, nitrofurantoin, siprofloksasin, asam nalidiksat, amoksisilin-asam klavulanat, kloramfenikol, streptomisin, dan eritromisin). Uji kepekaan bakteri terhadap antibiotik dilakukan menggunakan metode Kirby-Bauer. Perhitungan indeks Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) juga dilakukan  untuk mengetahui potensi risiko antibiotik terhadap kesehatan manusia. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa 100% isolat bakteri yang diuji resisten terhadap streptomisin, 90% isolat resisten terhadap eritromisin, dan berikutnya resisten terhadap amoksisilin-asam klavulanat dan nitrofurantoin masing-masing sebesar 83,33% dan 58,33%. Terdapat beberapa antibiotik yang masih mampu melawan bakteri V. parahaemolyticus yaitu siprofloksasin (88,89%), kloramfenikol (81,25%) dan doksisiklin (33,33%). Selain itu, sebanyak 63,89% dari total isolat bakteri tersebut memiliki indeks MAR>0,2 yang mengindikasikan adanya potensi risiko bagi kesehatan. Secara keseluruhan, bakteri V. parahaemolyticus dari sampel yang diambil pada musim hujan menunjukkan resistensi yang lebih tinggi. Antibiotic Resistance in  Vibrio  parahaemolyticusfrom Vannamei Shrimp Originated from Northern Coast of Java for Export MarketAbstractRecently, the occurence of V. parahaemolyticus bacteria in shrimp products that was resistant to antibiotics became a serious problem that affects quality assurance and product safety. It will be a serious threat to humans when consuming the shrimp product. Research was conducted to know antibiotic resistance and antibiotic risk potency of  V. parahaemolyticus bacteria on vannamei shrimp. Sampling of fresh vannamei shrimp from the ponds was conducted in rainy and dry season in the Northern Coast of Java from February to October 2015 with purposive randomize sampling method. A total of 36 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus bacteria representing 103 samples of fresh vannamei shrimp from shrimp ponds in West Java, Central Java and East Java have been tested for resistance to 8 types of antibiotics (doxycycline, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, amoxicillin-c lavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and erythromycin). Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using Kirby-Bauer method. Calculation of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MAR) was also conducted to determine the potential risks of antibiotics to the human health.The results showed that 100% of isolates tested were resistant to streptomycin, 90% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin, and subsequently resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and nitrofurantoin respectively (83.33% and 58.33%). Several antibiotics were still able to resist V. parahaemolyticus i.e ciprofloxacin (88,89%), chloramphenicol (81,25%) and doxycycline (33,33%). In addition, a total 63.89% of bacterial isolates have a MAR index>0,2 indicating potential health risks. Overall,  V.  Parahaemolyticus that was taken from rainy season showed high resistance.
Ekstraksi Khitosan dari Kepala Udang Putih (Penaeus merguensis) Yunizal, Yunizal; Indriati, Ninoek; Murdinah, Murdinah; Wikanta, Thamrin
Agritech Vol 21, No 3 (2001)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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In order to optimize the utilization of shrimp head, study on extraction of chitosan from head of white shrimp (Panaeud merguensis) was carried out. The aim of the study was to find out the optimum conditions of deproteinization, demineralization and deacetylation process in the extraction of chitosan. The result showed that the most suitable condition of deproteinization process was obained by boiling shrimp head in solution of NaOH 3 % at 100°C for 90 minutes with the ratio of solution and shrimp head 6 : 1 (v/w). However the most suitable condition of demineralization process was obtained by dipping of deproteinized shrimp head in HCl 1,25N solution for 20 hours at ambient temperature. Futhermore, the most suitable condition for deacetylation process was achieved by heating demineralized shrimp head in NaOH 50% solution at 100°C for 90 minutes. As final product, chitosan contained: 6.73% moisture, 6.74% total nitrogen (d.b), 1.00% totla ash (d.b), while the degree of deacetylation and viscosity were 83.10% and 3.50 cps, respectively.
Kemunduran Mutu Kamaboko Ikan Mas Selama Penyimpanan Pada Suhu Kamar Rahayu, Siti; Indriati, Ninoek; Utomo, B.S. Bandol
Agritech Vol 9, No 4 (1989)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Telah dikerjakan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemunduran mutu kamaboko yang dibuat dari ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio L) selama penyimpanin pada suhu kamar. Kamaboko dibuat dengan variasi penambahan tepung kacang hijau, tepung tapioka, tepung terigu, tepung aren dan tepung maizena, disimpan pada suhu kamar dan diamati kemunduran mutunya. Kamaboko yang dibuat dengan penambahan tepung kacang hijau mempunyai daya simpan lebih lama dibandingkan. terhadap kamaboko dengan penambahan tepung tapioka, terigu, maizena dan aren.
OPTIMIZATION OF BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION BY Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis CN1.10a ORIGIN FROM RUSIPS Indriati, Ninoek; Kusmarwati, Arifah; Hermana, Irma
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 9, No 3 (2014): December 2014
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

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Previous study of bacteriocin production on laboratory scale (100 mL) that used MRS broth medium produced unstable activity of bacteriocin. Therefore, this study aims to determine the optimum growth conditions and media for production of bacteriocin. Bacteria used in this research was a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis CN1.10a  isolated from rusip, a traditional Bangkanese fermented fish product.The bacteria was first cultivated for subsequent use of bacteriocins production on intermediate scale (2L). Followed by the optimization of temperature, pH and medium for the bacteriocin production, determination of cell growth curve, bacteriocin production curve, bacteriocin activity on that scale, and also stability of bacteriocin during storage.The results showed that the optimum temperature and pH for the growth of producer cell were 28°C and pH 6. The greatest activity of bacteriocin was produced on CM medium (1% sucrose, 0,45% peptone, 1% yeast extract, 2,84% KH2PO4, 0,2% NaCl and 0,02% MgSO4.7H20) in addition of sucrose as carbohydrate source. Based on the growth curve performedon CM medium with KH2PO4, the L. Lactis ssp lactis CN1.10a was relatively stable up to 48 hours. Bacteriocin produced by the cell was  8000 AU/mlat24th hour.Bacteriocin  was relatively stable when stored at -20°C for 1month with a relative activity of 69,4%.
Prevalence of Aflatoxin B1 in Commercial Dried Fish from Some Regions of Java Indriati, Ninoek; Hermana, Irma; Hidayah, Izhamil; Rahayu, Endang Sri
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 12, No 3 (2017): December 2017
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

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The purpose of this study is to study the prevalence of aflatoxin B1 in commercial dried salted fish and other related information. A total of 150 samples were classified into 3 groups, based on the salt content. Low salt content (0-5%) were dried anchovies (Stolephorus sp.) and commerson’s anchovy (Stolephorus commersonii); moderate salt content (6-10%) were medan anchovy (Stolephorus bataviensis) and  whipfin silverbiddy (Gerres filamentosus) while high salt content (>10%) were moonlight gouramy (Trichogaster microlepis) and snakehead fish (Channa striata). The samples were collected from different seller in Java Island and then determined for Aspergillus flavus, Aflatoxin B1, salt content, moisture content, pH, water activity and total mold count. Results showed that dried salted fish were contaminated with A. flavus at temperature of 25.2-32.2 oC, 65-84% humidity, 17-50% moisture content, 0.25-19.88% salt content, and 0.73-0.86 aw. The prevalence of A. flavus in dried salted fish was 9.33% (14/150) and the prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was 8% (12/150) with detectable concentrations of 10.71-33.6 ppb.
Production and characterization of bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from rusip Kusumarwati, Arifah; Indriati, Ninoek; Hermana, Irma
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 8, No 1 (2013): May 2013
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

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Research was conducted to produce and characterize bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from rusip, a traditional Bangkanese fermented fish product. Experiment was started by isolation of lactic acid bacteria from rusip, followed by screening to obtain the best isolate which has the highest bacterial inhibition activity. The selected isolate was then identified and used to produce crude bacteriocin. The crude bacteriocin was characterized through its stability in high temperature and proteolytic enzymes, inhibitory spectrum, pH sensitivity and effect of surfactants. The result showed that CN1.10a isolate which was identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis has the highest bacterial inhibition activities; therefore it was selected to produce crude bacteriocin. The bacteriocin produced was heat stable, sensitive to proteolytic enzymes i.e. proteinase-K and papain but not to RNase. It inhibited Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum. It stable at pH 2.0 to 6.0. Among surfactans used sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), lauryl sarcosine and EDTA were able to stimulate bacteriocin production, while the production were strongly inhibited by Tween 20, Tween 80, Triton X-100 and urea. Based on the above characteristic, the bacteriocin was suitable to be used as a preservative of food which has to be processed at high temperature.
Potensi Antibakterial Bakteri Asam Laktat dari Peda, Jambal Roti, dan Bekasam Indriati, Ninoek; Setiawan, Indriarto P. Danan; Yulneriwarni, Yulneriwarni
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 8, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from fermented fish products, peda, jambal roti and bekasam were carried out. Antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria was tested using well diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria had been isolated. Results showed that isolate A2 from peda was able to inhibit the growth of the 4 testing bacteria with inhibition zones of 6.7 mm for E. coli; 7.3 mm for P. aeruginosa; 8.3 mm for S. aureus and 10.0 mm for B. cereus. Isolate B5 from jambal roti had inhibition zones 11.6 mm for E. coli; 6.0 mm for P. aeruginosa ; 7.3 mm for S. aureus and 13.3 mm for B. cereus ; while isolate C6 from bekasam had inhibitor zones 7.7 mm for E. coli; 6.0 for P. aeruginosa; 8.0 mm for S. aureus and 9.3 mm for B. cereus.
Penggunaan Glyroxyl untuk Menghambat Penurunan Mutu Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio) Segar Ariyani, Farida; Murtini, Jovita Tri; Indriati, Ninoek; Dwiyitno, Dwiyitno; Yenni, Yusma
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 9, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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One of the preservative agents that was claimed having bactericidal effect is glyroxyl. This study was aimed to observe the effect of glyroxyl on carp’s (Cyprinus carpio) shelf life. Factorial design was used in this experiment with 9 treatments in triplicates. The fish was immersed in glyroxyl solution at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% (w/v) for 5 min. Following immersion, fish was drained and kept in plastic bucket at ambient temperature. Sampling was done at 0, 12 and 24 h storage and analysis was carried out organoleptically, chemically (TVB) and microbiologically (TPC, Enterobacter). Results showed that organoleptically, chemically and microbiologically, there were no significant different on spoilage inhibition of glyroxyl compared to control. Similar to control, glyroxyl was able to prevent spoilage of carp fish only up to 12 h. The fish was rejected by panelists after 12 h of storage. The TVB value and bacterial counts, including Enterobacter, also increased sharply after that time.
PENGARUH STERILISASI DAN PENYIMPANAN SUHU RENDAH TERHADAP MUTU PINDANG BANDENG PRESTO Saleh, Mohammad; Iswahyuningsih, Dwi Artini; Indriati, Ninoek; Heruwati, Endang Sri
Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (1998): (Vol.4 No.2 1998)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Penelitian mengenai sterilisasi dan penyirnpanan bandeng presto pada suhu rendah untuk mernpertahankan mutu produk telah dilakukan. Dalam penelitian ini, ikan dipindang pada 121C selama 45 menit. diikuti dengan pengemasan hampa udara dalam kantong HDPE, kemudian dibasi menjadi empat kelompok.
Uji Toksisitas Sub Kronik Spirulina platensis secara In-vivo Murtini, Jovita Tri; Triwibowo, Radestya; Indriati, Ninoek; Ariyani, Farida
Jurnal Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 5, No 2 (2010): Desember 2010
Publisher : Balai Besar Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Penelitian toksisitas subkronik Spirulina platensis secara in-vivo telah dilakukan. Spirulina spp. merupakan sumber protein nabati yang cukup tinggi sehingga pada umumnya dimanfaatkan sebagai suplemen makanan. Spirulina platensis dalam bentuk tablet dan kapsul telah dihasilkan oleh Balai Besar Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan, maka perlu dilakukan uji keamanannya bagi konsumen. Uji toksisitas sub-kronik Spirulina platensisdilakukan secara bioassaymenggunakan mencit jantan (Mus musculus L.) dari galur DDY, umur 2-3 bulan dengan bobot 20–30 g/ekor. Pemberian bahan uji (bubuk Spirulinakering disuspensikan dalam larutan 0,5% CMC-N a) dilakukan secara oral selama 4 minggu, selanjutnya dilakukan masa pemulihan selama 2 minggu dan setiap 2 minggu dilakukan pengambilan darah dan organ (hati, ginjal, dan lambung). Dibuat 4 kelompok perlakuan yaitu control negatif (0,5% CMC-Na sebesar 0,8 mL), dosis I (2,6 mg Spirulina/20 g bb mencit), dosis II (5,2 mg Spirulina/20 g bb mencit), dan kelompok dosis III (10,4 mg Spirulina/20 g bb mencit). Parameter yang diamati adalah kandungan GOT (Glutamic Oxaloacetic Trans aminase), GPT (Glutamic Piruvate Transaminase), kreatinin, dan albumin. Hasil analisis kandungan GOT dan, GPT, kreatinin, dan albumin mencit selama perlakuan masih dalam batas normal. Hasil analisis statistik semua parameter tidak berbeda nyata pada variasi dosis, kecuali pada dosis II, namun semua nilai masih dalam rentang nilai normal untuk mencit sehat. Pengamatan secara histopatologi menunjukkan bahwa pada kontrol dan dosis I tidak terjadi kerusakan yang berat pada hati, ginjal, dan lambung, sedangkan pada perlakuan dosis II dan III terjadi kerusakan ringan pada organ hati dan ginjal ditandai dengan adanya pengkerutan buluh darah, degenerasi sel hati; nekrosis pada sel tubulus, dan adanya endapan protein pada glomerulus ginjal, tetapi tidak terjadi kerusakan pada lambung.