Articles

The Genetic Drift of Indonesian Avian Influenza A H5N1 Viruses During 2003-2008 DHARMAYANTI, NI LUH PUTU INDI; SAMAAN, GINA; IBRAHIM, FERA; INDRIANI, RISA; DARMINTO, .; SOEBANDRIO, AMIN
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2011): June 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

The avian influenza A H5N1 outbreaks started in 2003 and Indonesia introduced a vaccination campaign in 2004 to control the disease. In 2007, anecdotal reports about reduced vaccine effectiveness were received from commercial farmers. This paper describes the evolution of viruses in Indonesia up till 2008 and focus on viruses from vaccinating farms reporting vaccine failure were compared to viruses isolated from outbreak areas with no vaccination program. Result of the study revealed that viruses from vaccinated chickens had more extensive mutation at the HA molecule compared to chicken and other avian species without vaccination. Substitutions occurred at the HA gene level as well as at NA, M1 and NS1 genes. Viruses isolated and characterized form 2008 vaccinated flocks had substitutions that were unique and different with the old viruses. The recommendation arising from this study to the avian influenza disease control program in Indonesia is that continuous monitoring of genetic character of viruses and the vaccine seed strain should be updated periodically and matched with the virus circulated in the field.
Infectious Bronchitis (IB) Disease and its Control in Chicken Indriani, Risa; ., Darminto
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (274.556 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v9i2.723

Abstract

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of chicken’s caracterized by tracheal rallies, coughing, sneezing and nasal discharge in young chicks. In addition, the disease may affect kidhney, and in laying flock there is usually a drop in egg production and quality. IB is a major negative economic importance in poultry industry because the disease causes poor weight gain and feed efficiency, mortality in young chicks, reduction in egg production and egg quality in laying flock. IB is distributed worldwide and has been reported to be present in Indonesia. IB is caused by virus of a member of Coronaviridae under genera of Coronavirus. Spreading of IB virus among chickens usually by inhalation. Diagnosis of the disease can be based on the isolation and identification of the virus using embryonated chicken eggs and trachea organ culture. There is no treatment available for IB, so the control of the disease is mainly by vaccination. The existence of multiple serotipes of IB virus requires vaccines which are represent the antigenic spectrum of field isolates. To ensure the results of vaccination program, monitoring antibody titers following vaccination is recommended. The most widely used serological test for antibody monitoring is an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI) test.   Key words: IB, virus, chicken, control
Pathogenicity and immunogenicity local isolat infectious laryngo tracheitis virus Indriani, Risa; Hamid, Helmy; Adjid, R.M Abdul; Saepulloh, Muharam
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 9, No 2 (2004): JUNE 2004
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (154.531 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v9i2.418

Abstract

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute and contagious respiratory diseases of chicken. The virus is Gallid herpes and belong to family herpesviridae. Two local strains of ILT virus those were BGR-6 and BKS-3 were isolated and their pathogenicity and immunogenicity were further observed after five time pareses on coris allantoic of specific pathogenic free embryonated eggs. The pathogenicity of both isolates to be possible for use as seed vaccine were detected based on pathogenicity indices and antibody response. Experimental specific pathogenic free chicken in isolator cages were infected by the isolates using103EID50. ILT virus per dose. Clinical syndromes, pathological anatomic lesions, and immunological response were observed in the infected chickens and another group at uninfected chickens as a control. Results showed that either BGR-6 or BKS-3 caused clinical signs with ITPI scores of 0,05 and 0,03 respectively and there were no mortality of infected chickens. The top antibody responces of BGR-6 and BKS-3 were observed at OD 0.90 and 0.44 respectively. It can be concluded that BGR-6 and BBS-3 had low ITPI scores, but BGR-6 gave higher antibody response and can be used as a candidate for seed vaccine.   Key words: Infectious laryngotracheitis, ILT, BGR-6, BKS-3, pathogenicity, immunogenicity
Studi Efikasi Vaksin Bivalen AI Isolat Lokal terhadap Beberapa Karakter Genetik Virus AI subtipe H5N1 Indriani, Risa; Dharmayanti, NLP Indi
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 9, No 1 (2013): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v9i1.143

Abstract

Studi vaksin inaktif bivalen AI isolat lokal subtipe H5N1 terhadap beberapa karakter genetik virus AI H5N1 padaayam layer dan broiler. Vaksin inaktif bivalen dari isolat lokal AI A/Ck/west java/Smi-M6/2008 and A/Ck/westjava/Pwt-D10-39/2010. Ayam layer dan broiler komersial divaksinasi dengan vaksin inaktif bivalen AI isolat lokal,setelah 3 minggu vaksinasi ditantang dengan virus AI A/Ck/west java/Smi-Part/2006, A/Ck/west java/Subang-JAPFA-29/2007 and A /Ck/west java/Smi-Rahm2/2011. Ayam layer vaksinasi mendapat perlindungan dari morbiditas,mortalitas dan penurunan ekskresi virus tantang dengan tingkat proteksi 90-100% sedangkan ayam layerkontrol mati dalam waktu 2-3 hari, sementara broiler yang divaksinasi tidak mendapatkan perlindungan dari morbiditasdan mortalitas setelah terinfeksi virus AI tantang. Hasil studi memperlihatkan vaksin inaktif bivalen AI isolatlokal subtipe H5N1 mampu memberikan perlindungan pada ayam layer dari infeksi beberapa karakter genetikvirus AI subtipe H5N1 .Kata kunci: Vaksin bivalen, subtipe H5N1, tantang dan proteksi
Comparison of sequences of hypervariable region (HVR) subunit S-1 gene of field isolate I-37 infectious bronchitis virus with Connecticut serotype Dharmayanti, N.L.P Indi; Indriani, Risa; ., Darminto
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 8, No 2 (2003): JUNE 2003
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (177.798 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v8i2.380

Abstract

Infectious Bronchitis is a contagious and acute respiratory disease in chickens caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV).Antigenic differences in IBV are associated with changes in the sequence of the spike glycoprotein (S). The subunit S1 which demonstrates more sequence variability than S-2 have been identified as hypervariable region (HVR-1 and 2). There were several IB virus field isolates included I-37 have been identified in Indonesia by serum neutralization method. However, gene sequence variation in HVR subunit S-1 had not yet been identified. Isolate I-37 was close to the serotype Connecticut 46 (Conn 46). The aim of this study is to identify sequence variation of HVR subunit S-1 gene of isolate I-37 produced by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing. Several procedures were carried out in the study including virus titration, propagation and was concentrated from the allantoic fluid infected with IBV. Then, RNA was extracted for RTPCR. urther the product was sequnced and its homology with IBV references from GenBank was compared by GenMac version 8.0. Result showed that isolate I-37 produced 515 bp of amplification product. Isolate I-37 and Conn 46 are same serotype, yet their HVR subunit S-1 nucleotides and amino acids (protein) differ by 6.9% and 15.6% respectively. It might be concluded that isolate I-37 was variant of Conn 46.   Key words: Sequences variation, IBV, I-37 field isolate, HVR subunit S-1 gene
Infectious Bronchitis (IB) Disease and its Control in Chicken Indriani, Risa; ., Darminto
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v9i2.723

Abstract

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of chicken’s caracterized by tracheal rallies, coughing, sneezing and nasal discharge in young chicks. In addition, the disease may affect kidhney, and in laying flock there is usually a drop in egg production and quality. IB is a major negative economic importance in poultry industry because the disease causes poor weight gain and feed efficiency, mortality in young chicks, reduction in egg production and egg quality in laying flock. IB is distributed worldwide and has been reported to be present in Indonesia. IB is caused by virus of a member of Coronaviridae under genera of Coronavirus. Spreading of IB virus among chickens usually by inhalation. Diagnosis of the disease can be based on the isolation and identification of the virus using embryonated chicken eggs and trachea organ culture. There is no treatment available for IB, so the control of the disease is mainly by vaccination. The existence of multiple serotipes of IB virus requires vaccines which are represent the antigenic spectrum of field isolates. To ensure the results of vaccination program, monitoring antibody titers following vaccination is recommended. The most widely used serological test for antibody monitoring is an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI) test.   Key words: IB, virus, chicken, control
The isolation of Gurnbiro virus from larvae and darkling Ivelles (Carcinops pumilin) Parede, Lies; Indriani, Risa; ., Sukarsih
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 2, No 1 (1996)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v2i1.42

Abstract

Gumboro (infectious bursal disease, IBD) virus was isolated from darkling beetles (Carrinaps pumilin) and their larvae in a commercial pulletchicken farm with repeated outbreaks incidence of Gumboro disease in Tangertng, West Java. In addition, these over populated beetles and their larvae were suspected to be infected and then shed the virus or acted as vectors. Isolation was done by repeated passages of virus using chicken embryo fibroblast cells as prime media, which then showed the evidence of cylop: ihic effecis. The isolation was followed by antigen detection by means of ELISA test.   Key words: Gumboro disease, infectious bursal disease, darkling beetle, Carcinops punulin  
Serotype variation among infectious bronchitis viral isolates taken from several areas of Java Indriani, Risa; ., Darminto
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 5, No 4 (2000)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v5i4.188

Abstract

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute highly contagious viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by virus belongs to the family of Coronaviridae. The virus consist of many serotypes with low level of cross-protectivity among serotypes. Field data showed that the outbreaks of IB were frequently reported in chicken flocks, although vaccinations against the disease have been practiced. Hence, the study on serotype relationship among isolates of the viruses is essentially required. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize IB viruses from chicken flocks in some areas of Java. Isolation of the virus was carried out in nine-day old embrionated chicken eggs and identified by means of agar gel precipitation (AGP) tests against standard antisera to IB virus. The serotypes of the IB viral isolates were determined by cross-neutralization tests in nine day old embryonated chicken eggs using r value derived from homologous and heterologous serum titres as criteria. This study obtained 12 IB viral isolates which were identified on the basis of the ability to cause lesions in chicken embryos and positive to agar gel presipitation test against standard positive antiserum to the virus. Based on the cross-neutralization tests in embryonated chicken eggs, isolate I.9 was formed to have relationship closed to Mass-41 serotype, while I.2, I. 3, and I.7 isolates were closely to the serotype of Con-46. Virus isolates (I.5, I.14, I.24, and I.25) were decided to have no serotype relationships to either Mass-41 or Con-46 serotype. Since the I.5, I.14, I.24 and I.25 isolates were not neutralized by antisera against the previous identified local infectious bronchitis viral isolates, and that were considered to be distinct serotype to the previously identified local IB viral isolates.   Key words: Infectious bronchitis, virus, embryonated egg, cross neutralization test.
Antibody response and protection of inactivated-local isolate vaccine for infectious bronchitis in laying chicken Indriani, Risa; ., Darminto
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 6, No 2 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i2.230

Abstract

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute highly contagious viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by Coronavirus. IBV infection consists of many serotypes and can only be controlled by vaccination. An effective IB vaccine should be prepared from local isolates, due to the antigenic variation among serotypes. The aims of this research were to develop inactivated IB vaccine derived from IBV local isolate and to determine the efficacy of that vaccine in layer flocks. Five layer chicken groups were used in this experiments, group I was vaccinated with commercial IBV live vaccine thrice, group II was vaccinated with commercial IBV live vaccine once and repeated with inactivated local IBV isolate twice, group III was vaccinated with commercial IBV live vaccine once and repeated with commercial inactivated twice, group IV was vaccinated with IBV live vaccine once, and group V was not vaccinated. After the chickens reached at a stable egg production they were challenged with IBV local isolates. Antibody responses were examined by means of haemagglutination hibitition (HI) test and HI titres were expressed as log2 of the reciprocal of the highest dilution of serum causing inhibition of a log2 HA titre of 2. The mean titres of antibody responses of chicken in group I, II, III, IV, and V was 4.9 ± 0.87, 6.8 ± 0.97, 7.7 ± 0.46, 2.9 ± 0.94, and 2.0 ± 1.67 respectively. The levels of protection against challenges were determined by viral isolation, this in group I, II, III, IV, and V was 63, 73, 60, 50, and 0% respectively. Clinical symptom of egg quality was slightly reduced in group I, IV, and V and it were unchanged in group II and III. Group II gave better in number of egg  production than the other groups. The results indicated that the IBV inactivated localisolate vaccine gave high titres of  antibody and higher protection rates than that of commercial IBV inactivated vaccine. Inaddition, IBV local isolate vaccinated group prevented from declining egg production after challenged with IBV local isolate.   Key words: Infectious bronchitis, layer, antibody titre, vaccine, challenge virus
Antibody response and protection of inactivated-local isolate vaccine for infectious bronchitis in laying chicken Indriani, Risa; ., Darminto
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 6, No 2 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i2.231

Abstract

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute highly contagious viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by Coronavirus. IBV infection consists of many serotypes and can only be controlled by vaccination. An effective IB vaccine should be prepared from local isolates, due to the antigenic variation among serotypes. The aims of this research were to develop inactivated IB vaccine derived from IBV local isolate and to determine the efficacy of that vaccine in layer flocks. Five layer chicken groups were used in this experiments, group I was vaccinated with commercial IBV live vaccine thrice, group II was vaccinated with commercial IBV live vaccine once and repeated with inactivated local IBV isolate twice, group III was vaccinated with commercial IBV live vaccine once and repeated with commercial inactivated twice, group IV was vaccinated with IBV live vaccine once, and group V was not vaccinated. After the chickens reached at a stable egg production they were challenged with IBV local isolates. Antibody responses were examined by means of haemagglutination hibitition (HI) test and HI titres were expressed as log2 of the reciprocal of the highest dilution of serum causing inhibition of a log2 HA titre of 2. The mean titres of antibody responses of chicken in group I, II, III, IV, and V was 4.9 ± 0.87, 6.8 ± 0.97, 7.7 ± 0.46, 2.9 ± 0.94, and 2.0 ± 1.67 respectively. The levels of protection against challenges were determined by viral isolation, this in group I, II, III, IV, and V was 63, 73, 60, 50, and 0% respectively. Clinical symptom of egg quality was slightly reduced in group I, IV, and V and it were unchanged in group II and III. Group II gave better in number of egg  production than the other groups. The results indicated that the IBV inactivated localisolate vaccine gave high titres of  antibody and higher protection rates than that of commercial IBV inactivated vaccine. Inaddition, IBV local isolate vaccinated group prevented from declining egg production after challenged with IBV local isolate.   Key words: Infectious bronchitis, layer, antibody titre, vaccine, challenge virus