Bina Ikawati
Research and Development Animal Borne Diseases Control Unit, Banjarnegara

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Analisis Karakteristik Lingkungan Pada Kejadian Leptospirosis di Kabupaten Demak Jawa Tengah Tahun 2009

MEDIA KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA Vol 9, No 1 (2010): MKMI
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis disease caused by Leptospira bacteria and transmitted to human by contact withcontaminated animal urin or contaminated environment. Leptospirosis cases in Demak district increased for4 year later. Until April 15th 2008, there ware 62 leptospirosis cases with Case Fatality Rate =9,67%. The aimof this research was to determine environmental characteristic related to leptospirosis case in Demak district.It was an observational research using a case control design with 44 cases and 44 controls. Cases wereleptospirosis diagnosed by leptotek dri dot in Demak Health District Agency. Controls were neighbour ofleptospirosis cases who didn’t have clinically symptom of leptospirosis, with age and sex at inclusion criteria.Laboratory diagnosis with leptotek dri dot had done for controls who agreed to sign inform consent. Datawere analyzed using chi square test at α=5%. Variable with p value<0,25 would be continued with multivariattest using Regressi Logistic - Backward Likehood Ratio method.The result of this research showed that there ware 10 controls with no clinical diagnosis but positive atleptotek dri dot diagnosis. At statistical analysis 10 cases and 10 controls dropped. Univariat analysis showedcontrols and cases have environmental risk factor and knowledge, attitude, practice about leptospirosissimilarly. Bivariat analysis showed there was no relationship between environmental characteristic andknowledge, attitude, practice with leptospirosis. Test of water sample had been done at 8 location. One ofthem of creek showed positif contain Leptospira sp. Rat trapped had been done at four location, showed trapsucces about 8,7%-29,8%. Eventhough environment factor and knowledge, attitude, practice showed therewere no relationship with leptospirosis statistically but water from creek that positif Leptospira sp, watersuffused and highly of trap succes at rat trapped were very conducive for leptospirosis transmission.Keywords : environment, leptospirosis, Demakpermalink: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/mkmi/article/view/2912 

STUDI FAUNA TIKUS DAN CECURUT DI DAERAH DITEMUKAN KASUS LEPTOSPIROSIS DI KABUPATEN KLATEN, PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH

Balaba Vol 7, No 2 Des (2011)
Publisher : Prima Offset

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ABSTRACTData obtained from Central Java Health Province Agency showed there were six districts of cities withleptospirosis problem. Leptospirosis cases in Klaten District was third sequence after Semarang City and Demak District.Research that had been done in Klaten focused in Jogonalan Sub district. In 2009-2010 leptospirosis cases found in outsideJogonalan. The aims of this research was to identifying of rats and suncus in leptospirosis area at Klaten district.This research was an observasional research using ecology study. Rat trapped and had been done in this researchfollowed by rat identification.Data were analyzed by simple statistic include tabulating, quantifying, multiplicationpresented in table or graph.Result of this research showed that from three study locations, trap success Kalikotes was showed highest (11,5%),while Wonosari and Gantiwarno was respectively 6,3% and 4,5%. Shanon Wiener Diversity Index was low(<1).Rattus tanezumi was the dominant species.Key words : rat ,suncus, leptospirosis, Klaten

POPULASI TIKUS DAN PENGETAHUAN MASYARAKAT TENTANG TIKUS DAN PENYAKIT YANG DITULARKANNYA DI KECAMATAN BERBAH, KABUPATEN SLEMAN

Balaba Vol 8, No 1 Jun (2012)
Publisher : Prima Offset

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ABSTRACTLeptospirosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted by Leptospira bacteria by rats as the main reservoir. Cases of leptospirosisoccurred in several districts in Sleman. One of them is Berbah Sub-district with one case of leptospirosis in 2011. Thepurpose of this study to identify the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions, species of rodents captured in the studysite, trap success, and Leptospira bacteria in the blood serum and kidney of rats. The study was conducted in the JogotirtoVillage, Berbah Sub-district, Sleman District. As many as 150 traps had been used in 2 trapped indoor and 2 trappedoutdoor during 3 days. Measurements, observations environmental conditions and interviews about rats and rats diseasetransmission around leptospirosis cases. Rats had been trapped identified, blood and kidneys was taken to be examined inthe presence of Leptospira bacteria by using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Data were analyzed descriptively intables and graphs. Biotic and abiotic environmental conditions favor transmission of leptospirosis. Rats spesies had beenfound were Rattus tanezumi, Suncus murinus, and R. tiomanicus with trap succes indoor as much 10.5% and outdoor asmuch 5.2%. People had less knowledge about rats and rats disease transmission.Keywords: rats, knowledge, Sleman

CONTROLLING Aedes aegypti POPULATION AS DHF VECTOR WITH RADIATION BASEDSTERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE IN BANJARNEGARA REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA

Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Nuklir Indonesia Vol 14, No 1 (2013): Februari 2013
Publisher : BATAN

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The control program of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Indonesia is still a problem due tothe incomplete integrated handling. Sterile insect technique (SIT) for Aedes aegypti as DHFvector was considered as a potential strategy for controling the DHF. A preliminary survey wascarried out to to determine the characteristic of A. aegypti population in the study site before theimplementation of SIT. The implementation of radiation based-SIT was carried out in Krandeganand Kutabanjar Villages of Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java which involved 99 houses. Onehundred gamma rays irradiated male mosquitoes were released to each house up to five times.The eggs, larvae and adult mosquitoes were collected using ovitrap and weekly observed. Theinitial population density of A. aegipty in the studied area was obtained to be 6 mosquitoes perhouse with the mean index of house was 15.86 % and the mean sterility of sterilizedmosquitoes was 79.16 %. The SIT effectively reduced A. aegipty population after the fifthrelease of irradiated mosquitoes into the houses. It can be assumed that the SIT was effectivein controlling DHF vector in the studied area, nevertheles, it will be more effective if it iscombined with other handling techniques.

Dominant factors influencing leptospira sp infection in rat and suncus

Health Science Journal of Indonesia Vol 3, No 2 Des (2012)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

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AbstrakLatar belakang: Tikus dan cecurut dapat menularkan leptospirosis. Setiap jenis tikus dan cecurut mempunyai habitat masing-masing, antara lain jenis, daerah, dan ketinggian. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis pengaruh ketinggian, variasi spesies, jenis tanah, tata guna lahan, dan banjir terhadap infeksi Leptospira sp pada tikus dan cecurut.Metode: Penelitian potong lintang dilakukan di beberapa lokasi pada bulan April-November 2011 di Jawa Tengah (kota dan kabupaten Semarang, kabupaten Demak, kabupaten Sleman dan Wonogiri). Tikus dan cecurut yang tertangkap diidentifikasi, dan diambil ginjal untuk diperiksa keberadaan bakteri leptospira dengan Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Untuk mengidentifikasi faktor yang mempengaruhi infeksi leptosira sp pada tikus, analisis data memakai pendekatan risiko relatif.Hasil: Spesies tikus dan cecurut, tingkat elevasi dan jenis tanah berpengaruh terhadap risiko infeksi Leptospira sp. Dibandingkan dengan S. murinus, Rattus norvegicus spesies hampir 78 kali lipat berisiko infeksi Leptospira sp (risiko relatif rasio suaian (RRa = 77.87, P = 0,001], dan R. tanezumi memiliki risiko yang lebih rendah (RRa = 7,95, P = 0,048). Menurut tingkat elevasi tanah, elevasi yang rendah (0-100 m) dibandingkan dengan yang lebih tinggi (101-600 m) berisiko 2,3 kali lipat terinfeksi Leptospira sp (RRa = 2,27, P = 0,132).Kesimpulan:Infeksi leptospirosis pada tikus berkaitan dengan species tikus dan cecurut serta tingkat elevasi serta jenis tanah. (Health Science Indones 2012;2:xx-xx)Kata kunci:species tikus dan cecurut, leptospirosisAbstract Background: Mice and suncus may transmit leptospirosis. Each type mice and suncus had different habitat, among other, types, regions, and altitude. The purpose of this study to analyze the effect of altitude, variety of species, soil type, land use and flood against Leptospira sp infection in mice and sucus.Methods:A cross-sectional study conducted at several locations in April-November 2011 in Central Java (the town and district of Semarang, district of Demak, district of Sleman and Wonogiri). Mice and suncus caught were identified, kidney were taken for the existence of bacteria leptospira by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). To identify factors affecting leptosira sp infection, analysis of data using relative risk approach.Results:Species of rats and suncus, elevation level, soil types and area related to risk Leptospira sp infection. Compared with S. murinus, Rattus norvegicusspecies had almost 78-fold to be Leptospira sp infected (adjusted relative risk ratio (RRa = 77.87; P = 0.001], and R. tanezumi had less risk (RRa = 7.95; P = 0.048). In term of elevation level, Lower elevation level (0-100 m) compared with higher level (101-600 m) had 2.3-fold risk to be Leptospira sp infection (RRa = 2.27; P = 0.132).Conclusion:Species of rats and suncus, elevation level, soil types and area related to risk Leptospira sp infection. (Health Science Indones 2012;2:xx-xx)Key words:Species of rats and suncus and leptospirosis

GAMBARAN EPIDEMIOLOGI LEPTOSPIROSIS DI KECAMATAN JEPARA, KABUPATEN JEPARA, PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 41, No 1 Mar (2013)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

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Abstract Background: In 2011 two cases of leptospirosis were found in two villages of Jepara Subdistrict, Jepara District, Central Java. The objectives of this study were to determine the epidemiology of leptospirosis in that area, covering : success rate of rat trapping, positivity of leptospirosis in rat species, environment condition and prediction of transmission. Methods: Observational study with cross sectional design was done in Panggang and Saripan Village, Jepara Sub district, Jepara district on July 2011.  As much 250 traps had been used at each location (area of two village as location of leptospirosis cases) two traps were set indoor and two traps were set outdoor during 3 days. Environment observation and location coordinates were determined by using Global Positioning System (GPS). Interviews with community around leptospirosis cases were also conducted. Rats had been trapped, identified, counted trap success, and serra were taken from blood of the rat cardiac. Identification of Leptospira strain were conducted by using Polimerase Chain Reaction  (PCR). Data analyzed descriptively in table and picture. Results: Trap success was high, 8,4% with trap success indoor 15,83% and outdoor 4,9%, rat species which had been found were Rattus tanezumi, Suncus murinus dan R. norvegicus, PCR examination showed negative Leptospira sp. Examined water samples showed one sample positive of Leptospira sp. Environment condition supported for leptospirosis transmission. The location of the survey was about 1 km from the river. Conclusion: Leptospirosis transmission in Jepara must cautious with one positive sample of water with Leptospira and high trap success Keywords: seroprevalence, leptospirosis, Jepara Abstrak Latar Belakang: Dalam tahun 2011 ditemukan adanya leptospirosis yang ditemukan pada dua Desa/Kelurahan di Kecamatan Jepara. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui epidemiologi leptospirosis di wilayah tersebut, meliputi : keberhasilan penangkapan tikus, species tikus yang positif leptospira, kondisi lingkungan dan kemungkinan penularan. Metode: Jenis penelitian adalah observasi dengan desain survei potong lintang. Penangkapan tikus dilakukan pada satu lokasi ditemukannya kasus leptospirosis di Kecamatan Jepara, Kabupaten Jepara, pada bulan Juli 2011. Sebanyak 250 perangkap dipasang, di dalam rumah 2 perangkap dan di luar rumah 2 perangkap, serta lahan di sekitar lingkungan tersebut selama 3  malam berturut-turut. Wawancara  dilakukan pada penduduk di sekitar penderita leptospirosis, pengukuran dan pengamatan faktor lingkungan, serta pengambilan titik GPS (Global Positioning System). Tikus yang tertangkap diidentifikasi, dihitung kepadatannya dan diambil darahnya untuk diperiksa keberadaan bakteri leptospira secara PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction),  bersama dengan data wawancara dan hasil pengamatan lingkungan dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil: Keberhasilan penangkapan tinggi, secara umum sebesar 8,4% dengan keberhasilan penangkapan di dalam rumah 15,83% dan di luar rumah 4,9% Species tikus yang ditemukan Rattus tanezumi, Suncus murinus dan R. norvegicus, tidak ditemukan bakteri Leptospira pada sampel darah tikus yang diperiksa. Pada sampel air ditemukan positif Leptospira sp pada bak mandi. Kondisi lingkungan mendukung untuk penularan leptospirosis. Lokasi berjarak kurang dari 1 km dari sungai. Kesimpulan: Leptospirosis di Kabupaten Jepara patut diwaspadai penularannya dengan ditemukannya air yang positif Leptospira sp dan trap success tikus yang tinggi. Kata kunci: epidemiologi, leptospirosis, Jepara

LEPTOSPIROSIS DALAM PANDANGAN MASYARAKAT DAERAH ENDEMIS

Balaba Vol 7, No 1 Jun (2011)
Publisher : Prima Offset

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Leptospirosis merupakan penyakit bersumber rodent yang mempunyai gejala yang mirip dengan beberapa penyakit lain. Pengetahuan masyarakat tentang Leptospirosis berpengaruh pada perilaku pengobatan dan pencegahan penyakit ini. Penelitian dilakukan di Kota Semarang yang merupakan daerah endemis Leptospirosis di Provinsi Jawa Tengah. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada tahun 2008 dengan pendekatan kualitatif dan pengambilan data dengan observasi dan wawancara mendalam terhadap penderita dan atau keluarga penderita Leptospirosis pada tahun 2008. Pandangan masyarakat khususnya para penderita tentang penyakit bersumber tikus dan Leptospirosis masih awam. Pengalaman terserang Leptospirosis membuat mereka mengetahui Leptospirosis dan nama yang diingatnya adalah "penyakit virus tikus" sebagai penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus dari kencing tikus.   Kata kunci : leptospirosis, pengetahuan, masyarakat

PENGETAHUAN, SIKAP DAN PERILAKU MASYARAKAT KELURAHAN PABEAN, KECAMATAN PEKALONGAN UTARA, KOTA PEKALONGAN TENTANG FILARIASIS LIMFATIK

Balaba Vol 6, No 1 Jun (2010)
Publisher : Prima Offset

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A study on Societys Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) focused on Lymphatic Filariasis in Pabean Village, Pekalongan Utara Sub District, Pekalongan City has been done with cross sectional method. There were 100 respondences. The results showed 38% of the respondences had insufficient knowledge, 46% had suficient knowledgeand 16% had good practice. Most of the respondences had good attitude (91%) and 93% respondence had goodpractice. There was significant correlation between knowledge and attitude, there was no correlation between attitude and practice and between knowledge and practice. Observation showed that there were many breeding places around houses like riol anused land.

BAKTERI LEPTOSPIRA PATOC I MERUPAKAN STRAIN BAKTERI DALAM KELOMPOK NON PATOGEN YANG SERING DITEMUKAN PADA PENDERITA LEPTOSPIROSIS

Balaba Vol 6, No 1 Jun (2010)
Publisher : Prima Offset

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Leptospirosis is one of zoonotic disease that needs serious attention from health practiciant and health programmer. This disease includes in the emerging infectious disease. Reseach from Loka Litbang P2B2 Banjarnegara in 2008 showed Leptospira of strain Patoc I (one of strain that include in non patogenic bacteria) found in 60,4% of 63 human blood sample that positive for Leptospira which Microscopic Aglutination Test (MAT). Literature studies on Leptospira bacteria strain Patoc I thus done about to know the reason why strain Patoc I usually found in Leptospirosis case, and wheter positive Patoc I in human spesimen indicates someone suffering from leptospirosis.Result showed Leptospira Sp strain Patoc I (Ames) or Patoc I (Paris) or Patoc I ATCC 23582 include in serovar Patoc, serogroup Semaranga, Genomospecies Leptospira biflexa, Genera Leptospira, family Leptospiraceae, ordo Spirochaetales, class Spirochaetes, Phylum Spirochaetes, Super Kingdom Bacteria. Patoc I usually showed cross reaction with many leptospira patogenic bacteria. Therefore Patoc I used as common indicator of Leptospirosis. Positive with Patoc I mostly indicates leptospirosis sufferer but probably from strain that not available in "batteray antigen test MAT" inlaboratory diagnosis. Research in laboratorium showed there was possibility of Patoc I genetic mutation.

EFEKTIFITAS PEMAKAIAN KELAMBU BERINSEKTISIDA DI DESA ENDEMIS MALARIA DI KABUPATEN WONOSOBO

Balaba Vol 6, No 2 Des (2010)
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This research was conducted in Wonosobo, Central Java with quasi experimental method with treatment and control groups. The treatment group was treated with IBN (Impregnated Bed Net). The results showed that IBN was still effective until 14 weeks with 93,33% death of mosquito test, after IBN usage vector density bitting indoor and resting on the wall in treatment area were decreased but vector density biting outdoor and resting in cage increased. Parousity at treatment area before and after IBN usage decreased from 48,7% to 37,7% while in area control was constant. There was significant difference of knowledge and attitude of people on treatment and control group about malaria whlie the practice was not different. There were some complains on treatment group about the early usage of IBN i.e unpleasant smell, headache, unconvenience but there was no societies rejection about IBN usage.