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Journal : Jurnal Agritech

PROFIL AROMA ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA HASIL DISTILASI FRAKSINASI BERTINGKAT PADA BERBAGAI PERLAKUAN SUHU Profile Liquid Smoke Aroma of Coconut Shell Products at Various Temperatures Using Multistages Distillation Vessel Kadir, Syahraeni; Darmadji, Purnama; Hidayat, Chusnul; ., Supriyadi
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 01 (2012)
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Have been carried out in stages distillation liquid smoke at a temperature of  90, 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140 °C,which aims to assess the decrease in the intensity of the aroma of coconut shell liquid smoke through fractionation by distillation storey.The results were obtained a total recovery of 90.52 % with the highest at a temperature range of 100-130 °C distillation ie 88.88 %. Sensory evaluation results showed that the liquid smoke fraction II at a temperature of 120 °C obtained the highest percentage of acceptance by panelists namely 65 %. The main volatile components as a liquid smoke aroma contributors are grouped into four, namely: Group alcohols, acids and esters, carbonyl group, phenol and its derivatives as well as guaiacol and its derivatives. All of the tested liquid smoke fractions containing groups of the compounds with varying intensity.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan distilasi asap cair secara bertingkat pada suhu 90; 100; 110; 120; 130 dan 140 °C, yang bertujuanmengkaji penurunan intensitas aroma asap cair tempurung kelapa melalui distilasi fraksinasi bertingkat. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh total rendemen sebesar 90,52 % dengan hasil tertinggi pada suhu distilasi berkisar 100-130 °C yakni88,88 %. Hasil pengujian sensoris menunjukkan bahwa asap cair fraksi ll yang didistilasi pada suhu 120 °C memperoleh persentase penerimaan tertinggi oleh panelis yakni 65%. Komponen volatil utama sebagai kontributor aroma asap cair dikelompokkan ke dalam empat golongan yaitu: (1) Kelompok alkohol, asam dan ester, (2) Kelompok karbonil, (3) Fenol dan turunannya serta (4) Guaiakol dan turunannya. Seluruh fraksi asap cair yang diujikan mengandung kelompok senyawa tersebut dengan intensitas yang bervariasi.
OPTIMASI EKSTRAKSI OLEORESIN PALA (Myristica fragrans Houtt) ASAL MALUKU UTARA MENGGUNAKAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM) Assagaf, Muhammad; Hastuti, Pudji; Hidayat, Chusnul; ., Supriyadi
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 04 (2012)
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The purpose of this study was to obtain the optimum extraction conditions by performing the optimization of temperature and extraction time and characterization of constituent chemical components of oleoresin nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) Origin of North Maluku. Oleoresin extracted using maceration method, for optimization of extraction conditions was done by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) design with the Central Composite Design (CCD) two factors X1 (temperature / oC) and X2 (times / minute). As for the characterization of the chemical constituent components of nutmeg oleoresin used GC-MS. From the results obtained by the optimization of extraction conditions for extracting the optimum temperature of 51.98 °C and the optimum extraction time was 273.82 minutes with the results for the optimum result of oleoresin obtained by 14.88%. The results of characterization by using GC-MS obtained with 39 components making up oleoresin chemical compound with the largest relative area of ​​the compound methyleugenol (33,397%), myristicine (10,898%), cis-methyl isoeugenol (9,086%), elemicin (8,329% ), and isocoumarin (5,608%) with 34 percent of the components that have relatively minor area.Keywords: Nutmeg oleoresin, extraction optimization, Response Surface Methodology, characterization ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh kondisi ekstraksi yang optimum dengan melakukan optimasi suhu dan lama ekstraksi dan karakterisasi komponen kimia penyusun oleoresin pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt) Asal Maluku Utara. Oleoresin diekstrak menggunakan metode maserasi, untuk optimasi kondisi ekstraksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Response Surface Methodology (RSM) dengan disain rancangan Central Composite Design (CCD) dua faktor yaitu X1 (suhu/oC) dan X2 (waktu/menit). Sedangkan untuk karakterisasi komponen senyawa kimia penyusun oleoresin pala digunakan GC-MS. Hasil optimasi kondisi ekstraksi diperoleh suhu optimum ekstraksi sebesar  51,98oC dan waktu optimum ekstraksi adalah selama 273,82 menit dengan hasil optimum hasil oleoresin yang diperoleh sebesar 14,88 %. Hasil karakterisasi dengan menggunakan GC-MS diperoleh 39 komponen dengan 5 senyawa kimia penyusun oleoresin dengan luas area relatif terbesar yaitu senyawa methyleugenol (33.397%), myristicine (10.898%), cis-methyl isoeugenol (9.086%), elemicin (8.329%), dan isocoumarin (5.608%) dengan 34 komponen  yang memiliki persen relatif luas area minor. Kata kunci: Oleoresin pala, optimasi ekstraksi, Response Surface Methodology, karakterisasi
EFEKTIVITAS MIKROEMULSI O/W DENGAN SURFAKTAN NON IONIK DALAM MENGHAMBAT FOTOOKSIDASI VITAMIN C PADA MODEL MINUMAN (Effectiveness of Oil-in-Water Microemulsions with Nonionic Surfactants in Inhibiting Photooxidation of Vitamin C in Beverage Model) Suhendra, Lutfi; Raharjo, Sri; Hastuti, Pudji; Hidayat, Chusnul
Jurnal Agritech Vol 33, No 01 (2013)
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The objective of this study was to obtain the effectiveness of oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion using nonionic surfactans to improve the stability and inhibit the deterioration rate of vitamin C in beverage model systems caused by photooxidation. O/W microemulsions were formulated with oil-surfactan ratio (15:85 v/v), with surfactant mixture consisting of Tween 80:Span 80:Tween 20 = 92:5.5:2.5 (% v/v) and water content 65%. O/W microemulsions were subjected to stability towards pH and dilution. The dilution were done by dilute microemulsions with water and citrate buffer (pH: 3.5; 4.5 and water pH 6.5) with proportion 1:1, 1:9 and 1:99. The microemulsios were tested the stability on heating treatment at 105 °C for 5 hours and during storage for 8 weeks at room temperature. The baverage models were vitamin C solution (450 mg/L, citric acid (1%) and sucrose (6%). The o/w microemulsions added in the beverage models were microemulsion that had been diluted 50 and 100 times with water pH 6.5. The beverage model was added with 5 ppm erythrosin as sensitizer and without erythrosin as control. The models were exposed to fl ourescent light with an intensity of 2000 lux. Vitamin C concentration was mesured by the method of ribofl avin-sensitized photodynamic UV spectrophotometry every 2 hours. The o/w microemulsion was stable at pH 3.5 to 6.5 and dilution (1:1, 1:9, and 1:99), heating and storage. The o/w microemulsions which were diluted 100 times effectively increased the stability of vitamin C, but the o/w microemulsions diluted 50 times was more efective to inhibit the rate of distruction of vitamin C due to photooxidation in beverage model.Keywords: Microemulsions, vitamin C, photooxidation, surfactant ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh efektivitas mikroemulsi o/w dengan surfaktan non ionik untuk meningkatkan stabilitas dan menghambat laju kerusakan vitamin C akibat fotooksidasi pada model minuman. Mikroemulsi oil-inwater(o/w) dibentuk dari campuran minyak–surfaktan (15:85 v/v) dengan perbandingan surfaktan Tween 80:Span 80:Tween 20 = 92:5,5: 2,5 (% v/v) dengan kadar air 65%. Mikroemulsi o/w diuji stabilitas terhadap pH dan pengenceran dengan cara mengencerkan mikroemulsi dengan media air dan buffer sitrat (pH: 3,5; 4,5 dan aquades pH 6,5) dengan proporsi 1:1. 1:9 dan 1:99, selanjutnya mikroemulsi o/w yang telah dilakukan pengenceran dengan pH berbeda ini diuji stabilitasnya pada pemanasan 105 °C selama 5 jam dan stabilitas penyimpanan selama 8 minggu pada suhu ruang. Model minuman terdiri dari larutan vitamin C (450 mg/L), asam sitrat (1%) dan sukrosa (6%). Mikroemulsi o/w yang ditambahkan ke dalam model minuman adalah mikroemulsi diencerkan 50 kali dan 100 kali dengan aquades pH 6,5. Selanjutnya ditambahkan dengan/tanpa eritrosin sehingga masing-masing larutan mengandung eritrosin 5 ppm sebagai sensitiser. Sampel tersebut kemudian dipapar dengan lampu fl uoresen dengan intensitas cahaya 2000 lux. Konsentrasi vitamin C diukur dengan metode ribofl avin-sensitized photodynamic UV spectrophotometry tiap 2 jam. Mikroemulsi o/w stabil pada pH 3,5 sampai 6,5 dan pengenceran (1:1. 1:9 dan 1:99), pemanasan dan penyimpanan. Mikroemulsi o/w diencerkan 100 kali efektif meningkatkan stabilitas vitamin C, namun mikroemulsi o/w diencerkan 50 kali lebih efektif untuk menghambat laju kerusakan vitamin C akibat fotooksidasi pada model minuman.Kata kunci: Mikroemulsi, vitamin C, fotooksidsi, surfaktan
OPTIMASI KONDISI FERMENTASI WHEY DANGKE SEBAGAI PRODUK MINUMAN DENGAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY Maruddin, Fatma; ., Soeparno; ., Nurliyani; Hidayat, Chusnul; Taufik, Muhammad
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 03 (2012)
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Optimization of Fermentation Conditions of Dangke Whey as Beverage Product by Using Response SurfaceMethodologyABSTRAKWhey dangke merupakan limbah dangke yang belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Whey dangke dipisahkan dari curdmenggunakan getah buah pepaya sebagai sumber enzim. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi kondisifermentasi (level inokulum, waktu inkubasi dan level tapioka) whey limbah dangke sebagai produk minuman denganresponse surface methodology. Minuman fermentasi komersial digunakan sebagai target dalam menentukan kondisioptimal. Whey dicampur tepung tapioka level 0, 0,35., 0,7., 1,05 dan 1,4% dan dipanaskan sambil diaduk selama 5menit suhu 70 oC. Whey selanjutnya dipasteurisasi suhu 80oC selama 30 menit. Setelah dingin diinokulasi L.acidophiluslevel 1, 3, 5, dan 7% serta diinkubasi suhu 37 oC selama 8, 12, 16, 18 dan 24 jam. Karakteristik produk minuman yangdiperoleh dengan penambahan level inokulum 5%, tapioka level 0,7% dan diinkubasi 16 jam hampir sama karakteristikminuman fermentasi komersial adalah kandungan asam laktat 0,58%, viskositas 0,21 poise dan pH 3,7. Karakteristiktersebut dapat didekati dengan mengoptimasi kondisi fermentasi menggunakan metode RSM.Kata kunci: Whey dangke, kondisi fermentasi, produk minuman, response surface methodologyABSTRACTDangke whey is a dangke by-product that has not been widely utilized. Dangke whey is separated from curd using thepapaya latex as source of enzymes. The objectives of the study were to optimize fermentation conditions (tapioca level,inoculum level, and incubation time) of whey from dangke waste by using a response surface methodology. Commerciallyfermentative beverage was used as a target to determine the optimal conditions. Whey was mixed with tapioca level of0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, and 1.4%, and was heated by stirring for 5 minutes at temperature of 70 oC. The whey was pasteurizedat the temperature of 80 oC for 30 minutes. The whey was cool, and inoculated with L.acidophilus at the level of 1,3, 5, and 7%, and incubated at 37 °C for 8, 12, 16, 18, and 24 hours, respectively. The characteristics of fermentationbeverage obtained by the addition of inoculum level of 5%, tapioca 0.7% level and incubated for 16 hours were similarto the characteristics of commercially fermentative beverage. The characteristics of fermentated beverage were asfollows: lactic acid was 0.58%, viscosity was 0.21 poise and pH was 3, 7, respectively. These characteristics could beobtained by optimization of fermentation conditions by using RSM method.Keywords: Dangke whey, fermentation conditions, beverage product, response surface methodology
KARAKTERISTIK WHEY LIMBAH DANGKE DAN POTENSINYA SEBAGAI PRODUK MINUMAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 (Characteristics of Whey from Dangke Waste and Its Potential as Beverage Product by using Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051) ., Fatma; ., Soeparno; ., Nurliyani; Hidayat, Chusnul; Taufik, Muhammad
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 04 (2012)
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ABSTRACT Dangke whey has not been widely utilized.  Dangke  whey handling is required  for the prevention of environmental pollution, especially  in  Enrekang.  Evaluating the characteristics of dangke whey is the initial step of dangke  whey handling. Complete data about the dangke whey would be  scientific information for researchers or the public to further the utilization. Nutritional value of dangke whey allows the use of  Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 to be processed into  beverage  products. This research objectives were to investigate the characteristics of whey from dangke waste, which were obtained from milk protein separation by using lyophilization of papaya latex, and it also to evaluate the potential of dangke whey as beverage product by using Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051. A commercial fermented beverages product is used as a comparison, based on the activity  of growth/bacteria numbers, lactic acid and pH. Milk was added with enzyme solution (lyophilized latex) on the level of 0.4 to 1% (v/v). The best level was used for the production of the fermented whey beverage products. Whey was mixed with tapioca level of 0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, and 1.4%, and was heated by stirring for 5 minutes at temperature of 70oC. The whey was pasteurized at the temperature of 80oC for 30 minutes. The whey was cooled, and inoculated with L.acidophilus at the level of 1, 3, 5, and 7%, and incubated at 37°C for 8, 12, 16, 18, and 24 hours, respectively. The characteristics of whey dangke were as follows: the solid total was 6.95 ± 0.23%, lactic acid was 0.1 ± 0.003%, fat was 0.2 ± 0.05%, protein was  0.63 ± 0.009%, lactose was 5.08 ± 0.009%, pH was 6.31 ± 0.01, and viscocity was 0.19 ± 0.004 poise. Dangke whey is potential as a beverage products with the addition of  Lactobacillus acidophilus with quality similar to the commercial fermented beverage after incubated for 16 hours, with the addition of inoculum level of 5% and tapioca level of 0.35% based on the activity of growth, lactic acid and pH. Keywords: Dangke whey, characteristics, potential, beverage product, Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 ABSTRAK Whey dangke belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Penanganan whey dangke sangat diperlukan untuk pencegahan pencemaran lingkungan khususnya di Kabupaten Enrekang. Evaluasi karakteristik whey dangke merupakan langkah awal penanganan whey dangke. Data yang lengkap tentang karakteristik whey dangke akan menjadi informasi ilmiah bagi para peneliti ataupun masyarakat untuk pemanfaatan whey dangke lebih lanjut. Nutrisi whey memungkinkan penggunaaan Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 untuk diolah menjadi produk minuman. Penelitian ini  bertujuan mengetahui karakteristik whey limbah dangke, diperoleh dari pemisahan protein susu dengan menggunakan getah pepaya liofilisasi serta mengetahui potensi whey dangke sebagai produk minuman menggunakan Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 dengan menggunakan produk minuman fermentasi komersial sebagai pembanding, berdasarkan aktivitas pertumbuhan/jumlah bakteri, kandungan asam laktat dan pH. Susu ditambahkan larutan enzim (getah liofilisasi) level 0,4 - 1% (v/v), dan level terbaik digunakan untuk  pembuatan produk minuman whey fermentasi. Whey dicampur tepung tapioka  level 0, 0,35., 0,7., 1,05 dan 1,4% dan dipanaskan sambil diaduk selama 5 menit suhu 70oC. Whey selanjutnya di pasteurisasi suhu 80oC selama 30 menit. Setelah dingin diinokulasi L.acidophilus level 1, 3, 5, dan 7% serta diinkubasi  suhu  37oC selama 8, 12, 16, 18 dan 24 jam. Karakteristik whey dangke adalah; total padatan 6,95±0,23%, asam laktat 0,1±0,003%, lemak 0,2±0,05%, protein 0,63± 0,009%, laktosa 5,08 ±0,009%, pH 6,31±0,01 dan viskositas 0,19±0,004 poise. Whey dangke berpotensi sebagai produk minuman dengan penambahan Lactobacillus acidophilus dengan kualitas yang hampir sama dengan produk minuman fermentasi komersial setelah diinkubasi selama 16 jam, penambahan level inokulum 5%  dan penambahan level tapioka 0,35% berdasarkan aktivitas pertumbuhan, asam laktat dan pH. Kata kunci: Whey dangke, karakteristik, potensi, produk minuman, Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051
Stabilitas Mikroemulsi Fucoxanthin dan Efektifitasnya dalam Menghambat Foto Oksidasi Vitamin C pada Model Minuman Suhendra, Lutfi; Hastuti, Pudji; Hidayat, Chusnul
Agritech Vol 34, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9503

Abstract

Fucoxanthin microemulsion was prepared by dissolvingfocoxanthin in Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) and mixture of surfactants (Tween 20:Tween 80:Span 80 = 92:5.5:2.5 (% v/v)with oil-surfactan ratio 15:85 v/v, then added with water until the concentration reaching 600 ppm fucoxanthin. The fucoxanthin microemulsions were analyzed the stability towards pH, the samples were diluted 50 times and 100 times with water media and citrate buffer (pH:3.5; 4.5 and distilled water pH 6.5). Subsequently, the samples were tested for centrifugation and storage stability at room temperature. The appearance of fucoxanthin microemulsion stability was measured with spectrometer UV/VIS at a wavelength of 458 nm. The beverage models were made of vitamin C (450 mg/L), citric acid (1%) and sucrose (6%). Fucoxanthin microemulsions were added to the beverage model that had been diluted 50 time and 100 time with distilled water pH 6.5. Subsequenly, the samples were added 5 ppm erytrhosine as a sensitizer and without erytrhosine as control. The beverage models were exposed to flourescent light with an intensity of 2000 lux. Vitamin C concentration was mesured by the method of riboflavin-sensitized photodynamic UV spectrophotometry every 2 hours. Fucoxanthin microemulsions were stable at pH 3.5 to 6.5 and even the heating treatment, centrifugation and dilution. Fucoxanthin microemulsion above 6 ppm was not effective in inhibiting degradation rate of vitamin C on photooxidation in beverage models.ABSTRAKMikroemulsi fucoxanthin dibuat dengan melarutkanfucoxanthin dalam VCO dan ditambah surfaktan (Tween 20:Tween 80:Span 80 = 92:5,5: 2,5 (% v/v), dengan rasio minyak-surfaktan 15:85 v/v, kemudian ditambahkan air hingga konsentrasi fucoxanthin mencapai 600 ppm. Mikroemulsi fucoxanthin dianalisis stabilitasnya meliputi pengujian stabilitas terhadap pH yang dilakukan pengenceran 50 kali dan 100 kali dengan media air dan buffer sitrat (pH: 3,5; 4,5 dan aquades pH 6,5). Selanjutnya sampel-sampel tersebut diuji stabilitasnya terhadap sentrifugasi dan penyimpanan pada suhu kamar. Stabilitas kenampakan mikroemulsi fucoxanthin diukur absorbansinya dengan spektrometer UV/VIS pada panjang gelombang 458 nm. Model minuman merupakan larutan yang tersusun dari vitamin C (450 mg/L), asam sitrat (1%) dan sukrosa (6%). Mikroemulsi fucoxanthin yang ditambahkan ke dalam model minuman yang telah diencerkan 50 kali dan 100 kali dengan aquades pH 6,5. Selanjutnya ke dalam sampel ditambahkan 5 ppm eritosin sebagai sensitiser atau tanpa penambahan eritrosin sebagai kontrol. Sampel tersebut kemudian diletakkan di dalam generator oksigen singlet yang telah dilengkapi lampu fluoresens dengan intensitas cahaya 2000 lux. Konsentrasi vitamin C diukur dengan metode riboflavin-sensitized photodynamic UV spectrophotometry dengan interval 2 jam. Mikroemulsi fucoxanthin yang diperoleh stabil pada pH 3,5 sampai 6,5 dan meskipun telah mengalami perlakuan pemanasan, sentrifugasi dan pengenceran. Mikroemulsi fucoxanthin di atas 6 ppm tidak efektif lagi dalam menghambat laju kerusakan vitamin C pada foto oksidasi dalam model minuman.
Kinetika Oksidasi Minyak Ikan Tuna (Thunus sp) Selama Penyimpanan Husain, Rahim; Suparmo, Suparmo; Harmayani, Eni; Hidayat, Chusnul
Agritech Vol 36, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.12862

Abstract

Tuna fish oil (Thunnus sp) contains omega-3 fatty acids. It can be easily damaged by oxidation during storage. The rate of oxidation can be estimated by zero or first order of reaction. This research aimed to study the oxidation reaction during storage by determining the amount of activation energy (Ea) and constant change (k). The results showed that the value of k increases from 0.11 to 2.07 at a temperature 0 oC for the peroxide value while the numbers of TBA and acid number, respectively 0.041 increased 1.002, and k value of the acid number of 0.02 to 0.30 to 10, 20, 30 anda 40 oC. The activation energy (Ea) of oxidation reaction produced 50.07 Kj/mol.K peroxide value; 42.43 Kj/mol.K acid value and 57.69 Kj/mol.K. TBA value. The kinetic study showed an increasing oxidative deterioration of tuna fish (Thunnus sp) oil during storage by following the reactions of zero order or the reaction occurred slowly.ABSTRAKMinyak ikan tuna (Thunnus sp) mengandung asam lemak omega-3, sehingga mudah rusak akibat oksidasi selama penyimpanan. Kecepatan reaksi oksidasi dapat didekati melalui reaksi orde ke nol maupun orde pertama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari reaksi oksidasi selama penyimpanan dengan menentukan besaran energi aktivasi (Ea) dan konstanta perubahan (k). Hasil menunjukkan bahwa nilai k meningkat dari 0,11 menjadi 2,07 pada suhu 0 oC untuk angka peroksida, angka TBA dan angka asam adalah 0,041 menjadi 1,002 dan 0,02 menjadi 0,30, yang terjadi pada suhu 10, 20, 30, dan 40 oC. Energi aktivasi (Ea) reaksi oksidasi yang menghasilkan angka peroksida 50,07 Kj/mol.K; angka asam 42,43 Kj/mol.K dan TBA 57,69 Kj/mol.K. Studi kinetika memperlihatkan bahwa terjadi peningkatan laju reaksi kerusakan oksidasi minyak ikan tuna (Thunus sp) selama penyimpanan dengan mengikuti reaksi orde ke nol atau reaksi berlangsung secara lambat.
Karakter Oleoresin Pala (Myristica Fragrans Houtt) yang Dimikroenkapsulasi: Penentuan Rasio Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC):Maltodekstrin (MD) Assagaf, Muhammad; Hastuti, Pudji; Hidayat, Chusnul; Yuliani, Sri; Supriyadi, Supriyadi
Agritech Vol 33, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9562

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the best ratio of the encapsulant mixture whey protein concentrate (WPC):maltodextrin (MD) for microencapsulation of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) oleoresin. In this study encapsulant used was a mixture of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and maltodextrin (MD) various from (0-24%) and (100-76%) respectively total solids of 20%. The ratio of nutmeg oleoresin and encapsulant was 1:9. The emulsion of encapsulant and oleoresin was dried using a spray dryer inlet temperature 160°C and feed rate of 300 ml/h. Microcapsules produced were analyzed to determine the characters such as microcapsules surface oil, total volatile, non-volatile, moisture content, water activity, the composition of oleoresin before and after microencapsulation as well as microcapsule morphology. The results showed that the microcapsules of nutmeg oleoresin made from encapsulant formula with ratio of WPC MD (1:7,3) or a mixture of 12% WPC and 88% MD, gave microcapsules with lowest surface oil (0.16%) and highest total volatile (26.7%) among other formulas. The average moisture content was 3.4% (db) the water activity between various 0.29 to 0.41 and particle size between 1.39 to 56.6 μm. It can be concluded that from surface oil and total volatile that the most suitable encapsulant for microencapsulation of nutmeg oleoresin was mixture of 12% of WPC and 88% of MD. The 47 components of oleoresin were identifi ed before encapsulated, while after encapsulation into 34 components.ABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah penentuan rasio campuran enkapsulan whey protein concentrate (WPC):maltodekstrin (MD) yang terbaik dalam pembuatan oleoresin pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt) yang dimikroenkapsulasi. Pada penelitian ini enkapsulan yang digunakan adalah campuran WPC dan MD dengan berbagai rasio WPC (0-24%) dan MD (100-76%), yang diformulasikan dalam 7 formula enkapsulan. Suspensi campuran WPC dan MD dalam air diatur pada total padatan 20%. Emulsi enkapsulan dan oleoresin dengan rasio oleoresin pala dan enkapsulan yaitu 1:9 dikeringkan dengan menggunakan pengering semprot pada suhu inlet 160C dengan laju alir umpan 300 ml/jam. Mikrokapsul yang dihasilkan dianalisis karakternya yang meliputi surface oil, total volatil, non volatil, kadar air, aktivitas air, komponen penyusun oleoresin sebelum dan setelah mikroenkapsulasi serta morfologi mikrokapsulnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa mikrokapsul oleoresin pala yang dibuat dengan enkapsulan rasio WPC:MD (1:7,3) atau WPC 12% + MD 88%, menghasilkan mikrokapsul dengan surface oil yang rendah (0,16%) dan total volatil yang lebih tinggi (26,7%) dibanding formula lainnya. Sedangkan kadar air rata-rata 3,4% (bk) dengan nilai aktivitas air antara 0,29-0,41 dan ukuran partikel antara 1,39-56,6 μm. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa mikrokapsul oleoresin pala yang terbaik adalah mikrokapsul yang terbuat dari campuran enkapsulan WPC 12% dengan indikator rendahnya surface oil dan tingginya total volatil, non volatil dan ekstrak eter. Komponen penyusun oleoresin sebelum enkapsulasi yang teridentifi kasi sebanyak 47 senyawa sedangkan dari oleoresin yang dimikroenkapsulasi teridentifi kasi 34 senyawa.
Kesetimbangan Adsorpsi Fenol dari Asap Cair Tempurung Kelapa Hibrida pada Arang Aktif Kadir, Syahraeni; Darmadji, Purnama; Hidayat, Chusnul; Supriyadi, Supriyadi
Agritech Vol 31, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9723

Abstract

The adsorption of liquid smoke phenol of hybrid coconut shell on activated carbon was evaluated at various tempera- ture (30-70 °C) and phenol concentration to determine the adsorption capacity and adsorption interaction. The data were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The results showed that the activated carbon ad- sorption capacity increased with an increase in liquid smoke concentration from 0.025 to 1.0 % but it declined due to an increase in the adsorption temperature from 30 to 70 °C. The affinity of phenol onto activated carbon was higher in the high liquid smoke concentration comparing with low concentration. Adsorption capacity decreased when the phe-nol equilibrium concentration (C ) was 342.78 mg/L, in which it decreased from 32.67 mg/g to 13.02 mg /g. Phenoladsorption onto activated carbon was best fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model than Langmuir isotherm model. Thephenol adsorption capacity of activated carbon at equilibrium concentration (K ) has decreased from 12.05 mg/g to 9.66 mg/g when the adsorption temperature increased from 30 to 50 °C. The adsorption capacity increased from 13.46 mg/g to 17.02 mg/g at an increase in the temperature from 60 to 70 °C. The value 1/n was above zero, which means that the adsorption interaction was cooperative with the activation energy of 403.43 KJ/mol. In summary, the adsorption was chemisorption.ABSTRAKAdsorpsi fenol dari asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida pada arang aktif dievaluasi pada berbagai suhu (30-70 °C) dan konsentrasi fenol untuk menentukan kapasitas adsorpsi dan mekanisme adsorpsi. Data yang diperoleh dievalusi meng- gunakan model Langmuir dan Freundlich. Data hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kapasitas adsorpsi arang aktif terhadap fenol dari asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida meningkat sejalan dengan peningkatan konsentrasi asap cair dari 0,025 ke 1,0 %, namun kapasitas adsorpsi menurun akibat peningkatan suhu adsorpsi dari 30 ke 70 °C.  Hal ini menunjukkan afinitas arang aktif terhadap fenol lebih tinggi pada asap cair konsentrasi tinggi dibanding dengan asapcair konsentrasi rendah. Penurunan kapasitas adsorpsi terbesar terjadi pada konsentrasi fenol setimbang (Ce) 342,78 mg/L yaitu menurun dari 32,67 mg/g menjadi 13,02 mg/g. Mekanisme adsorpsi fenol pada arang aktif lebih sesuaidengan model isotherm Freundlich dibanding model isotherm Langmuir. Kapasitas adsorpsi arang aktif terhadap fenolpada konsentrasi setimbang (KF) mengalami penurunan dari 12,05 mg/g menjadi 9,66 mg/g pada kenaikan suhu ad- sorpsi dari 30 ke 50 °C, selanjutnya kapasitas tersebut meningkat dari 13,46 mg/g menjadi 17,02 mg/g pada kenaikansuhu dari 60 ke 70 °C. Adapun nilai 1/n berada di atas nol yang berarti bahwa adsorpsi bersifat kooperatif dengan energi aktivasi sebesar 403,43 KJ/mol yang merupakan reaksi khemisorpsi.
Formulasi dan Stabilitas Mikroemulsi O/W sebagai Pembawa Fucoxanthin Suhendra, Lutfi; Rahardjo, Sri; Hastuti, Pudji; Hidayat, Chusnul
Agritech Vol 32, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9617

Abstract

The objective of this study was to obtain a clear and stable oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion containing fucoxanthinwhich is intended for aqueous food system application. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used as the oil phase andcombination of Tween 80, Tween 20 and Span 80 were selected as nonionic surfactant having high, medium, and lowHLB (Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance) values, respectively. The o/w microemulsions were formulated to have the Þ nalHLB values of 13.5, 14.0, and 14.5. For each HLB value, three different microemulsion formulas were determined. Allof the formulated microemulsions were then subjected to oven heating at 105 oC for 5 hour, centrifugation at 4500 rpmfor 30 min, incubation at different pH (3.5, 4.5, and 6.5), water dilution, and photooxidation to evaluate its stability.The most stable microemulsion was then selected and used to deliver fucoxanthin as a hydrophobic antioxidant inaqueous system. Photo-oxidation was performed by exposing the microemulsions under ß uorescent light at 4,000 luxfor up to 4 hours at room temperature. Peroxide values were measured every hour using ferric thiocyanate method.Stable o/w microemulsions were obtained when its HLB value was 14.5, the ratio of oil:surfactants was 3:17, andthe ratio of (oil + surfactants) : water was 35 : 65. The ratio of Tween 80 : Tween 20 : Span 80 was 92.0 : 2.5: 5.5. Fucoxanthin microemulsion was remained stable at pH range from 3.5 to 6.5 even after heating treatment,centrifugation, and water dilution. However, there were increased peroxide values of these microemulsions after being subjected to photooxidation. The presence of fucoxanthin (over 12 ppm) in the microemulsion could not effectively inhibit photooxidation of the o/w microemulsion.ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh mikroemulsi minyak dalam air (o/w) yang mengandung fucoxanthinyang stabil dan jernih untuk diaplikasikan dalam sistem makanan aqueous. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) digunakansebagai fase minyak dan kombinasi Tween 80, Tween 20 dan Span 80 sebagai surfaktan non ionik yang masingmasingmempunyai nilai HLB (Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance) tinggi, medium dan rendah. Formulasi mikroemulsio/w ditentukan nilai HLB akhir masing-masing 13,5; 14, dan 14,5. Masing-masing nilai HLB tersebut ditentukan tigaformula yang berbeda. Semua formulasi mikroemulsi kemudian dipanaskan dalam oven pada suhu 105 oC selama 5jam, disentrifugasi pada kecepatan 4500 rpm selama 30 menit, diinkubasi pada pH yang berbeda (3,5; 4,5 dan 6,5),diencerkan dengan akuades dan stabilitas diuji secara fotooksidasi. Mikroemulsi paling stabil selanjutnya dipilih dandigunakan untuk pembawa fucoxanthin sebagai antioksidan hidrofobik dalam sistem aqueous. Fotooksidasi ditentukandengan menempatkan mikroemulasi di bawah sinar ß ouresensi 4000 lux selama 4 jam pada suhu ruang. Angkaperoksida diukur setiap jam menggunakan metode feri thiosianat. Mikroemulsi o/w yang stabil diperoleh pada HLB14,5 dengan rasio minyak : surfaktan = 3 : 17 dan rasio minyak + surfaktan : air = 35 : 65. Rasio Tween 80 : Tween 20: Span 80 adalah 92.0 : 2.5 : 5.5. Mikroemulsi fucoxanthin yang diperoleh stabil pada pH 3,5 sampai 6,5 dan bahkansetelah perlakuan pemanasan, sentrifugasi dan pengenceran. Namun angka peroksida meningkat selama fotooksidasi.Fucoxanthin dalam mikroemulasi lebih dari 12 ppm tidak efektif untuk menghambat fotooksidasi dalam mikroemulsio/w.