Hanik Humaida
Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation Jl. Cendana 15 Yogyakarta

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Modelling of Magma Density and Viscocity Changes and Their Influences towards the Characteristic of Kelud Volcano Eruption Humaida, Hanik; Brotopuspito, K. S.; Pranowo, H. D.; narsito, narsito
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience Vol 6, No 4 (2011)
Publisher : Geological Agency

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Abstract

DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.129The effusive eruption of Kelud Volcano in 2007 was different from the previous ones, which in general were more explosive. Among others, density and viscosity are factors that determine the type of eruption. Therefore, the study on the difference of the recent eruption style based on the density and viscosity of magma was carried out. The method used in this study was based on geochemical analysis of the rock and then a modeling was established by using the above parameter. The study on the explosive eruption was emphasized on the data of 1990 eruption, whereas the effusive eruption was based on the data of 2007 eruption. The result shows that the magma viscosity of Kelud Volcano depend on the H O concentration as one of the volatile compound in magma, and temperature which gives the exponential equation. The higher the increase of H O content the smaller the value of its viscosity as well as the higher the temperature. The H O content in silica fluid can break the polymer bond of the silica fluid, because a shorter polymer will produce a lower viscosity. The density of the silica content of Kelud Volcano ranges between andesitic and basaltic types, but andesite is more likely. The fluid density of the material of 1990 eruption is different from 2007 eruption. Compared to the 2007, the 1990 eruption material gave a lower density value in its silica fluid than that of the 2007 one. The low density value of the silica fluid of the 1990 eruption material was reflecting a more acid magma. The level of density value of silica fluid depends on its temperature. At the temperature of 1073 K the density of the 1990 Kelud magma is 2810 kg/m3 and the 2007 magma is 2818 kg/m3, whereas at a temperature of 1673 K, the density is 2672 kg/m3 and 2682 kg/m3 of the 1990 and 2007 eruptions respectively. A modeling by using an ideal gas law of Henry’s Law illustrated that the ascent of Kelud’s magma to the surface may cause changes in it’s physical properties. The evolution of the flow pressure in the conduit is characterized by three different areas; based of the conduit until the pressure is saturated, then at the level between release and fragmentation, and then the level above the fragmentation, that implicates the decrease in the wall friction.
Semburan gas bercampur air di Desa Candi Pari, Kecamatan Porong, Kabupaten Sidoarjo, Jawa Timur Humaida, Hanik; Zaennudin, Akhmad; Sutaningsih, N. E.
Jurnal Lingkungan dan Bencana Geologi Vol 3, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Badan Geologi

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SARISemburan gas di Desa Candi Pari yang terjadi pada 20 November 2011 berada sekitar 3,2 km sebelah barat titik pusat semburan lumpur Sidoarjo (LUSI). Semburan gas ini didominasi oleh gas hidrokarbon disertai oleh air yang keluar melalui sumur bor dengan kedalaman sekitar 35 m. Sumur bor ini dibuat tiga tahun yang lalu untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air sehari-hari, kecuali untuk air minum karena mutunya tidak layak untuk dikonsumsi sebagai air minum. Berdasarkan analisis, komposisi kimia hidrokarbon dan isotop karbondari semburan gas LUSI tersebut merupakan gas hidrokarbon termogenik yang mempunyai kesamaan dengan semburan-semburan gas di sekitar LUSI. Gas hidrokarbon yang terdapat di dalam semburan Candi Pari berasal dari kedalaman antara 1.514 – 2.514 m yang mendorong air meteorik yang berada di lapisan atasnya.Kata kunci: Candi Pari, semburan gas hidrokarbon, Porong, LUSIABSTRACTThe gas outburst at Candi Pari village that occured on November 20, 2011 was a gas outburst about 3.2 km to the west of the main eruption point of LUSI. This outburst was followed by hydrocarbon gas dominated water that came out of shallow bore hole of 35 m deep. This bore hole was built three years agofor daily needs, but not as drinking water. Based on analysis, chemical composition of the hydrocarbon and isotop of the carbon the gases are thermogenic hydrocarbon. These gases are similar with bubbles and outburst gases from around LUSI. The hydrocarbon gases of Candi Pari were originating from a depth of 1,514 – 2,514 m that pushed out the meteoric water on the upper layer.Keywords: Candi Pari, outburst hydrocarbon gases, Porong, LUSI
Peningkatan Aktivitas Vulkanik Gunung Api Slamet dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Sistem Panas Bumi Surmayadi, Mamay; Humaida, Hanik; Patria, Cahya; Sudrajat, Adjat; Sulaksana, Nana; Rosana, Mega Fatimah
Jurnal Lingkungan dan Bencana Geologi Vol 6, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Badan Geologi

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ABSTRAKSejak awal Maret 2014 status aktivitas Gunung Api Slamet di Jawa Tengah dinaikkan dari normal (level I) menjadi waspada (level II) seiring dengan peningkatan jumlah gempa vulkanik. Seismisitas Gunung Api Slamet yang dipantau melalui empat stasiun seismik memperlihatkangempa letusan terekam sebanyak 1.106 kejadian dengan rata-rata 73 kejadian per hari, gempa hembusan terekam sebanyak 6.857 kejadian dengan rata-rata 457 kejadian per hari, sedangkan gempa vulkanik dalam (VA) hanya terekam sebanyak 2 kali selama periode Maret – Agustus 2014. Sumber gempa tersebut berada pada kedalaman antara 1 - 2 km di bawah kawah Gunung Api Slamet sebagai indikasi gempa permukaan. Peningkatan aktivitas magmatik tersebut menghasilkan pelepasan gasCO2 yang berpengaruh terhadap fluida panas bumi yang ditunjukkan dengan terjadinya perubahan keasaman air dari normal menjadi alkalin, pembentukkan bualan gas CO2 pada air panas Pancuran 3 di Baturraden, dan peningkatan saturasi kalsit. Bualan gas CO2 pada air panas Pancuran 3 menjadi indikasi terjadinya proses pendidihan pada temperatur 273° C pada elevasi kedalaman 454 m dibawah permukaan laut. Kondisi ini menjadikan temperatur reservoar menjadi lebih tinggi sebagai indikasi bahwa sistem panas bumi Gunung Api Slamet merupakan sistem panas bumi aktif (active geothermal system) bertemperatur tinggi (high enthalpy).Kata kunci : bualan gas, fluida panas bumi, gempa permukaan, saturasi kalsitABSTRACTSince the beginning of March 2014 the activity status of The Slamet Volcano in Central Java has been declared from normal (level I) to become alert (level II) due tosignificant increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes. The Slamet Volcano seismicity monitored by four seismic stations shows eruption earthquakes as many as 1,106 events with an average of 73 events per day, gas emission earthquakes as many as 6,857 events with an average of 457 events per day, whereas the deep volcanic (VA) earthquake recorded only 2 times during the period of March to August 2014. The hypocentre of these earthquakes was at a depth of 1-2 km below Slamet Volcano crater as an indication of surface earthquakes. Increased magmatic activity resulted in the release of CO2 gas effect on the geothermal fluid indicated by changes in water acidity from normal to alkaline, formation of CO2bubblegas on Pancuran 3 hot springat Baturraden area, and calcite saturation enhancement. The presence of CO2 bubble gas on Pancuran 3 hot springis an indication of a boiling process at the temperature of 273° C at a depth of 454 m below sea level. This condition makes the reservoar temperature becomes higher as an indication that the geothermal system of The Slamet Volcano is an active geothermal systemwith high temperature (high enthalpy).Keywords: bubble gas, geothermal fluid, surface earthquake, calcite saturation
Semburan gas bercampur air dan lumpur di Desa Metatu, Kecamatan Benjeng, Kabupaten Gresik, Jawa Timur Zaennudin, Akhmad; Humaida, Hanik; Saing, Ugan B.; Laksono, Rachmad W.
Jurnal Lingkungan dan Bencana Geologi Vol 4, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Badan Geologi

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AbstrakSemburan gas bercampur air dan lumpur di Desa Metatu, Kecamatan Benjeng, Kabupaten Gresik, JawaTimur terjadi pada bulan November 2012. Semburan tersebut dipicu oleh akumulasi gas hidrokarbon yang terperangkapdi bawah permukaan. Desa Metatu dan sekitarnya merupakan wilayah minyak dan gas bumi yang telah diusahakan sejak zaman Belanda, sehingga banyak dijumpai sumur minyak peninggalan Belanda. Gas hidrokarbon yang memicu semburan Metatu tersebut didominasi oleh gas metana berasal dari oil windowseperti yang terdapat di gunung lumpur LUSI, Sidoarjo, tetapi kedua mempunyai perbedaan dalam tingkat kematangannya. Kematangan gas metana dari semburan gas Metatu mempunyai tingkat kematangan yanglebih rendah dari tingkat kematangan LUSI.Kata kunci: Metatu, semburan gas, lumpurAbstractGases outburst mixed of water and mud in Metatu village, Benjeng subdistrict, Gresik regency, East Java occurred in November 2012. This outburst was trigerred by high pressure of hydrocarbon gases that were accumalted beneath the surface. Metatu and its surrounding is potensially petroleum and natural gases which was developed since Ducth era, so this area plenty of oil wells that were construted by Ducth. Hydrocarbon gases that trigger a gas outburst at Metatu is dominated by methane gas of oil window origin like as in LUSI mud volcano, Sidoarjo, but among them different in maturity degree. Hydrocarbon gas maturity of Metatu gas outburst is lower than LUSI.keywords: Metatu, gases outburst, mud
Semburan gas dan dampaknya terhadap lingkungan di sekitar Lumpur Sidoarjo Humaida, Hanik; Zaennudin, Akhmad; Sutaningsih, N. Euis; Sulistiyo, Y.
Jurnal Lingkungan dan Bencana Geologi Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Badan Geologi

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SARIFenomena lain yang muncul bersama semburan Lumpur Sidoarjo adalah semburan gas. Munculnya semburan gas ini menimbulkan pertanyaan, antara lain, jenis dan dampaknya terhadap lingkungan, terutama bagi pendudduk sekitarnya, untuk menjawab pertanyaan tersebut dilakukan penelitian geokimia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gas yang keluar adalah gas hidrokarbon dengan komposisi utama gas metana (CH4) dan gas karbondioksida (CO2). Berdasarkan jenis dan sumbernya, gas tersebut merupakan gas termogenik yang sumbernya diperkirakan adalah bahanorganik pada level di atas “Oil Window”. Dari nilai isotop menunjukkan bahwa gas tersebut mempunyai tingkat kematangan termal yang cukup. Akibat semburan gas hidrokarbon ditengah-tengah pemukiman penduduk tersebut berdampak pada lingkungan, terutama air. Air sumur penduduk menjadi keruh dan berbau menyengat sehingga tidak dapat dipergunakan untuk kebutuhan sehari hari.Kata kunci: Semburan gas, Sidoarjo, dampak lingkunganABSTRACTAnother fenomenon which is ocurred in the mud extrution of Sidoarjo is gas abruptions. At first that are become a big question. Due to this reason, an investigation of geochemistry of the gases are needed. These results show that gas abruptions are dominated by hydrocarbon gases with the main composition of methane (CH4) and is followed by carbondioxide (CO2). Based on the kind and its source, these gases are thermogenic gas which derived from organic matter above the level of “Oil Window”. The carbone isotope of the hydrocarbon gases show a mature of thermal maturity degree. Gases abruptions which are occurred in the area of a densed population, caused the water of people shallow well become turbid with strong bad smell which could not be used for daily used.Keyword: Outpouring of gas, Sidoarjo, environment impact
SO2 EMISSION MEASUREMENT BY DOAS (DIFFERENTIAL OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY) AND COSPEC (CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY) AT MERAPI VOLCANO (INDONESIA) Humaida, Hanik
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 8, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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The SO2 is one of the volcanic gases that can use as indicator of volcano activity. Commonly, SO2 emission is measured by COSPEC (Correlation Spectroscopy). This equipment has several disadvantages; such as heavy, big in size, difficulty in finding spare part, and expensive. DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) is a new method for SO2 emission measurement that has advantages compares to the COSPEC. Recently, this method has been developed. The SO2 gas emission measurement of Gunung Merapi by DOAS has been carried out at Kaliadem, and also by COSPEC method as comparation. The differences of the measurement result of both methods are not significant. However, the differences of minimum and maximum result of DOAS method are smaller than that of the COSPEC. It has range between 51 ton/day and 87 ton/day for DOAS and 87 ton/day and 201 ton/day for COSPEC. The measurement of SO2 gas emission evaluated with the seismicity data especially the rockfall showed the presence of the positive correlation. It may cause the gas pressure in the subsurface influencing instability of 2006 eruption lava.   Keywords: SO2 gas, Merapi, DOAS, COSPEC
Modelling of Magma Density and Viscocity Changes and Their Influences towards the Characteristic of Kelud Volcano Eruption Humaida, Hanik; Brotopuspito, K. S.; Pranowo, H. D.; narsito, narsito
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience Vol 6, No 4 (2011)
Publisher : Geological Agency

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Abstract

DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.129The effusive eruption of Kelud Volcano in 2007 was different from the previous ones, which in general were more explosive. Among others, density and viscosity are factors that determine the type of eruption. Therefore, the study on the difference of the recent eruption style based on the density and viscosity of magma was carried out. The method used in this study was based on geochemical analysis of the rock and then a modeling was established by using the above parameter. The study on the explosive eruption was emphasized on the data of 1990 eruption, whereas the effusive eruption was based on the data of 2007 eruption. The result shows that the magma viscosity of Kelud Volcano depend on the H O concentration as one of the volatile compound in magma, and temperature which gives the exponential equation. The higher the increase of H O content the smaller the value of its viscosity as well as the higher the temperature. The H O content in silica fluid can break the polymer bond of the silica fluid, because a shorter polymer will produce a lower viscosity. The density of the silica content of Kelud Volcano ranges between andesitic and basaltic types, but andesite is more likely. The fluid density of the material of 1990 eruption is different from 2007 eruption. Compared to the 2007, the 1990 eruption material gave a lower density value in its silica fluid than that of the 2007 one. The low density value of the silica fluid of the 1990 eruption material was reflecting a more acid magma. The level of density value of silica fluid depends on its temperature. At the temperature of 1073 K the density of the 1990 Kelud magma is 2810 kg/m3 and the 2007 magma is 2818 kg/m3, whereas at a temperature of 1673 K, the density is 2672 kg/m3 and 2682 kg/m3 of the 1990 and 2007 eruptions respectively. A modeling by using an ideal gas law of Henry’s Law illustrated that the ascent of Kelud’s magma to the surface may cause changes in it’s physical properties. The evolution of the flow pressure in the conduit is characterized by three different areas; based of the conduit until the pressure is saturated, then at the level between release and fragmentation, and then the level above the fragmentation, that implicates the decrease in the wall friction.