Nanik Indayaningsih
Research Center For Physics-LIPI Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong 15314, Tangerang Selatan

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HIBISCUS FIBER CARBON FOR FUEL CELL DEVICE MATERIAL Indayaningsih, Nanik; Zulfia, Anne; Priadi, Dedi; ., Suprapedi
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia 2010: Desember 2010 - Edisi Khusus
Publisher : BATAN

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Abstract

The objective of this research is carbon of hibiscus fibers for the application as basic material of fuel cell device. The carbon is made using a pyrolysis process in inert gas (nitrogen) for 1 hour at temperature of 500 oC, 700 oC and 900 oC. The X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Impedance-Capacitance-Resistance-meter are used to find out the microstructure, morphology and electrical properties respectively. The results of the experiment showed that the carbon had a structure of amorphous, and as the semiconductor material the electrical conductivity was 5 x 10-5 S.cm-1 to 4.9 x 10-5 S.cm-1 increasing in accordance with the pyrolisis temperature. The morphology resembled to plaited mats constructed by porous fibers having width of 50 µm to 300 µm, thickness of 25 µm to 35 µm, and the porous size of 0.5 µm to 5 µm. This morphology enables carbon to be applied as a candidate for a basic material of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell.Keywords: Carbon, Hibiscus fiber, Pyrolysis, Electrical conductivity.
SYNTHESIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES CARBON POLYMER COMPOSITES AS GAS DIFFUSION LAYER FOR ELECTRODE MATERIALS Indayaningsih, Nanik; Zulfia, Anne; Priadi, Dedi; Kartini, Evvy
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Vol 14, No 2 (2013): Januari 2013
Publisher : BATAN

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Abstract

Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) of oil palm has been used, for example, for biofuels, automotive components, particle board, as a carbon source. Carbon material scan be widely used for many applications, for hydrogen storage, conductive or reinforcement plastics, catalyst supports, batteries and fuel cells. In this study, EFB carbon powder has been used as a raw material to make sheets of carbon-polymer composites. The composition of the composite sheet was varied, the electrical properties of the sheets were measured to determine the potential application as a Gas Diffusion Layer for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) electrodes. Composites made with carbon composition weight % compared to the polymer are 65/35, 70/30, 75/25 and 80/20. The materials used is EFB carbon powder as a result of the pyrolysis temperature of 900 °C for 1 hour, then crushed and sieved to 200 mesh size, and the polymer was ethylene vinyl acetate. The raw materials are mixed in a solvent xylene, and printed using tape casting method, then dried at room temperature. The electrical properties were tested using a HIOKI 3522-50 LCR meter HiTESTER The measurement results show that the greater the ratio of carbon to polymer, the higher the electrical conductivity, the values are between 1.54 S/m-11.34 S/m. Morphology of the composite sheet was observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to determine the distribution of carbon and polymer. According to the measurement of morphology and electrical conductivity, the composite is suitable for the gas diffusion layer of the PEMFC electrode.Keywords: Composite, Empty fruit bunches, Gas diffusion layer, Electrical conductivity.
PEMBUATAN UNIT PENGOLAHAN AIR KOTOR MOBILE MENJADI AIR BERSIH DAN LAYAK MINUM DENGAN KAPASITAS 10 LITER/MENIT Tetuko, Anggito P.; Sebayang, P; Muljadi, Muljadi; Indayaningsih, Nanik
Jurnal Ecolab Vol 4, No 1 (2010): Ecolab : Jurnal Pemantauan Kualitas Lingkungan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kualitas dan Laboratorium Lingkungan (P3KLL)

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Abstract

Air kotor dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan masyarakat, karena bisa mencemari sumber air dengan penyakit ini danbakteri, seperti E. coli. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, teknologi yang tepat diperlukan untuk mengubah air kotormenjadi air bersih dan air minum. Satu teknologi adalah membuat sistem penyaringan air dengan menggunakanair sungai dan output bisa langsung minum. Dirancang dan dibangun penyaringan air kemudian diuji yang terdiriatas kualitas air dan kapasitas produksi. Kualitas air Sungai Cisadane, air bersih dan air minum dianalisis; terdiriatas fisik, kimia, dan mikrobiologi. Teknologi yang digunakan dalam unit penyaringan air didasarkan pada penyaringanair secara fisis dengan menggunakan sistem penyaringan dengan media filter granular dan disertai denganproses penyaringan menggunakan reverse osmosis (RO) dan ultraviolet (UV). Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa kapasitas aktual air bersih dan air minum adalah serupa dengan perhitungan desain. Kapasitas air bersihsebenarnya 26,7 l/menit dan kapasitas berdasarkan perhitungan adalah 25,12 l/min. Sementara air minum adalahkapasitas 10,3 l/menit dan kapasitas berdasarkan perhitungan adalah 16,60 l/min. Air bersih telah lulus air bersihstandar tetapi tidak dapat digunakan sebagai air minum, dan setelah melalui proses osmosis terbalik (RO), dapatdigunakan sebagai air minum.
SYNTHESIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES CARBON POLYMER COMPOSITES AS GAS DIFFUSION LAYER FOR ELECTRODEMATERIALS Indayaningsih, Nanik; Zulfia, Anne; Priadi, Dedi; Kartini, Evvy
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Vol 14, No 2: JANUARI 2013
Publisher : BATAN

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Abstract

SYNTHESIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES CARBON POLYMER COMPOSITES AS GAS DIFFUSION LAYER FOR ELECTRODEMATERIALS. Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) of oil palmhas been used, for example, for biofuels, automotive components, particle board, as a carbon source. Carbon material scan be widely used for many applications, for hydrogen storage, conductive or reinforcement plastics, catalyst supports, batteries and fuel cells. In this study, EFB carbon powder has been used as a raw material to make sheets of carbon-polymer composites. The composition of the composite sheet was varied, the electrical properties of the sheets were measured to determine the potential application as a Gas Diffusion Layer for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) electrodes. Composites made with carbon composition weight % compared to the polymer are 65/35, 70/30, 75/25 and 80/20. The materials used is EFB carbon powder as a result of the pyrolysis temperature of 900 °C for 1 hour, then crushed and sieved to 200 mesh size, and the polymer was ethylene vinyl acetate. The rawmaterials are mixed in a solvent xylene, and printed using tape casting method, then dried at room temperature. The electrical properties were tested using a HIOKI 3522-50 LCR meter HiTESTER The measurement results show that the greater the ratio of carbon to polymer, the higher the electrical conductivity, the values are between 1.54 S/m-11.34 S/m.Morphology of the composite sheet was observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to determine the distribution of carbon and polymer. According to the measurement of morphology and electrical conductivity, the composite is suitable for the gas diffusion layer of the PEMFC electrode.
Pemanfaatan Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit sebagai Bahan Baku Kertas Karbon Destyorini, Fredina; Indayaningsih, Nanik
PISTON: Journal of Technical Engineering Vol 1, No 2 (2018): PISTON: JOURNAL OF TECHNICAL ENGINEERING
Publisher : Prodi Teknik Mesin

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Abstract

Limbah perkebunan berupa tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan karbon yangbernilai guna lebih tinggi. Pada penelitian ini dibahas tentang proses pembuatan dan karakterisasi kertas karbon denganmemanfaatkan serat TKKS sebagai bahan bakunya. Kertas karbon yang dihasilkan dapat diaplikasikan sebagai GasDiffusion Layer (GDL) PEMFC. Pembuatan kertas karbon pada penelitian kali ini terdiri dari 2 tahap yaitu pembuatan bahankarbon dari serat TKKS dan pembuatan kertas karbon. Pada tahap pertama, bahan karbon dihasilkan dari proses karbonisasidan pirolisis serat TKKS hingga suhu 1300oC. Bahan karbon yang dihasilkan selanjutnya digunakan sebagai bahan dasaruntuk pembuatan kertas karbon pada tahap kedua. Pembuatan kertas karbon dilakukan dengan cara mencampurkan bahankarbon yang dihasilkan pada tahap pertama dengan polimer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) dan poly ethylene glycol (PEG)sebagai binder ke dalam pelarut xylene. Proses pencampuran dilakukan pada suhu 90oC hingga membentuk slurry, dandilanjutkan dengan proses pencetakan pada cetakan kaca. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian konduktivitas listrik terlihat bahwanilai konduktivitas listrik karbon TKKS meningkat seiring dengan pertambahan suhu pirolisis. Nilai konduktivitas listrikserbuk karbon TKKS 500oC sebesar (1,02x10-6)-(3,90x10-5)S/cm; 700oC sebesar (0,021-0,025) S/cm; 900oC sebesar (2,95-2,96) S/cm; dan untuk 1300oC sebesar (7,97-8,03) S/cm. Penggunaan bahan polimer yang tidak konduktif menyebabkankertas karbon yang dihasilkan memiliki nilai konduktivtas listrik yang lebih rendah dibandingkan bahan karbonnya.