Diyono Ikhsan
Jurusan Teknik KimiaFakultas Teknik Universitas Diponegoro Semarang

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Peningkatan Produksi Garam Beryodium Melalui Aplikasi Alat Pencetak Garam Secara Mekanik

METANA Edisi Khusus Februari 2011
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

The salt moulder groups "Muji Rahayu" have a mission for drummed up salt moulders by are very limited, by process technology conventionally. The result of production is salt_powder  which is a gunny_pack then on sale at the prince of low. If it is soled in salt_moulder, the price will increase. Salt moulder form of Instrumentation which it is has incereased quality and sale at the prince salt iodized consumption. However, at the employe moulder machine which is continue, the machine has trouble because it is always related to salt which have a character is corrosive. Therefore, it needs to have a salt_moulder which is simple and easy to be operated by salt-farmer moreover the price is cheap. The salt moulder will work by mechanic and aplication style. Because of the caracter of salt which corrosive, so the contraction which related to salt is made by stainless steel. By the expectation it be able to increase the income of salt_farmers. Keywords : iodized salt, salt moulder

PEMBUATAN BIOGAS DARI SAMPAH SAYURAN

JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 1, Nomor 1, Tahun 2012
Publisher : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI

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Abstract

Vegetable waste is produced in a huge volume everyday. The sources of this waste  are traditional market, where the waste is usually  unusefull or just taken by people for feeding cows. It is actually an organic waste that can be used to make biogas. The reactions of biogas reforming are included by three steps, hydrolysis reaction, acidic reaction and methanogenic reaction. At this research we use cow manure as a mixing and  as starter for methanobacteria.The intention of this research are to make biogas using vegetable waste from traditional market in batch system, to know the concentration and composition of  vegetable waste, water and cow manure in slurry, and also to know the heating value and volume of biogas. Tools that used are plastic tank and simple type of  floating drum biodigester with manometer that is operated in room temperature, atmospheric pressure. The dependence variables are concentration of slurry within 6-10 % (dry basic weight per volume slurry) and composition  1 : 0, 1 : 0,5 and 1 : 1 weight comparison of vegetable waste with  cow manure. The data  of  biogas volume and heating value will be observed everyday until the production of biogas stops.Biogas is produced since the first day of digestion until 35 days. The accumulation of biogas volume is reached the highest amount in 9 % of concentration and 1 : 0,5 of composition. The analysis of heating value is being measured based on the highest volume from the best consentration and composition. Biogas can be burned on the 7th day until 30th. The highest heating value of it is about 10081 Joule/day on the 18th day. This is happen during the periode of regeneration time of methanogenic bacteria which converts the acetic acid into methane.

PENGARUH WAKTUPADA PENYULINGAN MINYAK ADAS (Fennel Oil) DARI BIJI DAN DAUN ADAS DENGAN METODE UAP DAN AIR

JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 2, Tahun 2013
Publisher : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI

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Abstract

Fennel oil is an oil produced from the fennel plant (Foeniculum vulgare) through a process of distillation. In this study, using the method of steam and waterdistillation which vapor source was distilled in a kettle. The purpose of the distillation  process is to obtain essential oils from aromatic plants which has contains oil that are difficult to extraction in normal conditions. The benefits of this process is to obtain fennel oil and by-products such as the distillation residue can be dried as fodder ransom. Fennel oil is known as one of the allround flavouring agent because it has a distinctive aroma, attractive and widely used in the cosmetic industry for perfumes such as soaps, perfumes, detergents and others.In this study there are two kinds of variables, ie variables and variables remain unchanged. For fixed variables consist of: a pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of 100oC, while changing variables include: distillation time and type of material. In the research,the process of disstilation the was conducted for 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours for each type of material that is part of the seeds and leaves. Raw materials obtained from the Bandungan, Ungaran, Central Java. The observations made is the determination of the yield, organoleptic testing, refractive index and anetol levels of fennel oil produced.Our results, for the seeds produces the highest yield of 0.607% on refining for 4 hours and leaves to produce the highest yield of 0.27% on refining sub 4 hours. According organoleptic yellow anise oil and fennel characteristic odor. Refractive index obtained from the studies ranged from 1.5200 to 1.5330.Levels anetol analysis using GC, the seeds obtained at 54.4873% and in the leaves only 10.9032%.

PEMBUATAN SURFAKTAN DARI MINYAK KELAPA MURNI (VCO) MELALUI PROSES AMIDASI DENGAN KATALIS NaOH

JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 1, Nomor 1, Tahun 2012
Publisher : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI

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Abstract

The used of coconut oil of surfactant has several advantages, among others, are renewable resources, cleaner, and more pure than the used of petrochemical-based raw materials. Thus the necessary research to obtain a surfactant that has those criteria. One of the surfactant that meet both criteria is diethanolamide surfactant. The materials used for the manufacture of methyl ester is VCO and methanol with a catalyst H2SO4 while the materials used for the amidation are methyl ester from VCO, and diethanolamine with catalyst NaOH. The tools used in this research are tree neck flask, cooling loop, magnetic stirrer, waterbath, stative and clamps. From the research results obtained at high conversion, namely the mole ratio of methyl ester : diethanolamine 1:2 that is equal to 71,4% and percent weigth of catalyst is 1% with mole ratio 1:1.25 is 70,8%. From this research can be concluded the greater the mole ratio of the reactant and percent weight of the catalyst then the greater the resulting conversion.

PEMANFAATAN AMPAS JAHE LIMBAH INDUSTRI JAMU DAN MINUMAN UNTUK PRODUKSI MINYAK JAHE DENGAN DESTILASI KOHOBASI VACUUM

METANA Vol 8, No 01 (2012): Juli
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

  Abstrak Minyak jahe termasuk minyak atsiri yang merupakan komoditas eksport dengan nilai ekonomis yang tinggi karena  banyak digunakan dalam industri kosmetik, makanan, aromaterapi dan farmasi. Ampas jahe yang dihasilkan dari proses pembuatan jamu, jahe instan maupun industri minuman kesehatan, selama ini belum dimanfaatkan secara maksimal. Mengingat potensi minyak jahe dan perlunya peningkatan nilai ekonomis ampas jahe yang selama ini sebagai limbah industri, maka perlu dilakukan pengambilan minyak jahe dari ampas jahe. Proses destilasi minyak atsiri selama ini dilakukan secara konvensional, sehingga pada destilasi minyak jahe maka zingiberene yang ada mengalami degradasi thermal. Penelitian bertujuan  untuk mendapatkan teknologi destilasi agar zingiberene dalam minyak jahe tidak mengalami degradasi yaitu dengan destilasi vacuum, dan untuk mendapatkan efisiensi yang optimal dengan pengujian antara proses destilasi kohobasi dan destilasi uap-air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Proses destilasi vacuum secara kohobasi mempunyai randemen teringgi yaitu  2,320 % dengan persamaan laju produksi Y = 0,078 X2 – 1,941X + 8,52 ( R2= 0,982 ).  Karena kadar minyak jahe dalam rimpang jahe : 1  - 3 %, maka dapat dinyatakan bahwa pada proses tersebut didapatkan effisiensi yang cukup tinggi yaitu 77,33 % dari kadar maksimal minyak yang ada pada rimpang jahe dan kualitas minyak jahe yang dihasilkan memenuhi  SNI Kata kunci : ampas jahe, minyak jahe, destilasi vacuum. ABSTRACT Ginger oil including essential oils which are export commodities with high economic value because it is widely used in the cosmetics industry, food, aromatherapy and pharmaceuticals. Ginger pulp resulting from the process of making herbal medicine, instant ginger beverage and healthcare industries, has not been fully utilized. Given the potential of ginger oil and the need to increase the economic value of waste ginger as well as an industrial waste, it is necessary to capture the oil of ginger ginger pulp. Essential oil distillation process has been done conventionally, so that the ginger oil distillation zingiberene existing thermal degradation. The research aims to gain distillation technology that zingiberene in ginger oil is not degraded by vacuum distillation, and to obtain optimum efficiency by testing the distillation process kohobasi and steam-distilled water. The results showed that the vacuum distillation process has randemen teringgi kohobasi is 2.320% with a production rate equation Y = 0.078 X2 - 1.941 X + 8.52 (R2 = 0.982). Because the levels of ginger in ginger oil: 1-3%, it can be stated that in the process earned a high enough efficiency is 77.33% of the maximum levels of the existing oil and the ginger rhizome ginger oil quality produced meets SNI Keywords: pulp ginger, ginger oil, vacuum distillation.

PENGARUH WAKTU DAN JENIS ABSORBEN PADA PROSES ENFLEURASIBUNGA MELATI (Jasminum Sambac)

JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 4, Tahun 2013
Publisher : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI

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Abstract

Jasmine oil is an oil produced from the flowers jasmine (Jasmine Sambac). In this study, using the methods enfleurage and vacuum distillation. The purpose of this experiment is taking jasmine oil enfleurasi method, Assessing the impact of type of adsorbent used in the process enfleurasi and Assessing the impact of time on the enfleurasi. Benefits of this experiment was to determine the type of good absorben and optimal time enfleurasi process to obtain a high yield. Jasmine oil is known as one of the allround flavouring agent because it has a distinctive aroma, attractive and widely used in the cosmetic industry for perfumes such as soaps, perfumes. In this study there are two kinds of variables, that is remain variable and changed variable. For remain variables consist of: distillation 0.5 atm pressure, temperature 50oC, and a distillation time of 3 hours. For changed variable include the time of enfleurage 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 day and type of absorbent form of petroleum jelly and beef tallow. Jasmine is obtained from Pemalang, Central Java. The observations made are the the determination, organoleptic testing, refractive index and density of jasmine oil. The results of this study, for the absorbent vaseline the highest yield of 2.07% at 20 days and enfleurasi time for absorbent beef tallowproduce the highest yield of 1.9956% at the time of enfleurasi 20 days. According organoleptic color of jasmine oil is yellow and distinctive smell of jasmine. Density obtained ranged from 0.835 ml / g to 0.915 ml / g. Refractive index obtained from the study ranged between 1.462 to 1.482.

RANCANG BANGUN DIGESTER SEMI KONTINYU PADA PRODUKSI BIOGAS DAN PUPUK ORGANIK DARI SAMPAH ORGANIK

METANA Vol 9, No 02 (2013): METANA VOLUME 9 NO. 02 DESEMBER 2013
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

Abstract Production of biogas and organic fertilizer from organic waste is done by creating a semi-continuous digester design is a flat pipe and operate continuously or bait can be inserted periodically every day, and its products can be taken periodically at any time. At the optimum residence time can be designed digester volume corresponding to a certain capacity, the variation ratio of the length and diameter of the pipe, whichever is best for optimum biogas production. Outcomes of the research is a prototype digester flat pipes that can operate semi-continuous along with its performance test. Design semi-continuous digester using pralon pipe diameter of 6 in, with the length of each digester m A = 2, B = 4 m, and C = 6 m, equipped hopper for feeding suspension, bulkhead divider so that biogas does not leak, and the stirrer tank float models. The results showed that the biogas production on day 7 to day 30, there was an increase biogas production sharply, after it approaching constant and up to 60 days tended to decline. In the longer digester (B and C) there are fluctuations in the production of biogas. From the graph the relationship between the capacity of the biogas production time from day 1 to day 60 following polynomial equation with a similar pattern, for the digester with the equation y = A + 2,287x -0,026x2 - 8.577 (R¬2 = 0.966); digester B with the equation y = -0,026x2 2,297x + - 8.683 (R 2 = 0.963); and digester C with equation y = -0,025x2 2,232x + - 8.886 (R 2 = 0.962). Mud coming out at the end of the digester after 30 days was collected and dried as organic fertilizer. Results of laboratory analysis, showed the water content 10.72%, 44.05% organic C content, C / N Ratio 25.70, total P2O5 content of 0.67% and 7.71% N levels. This suggests that these parameters meet the quality standards of organic fertilizers except C / N Ratio greater. But this is not a problem because the levels of organic C and N levels separately meet quality standards. Keywords: digester, biogas, organic fertilizer

KINERJA MEMBRAN ULTRAFILTRASI UNTUK PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH EMULSI MINYAK-AIR SINTETIS

REAKTOR Volume 14, No. 4, OKTOBER 2013
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Kegiatan pengilangan minyak bumi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bakar menghasilkan limbah cair emulsi minyak-air. Pengolahan limbah emulsi minyak-air dengan metode konvensional belum mampu untuk menerapkan prinsip reuse dan recycle karena hasil pengolahan limbah hanya dibuang ke perairan. Selain itu, proses konvensional menimbulkan produk samping berupa sludge yang tidak diinginkan.Membran ultrafiltrasi telah banyak digunakan untuk pengolahan limbah berminyak. Pada penelitian ini digunakan umpan model limbah emulsi minyak dengan fasa terdispersi berupa minyak pelumas, bensin dan solar.Fasa kontinu adalah air, sedangkan surfaktan adalah sebagai mediator.Minyak pelumas, bensin dan solar digunakan untuk mewakili limbah kilang minyak bumi yang berasal dari kolom-kolom distilasi serta limbah yang berasal dari utility plant, misalnya limbah bahan bakar solar.Penggunaan model limbah pengilangan bertujuan untuk mendapatkan pemahaman yang lebih detail tentang kinerja membran ultrafiltrasi untuk pengolahan limbah emulsi minyak bumi. Pengujian kinerja membran ultrafiltrasi dilakukan dengan mengetahui profil fluks dan rejeksi. Karakterisasi membran menunjukkan bahwa membran polyethersulfone yang digunakan merupakan membran ultrafiltrasi asimetrik dengan permeabilitas 17,32 (l/m2.jam.bar). Profil fluks emulsi bensin, minyak pelumas dan solar menunjukkan bahwa penurunan fluks bensin yang tertinggi. Selain itu dapat dilihat bahwa membran polyethersulfone yang digunakan mampu merejeksi COD sebesar 98% dan minyak sebesar 98% untuk umpan emulsi bensin. Untuk emulsi minyak pelumas, 94% COD dan 99% minyak dapat direjeksi, sedangkan untuk umpan emulsi minyak solar, rejeksi COD sebesar 90% dan rejeksi minyak sebesar 98%.

IbM.KELOMPOK INDUSTRI SERBUK INSTAN JAMU DAN MINUMAN KESEHATAN DI UNGARAN, KABUPATEN SEMARANG

METANA Vol 10, No 02: Desember 2014
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Abstract UMKM" TigaDara " which is located at Jl . UripSumoharjo 45 and UMKM " Berliana " address at 7 Kuncen New jl.ApelUnggaran - Kab.Semarang an economically productive UMKM as micro businesses , with a production of herbs or a health drink in the form of instant powder and liquid beverages . Early in its development , the effort focuses on the various processing plants living pharmacies ( empon - empon ) are made ​​into a variety of herbs and health beverages in an instant form , for example : instant ginger , white turmeric , saffron , turmeric, tamarind , Mahkotadewa , etc. . During this production process  been conventional and instant powders produced by high sugar levels that can not be consumed by diabetics . Given that in order to produce sugar -free powder that requires technology and modern processing equipment , namely the granulation process , it is necessary to support the introduction of technology and the granulation equipment . While UD Berliana now more concentrated on liquid products requiring wringer empon - empon that can operate mechanically with greater capacity and semi-continuous operation . Given that during the management system implemented is still a family management , then with the development of business and the broader marketing outreach is necessary to improve management and use of the Web to expand their marketing reach . With the help of technology , equipment and granulation managemen as wringer and structuring the results of this activity can be rapidly growing SMEs . This is evident from the production capacity that was originally only 50 kg per day to 200 kg per day , followed by an increase in network marketing , and sales revenue . Keyword :Teknology, granulation, wringer, Web. Abstrak UMKM ”Tiga Dara” yang beralamat di jl. Urip Sumoharjo 45 dan UMKM ”Berliana” yang beralamat di jl.Apel No.7 Kuncen Baru Ungaran-Kab.Semarang merupakan UMKM  yang produktif secara ekonomis sebagai usaha mikro, dengan produksi berupa jamu atau minuman kesehatan dalam bentuk serbuk instan dan minuman cair. Selama ini proses pengolaahan dilakukan secara konvensional dan dihasilkan serbuk instan dengan kadar gula yang tinggi sehingga tidak bisa dikonsumsi oleh penderita diabetes. Mengingat bahwa untuk dapat memproduksi serbuk yang bebas gula memerlukan teknologi dan peralatan proses yang modern, yaitu dengan proses granulasi, maka perlu adanya bantuan pengenalan teknologi dan peralatan granulasi tersebut. Sedangkan UD Berliana sekarang ini lebih mengkonsentrasikan pada produk cair sehingga membutuhkan alat pemeras empon-empon yang dapat beroperasi secara mekanik dengan kapasitas yang lebih besar dan beroperasi secara semi kontinyu. Disamping itu, mengingat bahwa  selama ini sistem manajemen yang diterapkan masih merupakan manajemen keluarga, maka dengan semakin berkembangnya usaha dan semakin luasnya pemasaran diperlukan adanya penyuluhan perbaikan manajemen dan penggunaan Web untuk memperluas jangkauan pemasarannya. Dengan adanya bantuan teknologi, peralatan dan penataan manajemennya maka UMKM tersebut dapat berkembang pesat. Hal ini terlihat dari kapasitas produksi yang pada awalnya hanya 50 kg per hari menjadi 200 kg per hari yang diikuti dengan peningkatan jaringan pemasaran dan omset penjualannya. 8Kata kunci : Teknologi, granulator, pemeras, Web.