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Matriconditioning Improves Thermotolerance in Pepper Seeds through Increased in 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthesis and Utilization

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 13, No 1 (2006): March 2006
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Matriconditioning using a solid carrier, Micro-Cel E, was applied on pepper seeds and its effects on the improvement of thermotolerance through the ethylene biosynthesis were studied. Untreated and matriconditioned seeds were soaked in 5 mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) for various time at 25 oC to studies the time course of ACC-derived ethylene production. To study the performance of the seeds at high temperature, they were planted at temperature regime of 35 oC, 12h light/27 oC, 12h dark. The ACC-oxidase activity of the seeds after incubated in ACC at 35 oC was also determined. The ACC contents in untreated and matriconditioned seeds during the 24h imbibition period at 35 oC were monitored. No ethylene was detected during soaking of pepper seeds in the absence of ACC. In 5 mM ACC detectable levels of ethylene were produced; the matriconditioned seeds producing 10-fold larger amounts than the untreated seeds at the time of germination. It is postulated that matriconditioning greatly increases the ACC-oxidase activity at the time of germination. Matriconditioned seeds imbibed at 35 oC produced larger amounts of ACC and greater ACC-oxidase activity than the untreated seeds. Thus, the basis for the thermotolerance by matriconditioned seeds may be increasing ability to synthesize ACC and to utilize it for ethylene production and stress alleviation. Key words: ACC-derived ethylene production, ACC-oxidase, germination, preplant conditioning

Chitinase Activity in Healthy and Sclerotium rolfsii Infected Peanut

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 13, No 2 (2006): June 2006
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

The objectives of this experiment were to analyze the endo- or exo-chitinase activities of healthy and Sclerotium rolfsii infected peanuts. The experiment analyzed 24 different peanut genotypes. Results of the experiment showed chromogenic dimer was the most suitable substrate for analysing chitinase activities. Both endo- and exo-chitinases activities were detected in leaf, stem, and crown tissues. Increased in chitinase activities were detected in S. rolfsii infected peanut tissues than in healthy plant. Regression analysis showed negative slope between disease intensity and chitinase activity in S. rolfsii infected peanut tissue (R2= 0.45). Key words: Disease response, stem rot disease, endo- and exo-chitinase

Oxidative Burst, Peroxidase Activity, and Lignin Content of Sclerotium rolfsii Infected Peanut Tissue

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 13, No 4 (2006): December 2006
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

The objectives of this experiment were to analyse physiological responses, such as oxidative burst reaction, peroxidase activity, and lignin content of healthy and S. rolfsii-infected peanut tissues. Differences in physiological responses among 24 peanut genotypes were determined, the disease severity was calculated and used to group resistance of tested genotypes. The regressions among observed peroxidase activity, lignin content and disease severity were used to determine the possible mechanisms of S. rolfsii resistance in peanut. Peanut seeds were grown in polybag and the growing plants were inoculated at the crown, stem, and leaf tissues. Results of the experiment indicated that infection of S. rolfsii in peanut did not induce oxidative burst. However, infection of the pathogen resulted in increased peroxidase activity and lignin content in the infected tissues. Regression analysis between peroxidase activity and disease severity showed negative slopes, indicating the more resistance the genotype, the more peroxidase activity in the tissue. Regression analysis between lignin content and disease severity was not significant. Key words: hypersensitive response (HR), resistance mechanisms, Sclerotium stem rot, disease response, Arachis hypogaea

Inokulasi Fungi Mikoriza Arbuskula (FMA) dan Pemupukan P dalam Meningkatkan Hasil dan Mutu Benih Cabai (Capsicum annuum L.)

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The research was carried out to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and phosphorus fertilizer on yield and  seed quality of two genotypes of hot chilli pepper. The experiment was arranged in split-split  plot with randomized block design, each with 3 replicates. The main plot was two pepper genotipes of Laris and Tegar, the sub plot was two AMF i.e without AMF and inoculation Mycofer AMF, the sub-sub  plot was four dosages of phosphorus fertilizer, they are 0, 100, 125, and 150 kg P2O5ha-1.  Results showed that (1)  genotype and  AMF significantly affected plant height; (2) genotypes interacted with AMF in affecting fruit and seed production; (3) interaction among genotip, AMF and  phosporus fertilizer affected N, P, K content of seed, and N, P, K absorption of seed.  For Laris, N absorpstion increased by 57,70%, P absorpstion increased by 155%, K absorpstion increased by 44.27%, whereas of Tegar  genotype  the N absorpstion increased by 61.50%, P absorpstion increased by 69.30%, K absorpstion increased by 60.61%. The germination rate  and seedling growth rate  of the two genotype are only affected by the application of P fertilizer. The index vigor of Laris and Tegar  was only affected by  both AMF and  P fertilizer application.   Keywords: AMF, fertilizer, seed quality, Mycofer

Efektivitas Ekstrak Tumbuhan untuk Mengeliminasi Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis pada Benih Tomat

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 1 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Objectives of experiments were to evaluate (1) in vitro inhibitory effects of plant extracts on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), (2) inhibitory effects of plant extracts on Cmm infected tomato seeds, and (3) effectiveness of seed treatment plus plant extracts to eliminate Cmm. After evaluating 20 plant extracts, curcuma rhizome and betel vine leaf extract, cinnamon and clove oil were selected for further test. Tomato seeds were artificially inoculated with Cmm to obtain high level of infection. Part of the seeds were dipped in either suspension of selected extracts for 20 minutes and the others were matriconditioned using a mixture of burned rice hull (at 22 °C and RH 60-70%) plus either of plant extracts oils, respectively. Elimination of Cmm level from infected seeds was observed at 10 days after treatments. Results of the experiment indicated curcuma extract, betel vine extract, cinnamon oil or clove oil showed in vitro inhibitory effects on Cmm. Moreover, dipping infected seeds in either 5% of curcuma, betel vine extract, or 0.5% of clove oil or matriconditioning plus these extracts oils were effective to eliminate Cmm from infected seeds. These treatments may potentially be used and developed commercially for eliminating seedborne Cmm on infected tomato seeds.   Keywords: Bacterial cancer, seedborne-pathogen, seed-treatments

Pengaruh Perlakuan Benih Secara Hayati pada Benih Padi Terinfeksi Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae terhadap Mutu Benih dan Pertumbuhan Bibit

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Bacterial leaf blight, the disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a seedborne pathogen, has been known to reduce rice yield by 50%. In this study, two consecutive experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of various biological seed treatments applied on rice seeds artificially infected by Xoo on seed quality and seedling growth. Laboratory experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design while greenhouse experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design. In both experiments, 12 seed treatments were applied: un-infected seeds (negative control) without seed treatment, Xoo infected seeds (positive control) without seed treatment, infected seeds soaked in bactericide Agrept  0.2%, infected seeds soaked in biological agent suspension isolate A6, infected seeds soaked in A54 isolate, infected seeds soaked in 5/B isolate, infected seeds soaked in 11/C isolate, infected seeds matriconditioned + A6 isolate, infected seeds matriconditioned + A54 isolate, infected seeds matriconditioned + 5/B isolate, and infected seeds matriconditioned + 11/C isolate. Soaking seeds either in Agrept  0.2% or in biological agent suspension was conducted for 30 h. Matriconditioning was conducted using ratio of seeds to carrier (burned rice hull 32 mesh) to biological agent suspension or bactericide solution of 1.0 (g) :0.8 (g): 1.2 (ml) for 30 h in air-conditioned room ca. 25 oC. Results of experiments showed that all biological seed treatments could suppress Xoo in rice seeds. Matriconditioning plus biological agent (isolate A6), biopriming with isolate A6 or isolate A54 were the best seed treatments to improve seed viability and vigor. In greenhouse experiment, matriconditioning plus isolate A54 was the best seed treatment to increase seedling growth.   Keywords: biopriming, matriconditioning, rhizobacteria, seed health, viability, vigor

Uji Inokulasi dan Respon Ketahanan 38 Genotipe To mat terhadap Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Identifi kasi ketahanan genotipe adalah langkah awal dalam pengembangan kultivar tahan terhadap serangan patogen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (i) mendapatkan cara inokulasi dengan jumlah dan konsentrasi inokulum Cmm yang efektif untuk mengevaluasi ketahanan tomat terhadap Cmm di rumah kaca, (ii)  mendeterminasi reaksi ketahanan berbagai genotipe tomat akibat inokulasi Cmm. Percobaan ini menggunakan 38 genotipe tomat yang terdiri dari 7 genotipe tomat lokal, 15 genotipe tomat komersial, dan 16 genotipe koleksi Pusat Studi Pemuliaan Tanaman IPB Bogor (PSPT/IPB). Agen penyebab penyakit yang digunakan adalah 6 isolat Cmm hasil percobaan sebelumnya. Cara inokulasi Cmm yang efektif terhadap tomat cv. Marta (sangat rentan),  uji reaksi ketahanan berbagai genotipe tomat terhadap Cmm telah dilakukan di rumah kaca.  Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah (i) inokulasi dengan menyuntikkan inokulum Cmm 5 µl konsentrasi 106 cfu/ml pada beberapa tempat di ketiak daun (daun pertama, daun tengah dan pucuk) merupakan cara yang paling efektif mengevaluasi ketahanan tomat terhadap Cmm, (ii) berbagai genotipe tomat yang diuji belum ada yang tahan teradap Cmm, genotipe tomat lokal ada yang agak rentan dan agak tahan.Kata kunci: kultivar tahan, suspensi bakteri, tomat

Pengaruh Formula Coating terhadap Viabilitas dan Vigor serta Daya Simpan Benih Padi ( Oryza sativa L.)

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The objectives of this research were to find the most compatible coating formula for rice seeds (Experiment 1), and to evaluate the effect of coating formula on   viability, vigor and   storability of the seeds (Experiment 2). This research was conducted in Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology at IPB, Bogor and Laboratory of Seed Technology at PT East West Seed Indonesia, Purwakarta from December 2010 to February 2011. In Experiment 1, the ten coating materials (formula) were arranged in single factor of Completely  Randomized Design with four replications, i.e. uncoated seed, 3% alginate + 1% talc, 3% alginate + 1% gypsum, 3% alginate + 1% peat, 3% arabic gum + 1% talc, 3% arabic gum + 1% gypsum, 3% arabic gum + 1% peat, 1.5% CMC + 1% talc, 1.5% CMC + 1% gypsum, and 1.5% CMC + 1% peat. Experiment 2 used Split Plot Design with four replications. The main plot was storage periods i.e. 0, 1 and 2 months. The seeds were stored in two storage conditions: ambient and air conditioned room. The subplot was coating formula (same as in Experiment 1). The results of Experiment 1 showed that the most compatible coating material for rice seeds were 1.5% CMC + 1% talc, and 1.5% CMC + 1% gypsum, these formula were able to maintain vigor of the coated seeds. In Experiment 2, coating formula of 1.5% CMC + 1% peat generated higher seed vigor than uncoated seeds after two months storage, 3% gum arabic + 1% gypsum was able to keep   vigor for one month storage in ambient condition. The coating formula of 3%  alginate + 1% peat was  able to keep viability and vigor of the coated seeds for two months in air conditioned room.  Keywords: seed coating material, seed quality, seed storage condition, seed storability

Pengaruh Perlakuan Rizo-bakteri Pemacu Pertumbuhan Tanaman terhadap Viabilitas Benih serta Pertumbuhan Bibit Tanaman Cabai

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 34, No 1 (2006): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate effects of seed treatment using local isolates of rhizobacteria on seed germination and seedling growth of hot pepper. Hot pepper seeds were treated with rhizobacterium isolates of Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., or Serratia sp. and germinated using standard germination procedures. Subsequently, seedlings were transplanted into plastic pots containing a mixture of potting media. Germination was recorded at 7 and 14 days while seedling growth were recorded at 6 and 8 weeks after transplanting. Results of the experiments showed seed treatments using rhizobacteria significantly increased viability of the treated hot pepper seeds (percentage of increases as compared to untreated seeds in seed germination  - up to 27%, PTM 11%, vigor index 31%, SPT 29%, KCT 29%, and reduction of T50 by 0.75 days). Some of the treatments also promoted growth of hot pepper seedlings. Although all of the rhizobacteria synthesized IAA, growth promoting effects of the rhizobacteria may not only be due to the synthesized growth regulator. Other factors may have involved in the possitive effects of the rhizobacteria on hot pepper seed germination and seedling growth.   Key words:  Rhizobacteria, indole-acetic acid, PGPR, vigor, viability, seedling growth

Pola Topografi Pewarnaan Tetrazolium sebagai Tolok Ukur Viabilitas dan Vigor Benih Kedelai (Glycine max L.Merr.) untuk Pendugaan Pertumbuhan Tanaman di Lapangan

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 35, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Topographical tetrazolium (TZ) pattern to determine viability, vigor and field stand on soybean seeds cv. Burangrang was studied.  Laboratory test for standard germination, vigor index, speed of germination, accelerated aging, seedling growth rate and field performances were performed on five lots (A,B,C,D,E) of soybean seeds.  The viability and vigor categories of each pattern were determined by Root Mean Square (RMS), regression, and correlation analysis.  Ten topographical patterns were recognized. The laboratory test results and field performances were compared with topographical pattern. Combination of patterns 1,2,3,4 (embryonic axis and cotyledon completely and/or gradually stained) selected as viable category as it gave the least RMS value, the highest determination (R2) and correlation (r) coefficient with standard germination (RMS=6,46; R2=0,37; r=0,61). Combination of patterns 1,2,3 (embryonic axis and cotyledon completely stained) selected as vigor category as it gave the least RMS value, the highest R2and r with relative speed of germination (RMS=7,96; R2=0,44; r=0,66), vigor index (RMS=6,66; R2=0,36; r=0,6), field emergence (R2=0,79; r=0,89) and field stand (R2=0,65; r=0,80). The combination of patterns 1,2,3 is recommended for estimating field emergence and field stand.   Key words :  Tetrazolium, topographical pattern, viability, vigor, accelerated aging, field stand, soybean seed.