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Journal : Journal of Southeast Asian Applied Geology

Geology, Geochemistry and Hydrothermal Fluid Characteristics of Low Sulfidation Epithermal Deposit in the Sangon Area, Kokap, Special Region of Yogyakarta Pramumijoyo, Pranayoga; Idrus, Arifudin; Warmada, I Wayan; Yonezu, Kotaro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 2, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (9383.134 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.42442

Abstract

On the basis of the previous studies and reconnaissance survey in the studyarea covering Sangon, Kalirejo, Kokap Sub-district, Kulon Progo Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta, it reveals some facts of the occurrence of quartz veins with massive, crustiform, comb, drusy cavity, saccharoidal, granular, and reniform/mammillated textures, the appearance of lattice bladed barite and hydrothermal breccia veins. Referring to those characteristics, the deposit type in the study area is interpreted to be low sulfidation epithermal type. This study is aimed to understand and characterize the geological condition, rock and ore geochemistry and the mineralizing fluids. The alteration and ore mineralization are almost observed in entire rock units particularly the intrusive andesite 1. Their formation is controlled by the tension fractures (NW–SE and NE–SW) which associate with sinistral strike slip faults (NE–SW), dilational jog (NNW–SSE), oblique normal fault (WNW–ESE), and predictable normal fault at the NE of study area (NW–SE). The alteration zones are developed to be silica-clay (quartz-illite-kaolinite-kaolinite/smectite), argillic (smectite-illite/smectite), and propylitic (chlorite-calcite±epidote). The precipitationof ore minerals is controlled by boiling, mixing, and wall-rock alteration, and canbe found in the quartz veins (quartz-adularia-sericite) and disseminated in the alteration zones, which their high variability is only can be found in the quartz veins, including pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, marcasite, and arsenopyrite. Based on the ICPAES measurement of 5 quartz vein samples, the Cu, Zn, Pb, and As grade reach about 5,171 ppm, 8,995 ppm, 6,398 ppm, 34.1 ppm, and 1,010.5 ppm, respectively. Gold is not detected. Fluid inclusion microthermometric analysis shows Th of 242.1–257.6 °C and salinity of 1.57–3.87 wt.% NaCl equiv., which indicate a depth below the paleosurface of 384–516 m, and pressure of 101.7–136.6 bar. The ore deposit in the study area is interpreted to be a deep basemetal low sulfidation epithermal type. Gold might be depleted in this epithermal type.
Geology and characteristics of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag skarn deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan Idrus, Arifudin; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Tamba, Fenny; Anggara, Ferian
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 3, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3208.629 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7181

Abstract

This study is dealing with geology and characteristics of mineralogy, geochemistry and physicochemical conditions of hydrothermal fluid responsible for the formation of skarn Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan. The formation of Ruwai skarn is genetically associated with calcareous rocks consisting of limestone and siltstone (derived from marl?) and controlled by NNE-SSW-trending strike slip faults and localized along N 70° E-trending thrust fault, which also acts as contact zone between sedimentary and volcanic rocks in the area. Ruwai skarn is mineralogically characterized by prograde alteration (garnet and clino-pyroxene) and retrograde alteration (epidote, chlorite, calcite and sericite). Ore mineralization is characterized by sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite and Ag-sulphides (particularly acanthite and argentite), which formed at early retrograde stage. Geochemically, SiO2 is enriched and CaO is depleted in limestone, consistent with silicic alteration (quartz and calc-silicate) and decarbonatization of the wallrock. The measured reserves of the deposit are 2,297,185 tonnes at average grades of 14.98 % Zn, 6.44 % Pb, 2.49 % Cu and 370.87 g/t Ag. Ruwai skarn orebody originated at moderate temperature of 250-266 °C and low salinity of 0.3-0.5 wt.% NaCl eq. The late retrograde stage formed at low temperature of 190-220 °C and low salinity of ~0.35 wt.% NaCl eq., which was influenced by meteoric water incursion at the late stage of the Ruwai Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag skarn formation. Keywords: Geology, skarn, mineralogy, geochemistry, Ruwai, Central Kalimantan
Mineral paragenesis and fluid inclusions of the Bincanai epithermal silver-base metal vein at Baturappe area, South Sulawesi, Indonesia Nur, Irzal; Idrus, Arifudin; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Harijoko, Agung; Imai, Akira
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 3, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2830.054 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7179

Abstract

The Baturappe prospect located at southern part of Sulawesi island, Indonesia, is a hydrothermal mineralization district which is characterized by occurrence of epithermal silver-base metal deposits. The mineralization is hosted in basaltic-andesitic volcanic rocks of the late Middle-Miocene Baturappe Volcanics. More than 20 units of quartz – base metal veins are distributed in the area, and one of the most significant is the Bincanai vein. This study is aimed to characterize the mineral paragenesis and to elucidate the physicochemical conditions of the formation of the deposit on the basis of mineral assemblage and fluid inclusion mictrothermometry. Sulphide assemblages in the vein indicate an intermediate sulfidation state epithermal; beside galena and sphalerite as the early stage minerals, chalcopyrite, tennantite, and tetrahedrite are also identified as the later stage. Microthermometric study of fluid inclusions in quartz indicates formation temperature of the vein ranges from about 230 to 280°C Histogram of homogenization temperature suggests that there are two generations of hydrothermal fluid responsible for the ore mineralization in the vein; the higher temperature range represents formation temperature of the base metal (galena, sphalerite), while the lower temperature range is correlate with the precipitation of the rest relatively lower temperature sulphides (chalcopyrite, pyrite, tetrahedrite, tennantite, polybasite, and Bi-Ag-Cu-Fe-bearing sulfide). The sequence is also consistent with the mineral paragenetic. The mean of salinity (2.0–2.5 wt.% NaCl eq.) indicates that fluid responsible for the mineralization in the Bincanai vein is relatively low-salinity fluid.
Study on mineralogy and chemistry of the saprolitic nickel ores from Soroako, Sulawesi, Indonesia: Implication for the lateritic ore processing Sufriadin, Sufriadin; Idrus, Arifudin; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Warmada, I Wayan; Imai, Akira
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 3, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1714.386 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7178

Abstract

An investigation of mineralogy and chemistry of saprolitic nickel ores developed on ultramafic rock with different serpentinization degree from Soroako, Sulawesi has been conducted using X ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FTIR, and ICP-AES. The implication for the processing of these ores under acidic media was also studied. Weathering of unserpentinized peridotite in the Soroako west block produces saprolitic ore containing minerals such as relict olivine, goethite, quartz, talc with minor serpentine and smectite; whereas the weathered materials overlaying serpentinized peridotite in the Petea area are mainly composed of residual serpentine with lesser chlorite, maghemite, and remnant pyroxene and amphibole. Chemical analysis determined by ICP-AES demonstrates that west ore is higher in Si, Mg, and Ni, as compared to that Petea ore. Conversely, Fe and Al concentrations are higher in Petea ore than in west block ore. SEM-EDX examination reveals that olivine, talc, serpentine and goethite are the Ni-bearing phases occurring in west block ore; while serpentine is the principal host for Ni in the Petea ore. Chemical leaching under sulfuric acid reveals that olivine has highest dissolution rate in the west ore followed by serpentine; while talc, pyroxene, and iron oxides have slow dissolution rates. In contrast, serpentine in Petea ore is easily dissolved and is followed by chlorite; whereas amphibole, pyroxene, and maghemite are difficult to leach. Quartz is present in both ores and it seems to be undissolved during the chemical leaching. It is shown that Ni recovery from Petea saprolitic ore is higher than that of West Block ore.
The mineralogy of gold-copper skarn related porphyry at the Batu Hijau deposit, Sumbawa, Indonesia Thwee Aye, May; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Idrus, Arifudin; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Imai, Akira; Araki, Naoto; Arif, Johan
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 3, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2275.214 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7177

Abstract

Clacic gold-copper bearing skarn in the Batu Hijau porphyry deposit is located in the western part of Sumbawa Island, Indonesia. Skarn mineralizations were found at the deep level of the deposit (-450m to -1050mL) by drilling program 2003. No evidence around Batu Hijau has limestone although most skarn are metasomatiz ed from carbonate-rich rock as limestone or marble. Most skarn-type metasomatic alteration and mineralization occurs at the contact of andesitic volcanic rock and intermediate tonalite porphyry intrusion and within intermediate tonalite in some. Although both endoskarn and exoskarn can be developed, it has no clear minerals to known the endoskarn. Exoskarn is more principle skarn zone. The formation of skarn occurred two min stages: (1) prograde and (2) retrograde. The prograde stage is temporally and spatially divided into two sub-stages as early prograde (sub-stage I) and prograde metasomatic (sub-stage II). Sub-stage I begin immediately after the intrusion of the tonalite stock into the calcium rich volcanic rocks. Then, sub-stage II originated with segregation and evolution of a fluid phase in the pluton and its invasion into fractures and micro-fractures of host rocks developed during sub-stage I. The introduction of considerable amount of Fe, Si and Mg led to the large amounts of medium- to coarse-grained anhydrous calc-silicates. From the texture and mineralogy, the retrograde metasomatic stage can be divided into two sub-stages: (a) early retrograde and (sub-stage III) and (b) late retrograde (sub-stage IV). During sub-stage III, the previously formed skarn zones were affected by intense multiple hydro-fracturing phases in the gold-copper bearing stocks. Therefore, the considerable amounts of hydrous calc-silicates (epidote), sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite), oxides (magnetite, hematite) and carbonates (calcite) replaced the anhydrous calc-silicates. Sub-stage IV was coexisting with the intrusion of relatively low temperature, more highly oxidizing fluids into skarn system, bringing about partial alteration of the early-formed calc-silicates and developing a series of very fine-grained aggregrates of chlorite, clay, hematite and calcite.
CHARACTERISTICS AND LIQUEFACTION OF COAL FROM WARUKIN FORMATION, TABALONG AREA, SOUTH KALIMANTAN–INDONESIA Nursanto, Edy; Idrus, Arifudin; Amijaya, Hendra; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 5, No 2
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6447.449 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7211

Abstract

Since the coal characteristic is the main controlling factors in coal liquefaction, thus five coal seams with different coal rank from Warukin Formation in Tabalong Area, South Kalimantan have been used in this study. Three seams were low rank coal (Wara 110, Wara 120, Wara 200) while two seams were medium rank (Tutupan 210 and Paringin 712). The objectives of this study was to investigate the effect of coal rank on the rate of coal conversion factor. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an autoclave on low pressure (14.7 psi) and temperature 120°C. Experiments were designed with time intervals 30, 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. The average coal properties of seam Wara 110, Wara 120 and Wara 200 were 26.65%, 5.08%, 46.26% and 30.60% for inherent moisture, ash content, volatile matter and. fixed carbon, respectively. In contrast, coal properties for seam Tutupan 210 and Paringin 712 were 18.42%, 1.81%, 23.02% and 35.76% for inherent moisture, ash content, volatile matter and fixed carbon, respectively. The maximum yields for Wara 110, Wara 120 and Wara 200 were 48.60% (30 minutes), 51.27% (60 minutes) and 46.72% (90 minutes). In comparison, Tutupan 210 and Paringin 712 resulted maximum yields of 8.22% (30 minutes), 18.35% (60 minutes), 6.23% (90 minutes). In conclusion, low rank coal has higher yield conversion compared to medium rank coal since it has higher H/C ratio. Keywords: Coal liquefaction, low rank coal, Kalimantan.
VEINS AND HYDROTHERMAL BRECCIAS OF THE RANDU KUNING PORPHYRY Cu-Au AND EPITHERMAL Au DEPOSITS AT SELOGIRI AREA, CENTRAL JAVA INDONESIA Sutarto, Sutarto; Idrus, Arifudin; Harijoko, Agung; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Meyer, Franz Michael
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 7, No 2 (2015): Current Issue
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jag.26982

Abstract

The Randu Kuning prospect is situated at Selogiri area, Wonogiri, Central Java, Indonesia. This location is about 40 km to the south-east from Solo city or approximately 70 km east of Yogyakarta city. Many Tertiary dioritic rocks related alterationmineralisation were found at the Randu Kuning area and its vicinity, including hornblende microdiorite, hornblende-pyroxene diorite and quartz diorite. Mineralisation type of the Randu Kuning prospect was interpreted as porphyry Cu-Au and a number epithermal Au-base metals deposits in its surrounding. The closed existing of porphyry Cu-Au and epithermal Au-base metals type deposits at the Randu Kuning area produced a very complex of veins and hydrothermal breccias crosscutting relationship. A lot of porphyry veins types were found and observed at the Randu Kuning area, and classified into at least seven types. Most of the porphyry veins were cross cut by epithermal type veins. Many epithermal veins also are found and crosscut into deeply porphyry vein types. There are genetically at least two type of hydrothermal breccias have recognized in the research area, i.e. magmatic-hydrothermal breccia and phreatomagmatic breccia. Magmatic hydrothermal breccias are mostly occured in contact between hornblende microdiorite or quartz diorite and hornblende-pyroxene diorite, characterized by angular fragments/clasts supported or infilled by silicas, carbonates and sulphides matrix derived from hydrothermal fluids precipitation. Phreatomagmatic breccias are characterized by abundant of the juvenile clasts, indicated contact between hot magma with fluid or water as well as many wall rock fragments such as altered diorites and volcaniclastic rock clasts set in clastical matrix. The juvenile clasts usually compossed by volcanic glasses and aphanitic rocks in rounded-irregular shape. Both veining and brecciation processes have an important role in gold and copper mineralisation of the Randu Kuning Porphyry Cu-Au and epithermal Au-base metals deposits, mostly related to the presence of quartz veins/veinlets containing significant sulphides, i.e., quartz with thin centre line sulphides (Abtype) veins, pyrite±chalcopyrite (C type) veinlets, pyrite+quartz± chalcopyrire±carbonate (D type) veins of porphyry types as well as epithermal environment quarts+ sulphides+carbonate veins.
FLUID INCLUSION STUDIES OF THE EPITHERMAL QUARTZ VEINS FROM SUALAN PROSPECT, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA Tun, Myo Min; Warmada, I Wayan; Idrus, Arifudin; Harijoko, Agung; Verdiansyah, Okki; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 6, No 2
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (952.327 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7218

Abstract

Sualan prospect is located at Talegong Sub-district of Garut Regency, West Java, Indonesia. The area constitutes calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Tertiary age. The rocks have experienced regional propylitic and argillic alteration. Fluid inclusions from quartz veins were studied in order to constrain the nature, characteristics and evolution of fluids. Microthermometric measurements on fluid inclusion were carried out by freezing and heating experiment. Temperatures of homogenization (Th) and final melting of ice (Tm) were measured for primary, liquid-dominated, two-phase inclusions. The values of Th range from 160°C to 210°C and salinities range from 0.35 to 4.96 wt.% NaCl equiv. Formation temperature of the quartz veins are estimated at 180°C and 190°C and paleo-depth of formation are at 80m and 140m, respectively. Microthermometric data indicates that fluid mixing and dilution were important processes during the evolution of hydrothermal system. Based on fluid inclusion types, microthermometric data, trapping temperature, paleo-depth, texture of quartz and hydrothermal alteration types, quartz veins from prospect were developed under epithermal environment. Keywords: Quartz vein, fluid inclusions, microthermometry, salinities, formation temperature, paleo-depth, epithermal, Sualan prospect.
Fluid Inclusion Study Of The Polymetallic Epithermal Quartz Veins At Soripesa Prospect Area, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia Kant, Win; Warmada, I Wayan; Idrus, Arifudin; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 4, No 2
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3344.355 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7199

Abstract

The Soripesa prospect area is located at Maria village, Wawo district, Bima region in the eastern part of Sumbawa Island, Indonesia. This area is a part of Cenozoic Calc-alkaline volcanic inner Banda-Sunda Arc. The dominant lithology of Soripesa prospect area are a lithic-crystal tuff of andesitic and dacitic composition and bedded limestone. There have five main polymetallic epithermal quartz veins in the Soripesa prospect area, namely, Rini vein, Jambu air vein, Dollah vein, Merpati vein, and Arif vein. Those quartz veins are hosted mainly in andesitic volcaniclastic rocks. Fluid inclusion study on those quartz veins is vey important to know the condition of hydrothermal fluids and their origin. Fluid inclusion study is conducted at the laboratory of Earth Resources Engineering Department, Kyushu University, Japan. Homogenization temperature, freeze temperature, eutectic temperature, and melting temperature can be known from fluid inclusion study. Based on fluid inclusion study, formation temperatures of all veins are between 250–260◦C. Melting temperature is between -0.2 to -3◦C. Based on the melting temperature, salinity (wt.% NaCl equiv.) of fluid inclusions is calculated by using Bodnar’s equation. Paleodepth of formations and pressure of trapping are also estimated by using formation temperature and salinity. Based on Hass (1971) diagram, estimated paleodepths of formations are 270 m for Merpati vein, 400 m for Dollah vein, 480 m for Rini vein, 570 m for Arif vein, and 680 m for Jambu Air vein, respectively. Pressure of trapping can also be estimated from depth of formation, density of lithostatic overburden, and gravity; 72 bars for Merpati vein, 106 bars for Dollah vein, 127 bars for Rini vein, 151 bars for Arif vien, and 180 bars for Jambu Air vein, respectively. Keywords: Soripesa, polymetallic quartz veins, homogenization temperature, salinity.
ORE MINERALOGY AND MINERAL CHEMISTRY OF PYRITE, GALENA, AND SPHALERITE AT SORIPESA PROSPECT AREA, SUMBAWA ISLAND, INDONESIA Kant, Win; Warmada, I Wayan; Idrus, Arifudin; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Watanabe, Koichiro
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 4, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3683.914 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7191

Abstract

The Soripesa prospect area is located at Maria village, Wawo district, Bima region in the East Sumbawa Island, Indonesia. Lithology is dominantly composed of a lithic-crystal tuff of andesitic and dacitic composition and bedded limestone. The polymetallic epithermal quartz veins are hosted by andesitic volcaniclastic rocks. Within these veins, multiphases, colloform-crustiform, bedding to massive textures with pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, azurite, and malachite are observed. Selected samples were analyzed by using ore microscopy and SEM-EDX. Ore minerals show replacement, ex-solution, colloform, and zonal textures. The paragenesis diagram was made from a careful study of polished sections and thin sections. Textures of ore minerals such as banded, exsolution, replacement, and zone, have been interpreted to correspond to the order of deposition. In pyrite, the average content of Co (0.45 wt.%) is higher than Ni content (0.14 wt.%) and it means that their origin may be hydrothermal origin. Average content ratio, Co:Ni is 2.81. Galena shows a low Ag content of 0.07 %in average. But they show a high Au content of 1.48 %in average. Sphalerite shows a low Fe content of 1.04 %in average and occasionally chalcopyrite inclusion/disease also occurred. Ga and Ge contents are also high in sphalerite. Co>Ni in pyrite, low content of Ag in Galena, low content of Fe and mole % FeS in sphalerite, high content of Ga and Ge, and log (Ga/Ge) in sphalerite, show that pyrite, galena, and sphalerite from Soripesa prospect area were formed under low temperature condition of hydrothermal fluid. Keywords: Ore textures, paragenesis, deposition, hydrothermal fluid, low temperature