Retno Hulupi
Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia

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Performance of Some Arabica Coffee Local Varieties from Gayo Highland Hulupi, Retno; Nugroho, Dwi; ., Yusianto
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Recently, most of coffee farmers at Gayo highland (Aceh) are planting various of local varieties, namely Timtim Aceh, Borbor, P 88, BP 542A and Ateng Super. Those varieties have been planted to replace S line and Catimor Jaluk varieties which were damaged by leaf rust and root disease. Research on the performance of those varieties was to investigate superior characteristics of each variety and moreover as based to choose the best one as released variety for Gayo Highland. Research finding revealed that Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were well adapted to Gayo highland conditions with yielding ability 0.956 ton/ha and 0.909 ton/ha, respectively. Although the highest yield was obtained by Ateng Super variety (1.76 ton/ha green coffee), but not stable, therefore it could not be categorized as superior variety. The previous two varieties also had good cup quality (by standard assesment of Specialty Coffee Association of America), then it could contribute Gayo coffee specialty product. The resistance test for leaf rust disease in the field plantation, showed all varieties demonstrated varying in their resistance. BP 542A variety was the most resistant type, whereas Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were moderately. However all varieties become more susceptible if planted at lower altitude, less than 1,000 m asl. The resistance test to coffee berry borer and parasitic nematode showed that Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were ranked into almost resistant to resistant. Based on all result of the superior characteristics testing, Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were the best one, and it could be proposed to be released as Arabica coffee varieties that suitable at Gayo highland. Key words: Arabica coffee, Gayo highland, local varieties, variety performance, cup quality, yielding, resistant to leaf rust disease
Identification of Physiological Race Nematode, Radopholus similisCobb. that Attack Coffee Trees Hulupi, Retno
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 22, No 3 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Physiological races of Radopholus similis Cobb., the burrowing nematode that attack coffee trees have never been reported yet, while two physiological races have been identified, i.e. banana and citrus races. Banana and citrus are commonly used as the shading trees or crop diversification in coffee plantation. Therefore, both races have to be analyzed whether the same as the race that attacking the coffee plants. Research to investigate the physiological race of R. similis Cobb. had been conducted in the screen house at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete design with three replications, while cross inoculation tests were used as race identification method, by using three isolates from banana, citrus and Arabica coffee as the control. Tested host plants were banana Cavendish, ‘Ambon Kuning’ and ‘Raja’ varieties, rootstock of citrus Siam from Kintamani and Arabica coffee Kartika 1 variety. The expression of virulence of three nematode isolates against banana, citrus or arabica coffee tested to be considered as favorable host, while the most virulent isolate attacked coffee could be decided as physiological race of coffee. Results showed that banana isolate penetrated and attacked the roos of arabica coffee. The isolate of R. similis from citrus could not attack both coffee and banana varieties. Therefore, the physiological race of coffee was considered similar with the banana race. It was possible that the physiological race was specific race but it could attacke banana as other favorable host, however, it could not be proven in this results. Based on this results, the use of Musa sp.as intercrop or shade tree in coffee plantation has more risk to nematode attack than that of Citrus sp. Key words: physiological race, Radopholus similis, coffee, banana, citrus, nematode.
Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods ., Yusianto; Hulupi, Retno; ., Sulistyowati; Mawardi, Surip; Ismayadi, Cahya
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 23, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste, intensity of after taste and preference, than the recent harvest and two years stored coffee. recent harvest had higher body, bitterness, and astringency, than that of one and two years stored coffee. The main off-flavor of recent harvest coffee was green and grassy, the one year stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy, and sour, while the two years stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy and moldy. The flavor change in the first year was higher than in the second year storage. The varieties, that had lowest change on flavor during storage, were BP 416 A, AS 1, P 88, BP 432 A and S 795. Key words: Coffee, Arabica, variety, clone, storage, quality, flavor, color.
Distribution of Radopholus similisand Pratylenchus CoffeaeNematodes in Coffee Plantation Hulupi, Retno; ., Mulyadi; Andayani, Bekti
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 23, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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A research to evaluate the difference of damage levels caused by two species nematodes, Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae on Arabica and Robusta coffee which were planted in the same endemic area have been conducted at Kalibendo (700 m asl. climate type B) and Blawan coffee estate (1200 m asl., climate type D) for two years. The results showed that in the medium highland (700 m asl.) R. similis attacked Arabica coffee with necrotic root scale higher than surface Robusta coffee. Distribution of R. similis population in the 50 cm depth below soil surface was likely with their root distribution. On the other hand P. coffeae in 30 cm depth below soil therefore their resistance to R. similis was more likely due to the escape reason, as result of their different distribution population of those species in different depth. Key words : Radopholus similis, Pratylenchus coffeae, Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, distribution population.
Inheritance of Arabica Coffee Resistance to Radopholus similisCobb. Hulupi, Retno; ., Nasrullah; ., Soemartono
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 23, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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A research to get inheritance of Arabica coffee resistance to Radopholus similisnematode was done in screen house and laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, also at endemic area of coffee plantation, using F1, F1 R and F2 crossing between BP 542 A(resistant) x Andungsari 1 (susceptible) with their reciprocal, and BP 542 A x Kartika 1. The purpose of this study that was conducted at seedling stage is to formulate a Strategy for Arabica coffee breeding to get resistant varieties to nematode. As the variables of resistance were weight of seedling biomass, percent of root weight deviation, number of root nematodes, number of soil nematodes, reproduction and percent of necrotic root. Using discriminant analysis and fastclus, those data variables were analyzed for genetic of resistance with Statistical Analysis System programme version 8. Genetic study on the inheritance of resistance to R. similiswas started with evaluation of homozigosity of BP 542 A was resistant parent. The result showed that BP 542 A was heterozygous. Therefore, segregation test could not be suggested with segregation pattern principals as Mendel proposed. Segregation test on BP 542 A showed that it was heterozygote and the resistance was controlled by single gene with complete dominant effect, so the progeny segregated in 75% resistant and 25% susceptible. The result of the test showed the absence of maternal effect for root weight deviation and percentage of necrotic root variables, which meant that no cytoplasmic inheritance was involved. Based on the test of segregation ratio, almost all of the resistance was not appropriate for monogenic and or digenic segregation pattern as expected due to non allelic gene interaction that caused epistasis. Key words: Inheritance, resistance, Arabica coffee, Radopholus similis.
Physical, Chemicals and Flavors of Some Varieties of Arabica Coffee ., Yusianto; Hulupi, Retno; ., Sulistyowati; Ismayadi, Cahya
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 3 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Export of Arabica coffee was 28,100 tons/year or 8.28% total export of Indonesian coffee, most of them are specialty coffee. Beside their origin, variety and determine the of physical, chemical and flavors characters. The promising clones or varieties i.e. BP 416A, BP 418A, BP 430A, BP 431A, BP 432A, BP 507A, BP 508A, BP 509A, BP 511A, BP 513A, BP 516A, BP 517A and BP 518A still not be determined their quality This research was conducted to analyze their physicals, chemicals and flavors during 2 periods of harvesting (2004 and 2005), using AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762 as the control. Mature coffee berry was harvested, sorted manually, and depulped, cleaned manually and then fermented in plastic sacks during 36 hours. The fermented parchment was washed, and then sun dried, dehulled to get green coffee. Observations wre conducted on green coffee yield, husk content, color of green coffee, distribution of size, bulk density of green and roasted coffee, roasting characters, color of roasted beans, and pH, acidity and flavors. The results showed (a) The lowest content of husk was BP 432A and the highest was USDA 762. The control varieties of AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762, showed husk content >15%, while those potential varieties were < 15% except BP 416A. (b) Beans size >6,5 mm and more than 80% were BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A, BP 509A, P 88 and S 795. Green coffee of BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509A were uniform, but S 795 was not uniform. AS 1 and BP 416A and P 88 was one group; S 795 was one group with BP 542A; BP 509 was a group with BP 432A; but BP4 30A and USDA 762 were the other groups. (c) Green coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color, but BP 542A was the darkest color. AS 1 and S 795 were a group with all potential varieties, except BP 542A. (d) Roasted coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color and AS 1 was the darkest. In this case, AS 1 was a group with BP 430A, BP 509A and P 88, while S 795 was a group with BP 416A and BP 432A, but USDA 762 and BP 542A were the other groups. (e) The lowest pH and the highest acidity was AS 1. In this case, S 795, BP 416A, BP 509A, BP 430A, P 88, BP 542A, AS 1 and BP 542A were one group, but USDA 762 was the other group. (f) Bulk density of all observed varieties were >0.7 for green coffee and 0,39–0,47 for medium roasted coffee. (g) Outurn of all observed varieties were >83% and volume increment >50%, except for USDA 762. (g) AS 1 showed the best flavor characters, while USDA 762 was the lowest. The promising varieties which showed a group with AS 1 were P 88 and BP 542A, which fruity. All of tested varieties showed green flavor. Harsh flavor was found in BP4 16A, BP 509A, P 88, S 795 and USDA 762. (h) Based on the physicals, chemicals and flavors characters, 202 AS 1 was a group with P 88 and BP 542A; S 795 a group with BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509, while USDA 762 was other group. Key words:Coffee, physic, chemical, flavor, variety.