Articles

Found 40 Documents
Search

Enzymatic Interesterification of Fish Oil with Lauric Acid for the Synthesis of Structured Lipid

Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 19, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (273.389 KB)

Abstract

Structured lipid (SL) containing of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) at sn-2 position has superior dietary and absorption characteristics. The most methods for the enzymatic synthesis of SL were through two steps process, so that it was inefficient. Caprilic acid was usually used as a source of MCFA. In this research, SL was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification between fish oil and lauric acid. The specific lipase from Mucor miehei was used as catalyzed. Factors, such as the incubation time, substrate mole ratio, and reaction temperature were evaluated. The incorporation and the position of lauric acid on glycerol backbone and glyceride profile were determined. The results showed that SL containing of lauric acid at the outer position and PUFA at sn-2 was successfully synthesized, and it was done through one step process. From regiospecific determination, it showed that the position of lauric acid incorporation was only at the sn-1 and sn-3. Only 0.87% of lauric acid was incorporated at the sn-2. The optimum time and temperature of the reaction, and the substrate mole ratio were 12 h, 50?C and 1:10, respectively, in which the incorporation of lauric acid was 62.8% (mol). Glyceride profile was affected by incubation time, substrate mole ratio and reaction temperature. Triglyceride concentration decreased with an increase in the incubation time (> 12 h). In contrast, the diglyceride concentration increased at longer incubation time (> 12 h). Beside, triglyceride concentration increased with an increase in substrate mole ratio to 1:10, but it decreased when mole ratio of substrate was 1:15. At higher temperature (50?C), triglyceride decreased with an increase in the reaction temperature. In summary, the SL was successfully synthesized by the interesterification of fish oil and lauric acid using specific lipase of Mucor miehei.Key words : Interesterification, fish oil, lauric acid, structured lipids, lipase

SINTESIS LIPIDA TERSTRUKTUR DARI ASAM LAURAT DAN GLISEROL DALAM PELARUT ISOOKTANA DENGAN BIOKATALIS LIPASE Candida rugosa

REAKTOR Volume 13, Nomor 1, Juni 2010
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (262.848 KB)

Abstract

Lipida terstruktur (LS) yang mengandung asam lemak rantai medium mempunyai keuntungan untuk kesehatan dan banyak dipelajari kegunaannya untuk keperluan medis, fungsional nutrisi, dan makanan. Dalam penelitian ini dikaji sintesis enzimatik LS rantai medium dari asam laurat dan gliserol menggunakan lipase Candida rugosa. Berbagai pengaruh parameter reaksi seperti konsentrasi enzim, lama reaksi, suhu, penambahan molecular sieve, dan perbandingan molar substrat (mmol asam laurat/mmol gliserol telah dikaji). Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa kondisi terbaik untuk sintesis gliserida rantai medium dicapai pada suhu reaksi 37°C selama 24 jam dengan  jumlah lipase sebanyak 80 mg, penambahan molecular sieve 0,1 mg, dan perbandingan molar substrat asam laurat/gliserol 3:1. Analisa produk reaksi menggunakan kromatografi gas menunjukkan bahwa lipase Candida rugosa dapat menghasilkan gliserida dengan komposisi persentase molar 15,55% monolaurin, 10,29% dilaurin, dan 1,41% trilaurin

PENGARUH WAKTU DAN SUHU REAKSI TERHADAP SINTESIS LIPID TERSTRUKTUR DARI MINYAK IKAN DAN ASAM LAURAT

Jurnal Teknotan Vol 5, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Jurnal Teknotan

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Lipid terstruktur dengan medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) pada posisi luar dan polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) pada posisi sn-2 memiliki nilai gizi dan absorbsi yang sangat baik. Dalam penelitian ini lipid terstruktur disintesis secara langsung melalui interesterifikasi enzimatis antara minyak ikan dan asam laurat. Reaksi dikatalisis oleh lipase spesifik 1,3 dari Mucor miehei. Faktor-faktor seperti waktu inkubasi  dan suhu reaksi dipelajari. Selanjutnya tingkat inkorporasi asam laurat dan profil gliserida ditentukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa waktu dan suhu reaksi optimum berturut-turut 12 jam dan 50 oC. Rasio mol optimum minyak ikan dan asam laurat adalah 1:10 dengan dihasilkan inkorporasi laurat mencapai 62,8 mol %. Pada waktu inkubasi yang lama, (lebih dari 12 jam), trigliserida menurun seiring dengan meningkatnya waktu inkubasi, sedangkan digliserida meningkat seiring dengan meningkatnya waktu inkubasi. Pada suhu reaksi di atas 50 oC, trigliserida menurun seiring dengan meningkatnya suhu reaksi. Metode interesterifikasi ini cukup efektif untuk mensintesis lipid terstruktur spesifik. Kata kunci : Interesterifikasi, Minyak ikan, Asam laurat, Lipid terstruktur, Inkorporasi

Production and Optimization of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester Synthesis Using Lipase From Rice Bran (Oryza sativa L.) and Germinated Jatropha Seeds (Jatropha curcas L.) by Response Surface Methodology

Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 17, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Recently, the fatty acid ethyl ester has been synthesized in place of fatty acid methyl ester since ethanol has been more renewable. In this research, oleic acid ethyl ester (OAEE) was synthesized using germinated jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas.L) and rice bran (Oryza sativa) as source of lipase. The objective of the research was to optimize the synthesis conditions using Response Surface Methodology. Factors, such as crude enzyme concentration, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol, and the reaction time, were evaluated. The results show that lipase from germinated jatropha seeds had the hydrolitic and esterifi cation activity about 6.73 U/g and 298.07 U/g, respectively. Lipase from rice bran had the hydrolitic and esterifi cation activity about 10.57 U/g and 324.03 U/g, respectively. The optimum conditions of esterifi cation reaction using germinated jatropha seed lipase as biocatalyst were crude enzyme concentration of 0.31 g/ml, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol of 1 : 1.81, and reaction time of 50.9 min. The optimum conditions of esterifi cation reaction using rice bran lipase were crude enzyme concentration of 0.29 g/ml, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol of 1 : 2.05, and reaction time of 58.61 min. The obtained amounts of OAEE were 810.77 μmole and 626.92 μmole for lipases from rice bran and germinated jatropha seed, respectively.

Ethanol Fermentation on Mixed Sugars Using Mixed Culture of Two Yeast Strains

Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 18, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of mixed cultures of the recommended yeast strainsfrom a previous study on ethanol fermentation using a substrate mixture consisting of sucrose, glucose, andfructose. There were three mixed (combination) cultures namely OUT7096/OUT7913, OUT7096/OUT7921,and OUT7913/OUT7921. The fermentation medium contained sugar mixture consisting of glucose, fructose,and sucrose with a composition generally close to the composition of sugars in sweet sorghum juice. Overall,fermentation is carried out in two stages. First fermentation was performed using the three mixed culturesto determine the best combination based on the concentration of ethanol produced and the concentration ofresidual sugar. Second fermentation was conducted using the best mixed culture obtained from the fi rst stage.This second stage was intended to describe the pattern of the changes in the concentration of ethanol, sugarsand biomass during the fermentation progresses and to determine some kinetic parameters namely ethanolyield (Yp/s), growth yield (Yx/s) and specifi c growth rate (μ). The results of the fi rst fermentation showed thatthe best mixed culture was OUT7913/OUT7921 and the subsequent fermentation using this culture providethe highest ethanol yield (Yp/s) = 0.47 g.g-1 that was reached at 53rd hour, growth yield (Yx/s) = 0.425 g.g-1, andμ = 0.12 hour-1.Keywords : fermentation, ethanol, mixed culture, mixed sugar

SIFAT FISIKA DAN KIMIAWI KOMPONEN ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA HASIL ADSORPSI PADA ARANG AKTIF

AGROLAND Vol 21, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : AGROLAND

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (310.053 KB)

Abstract

Characterization of physical and chemical properties of aroma compounds from liquid smoke is a challenge because there is no satisfactory method of separation due to compound contributors generally present in a matrix at very low concentrations. This study aimed to separate and identify the components of "strong and pungent" liquid smoke aromatic compounds by adsorption using activated carbon method. The observed variables analyzed using GC-MS including yield, phenol, carbonyl, titration acidity and chemical compound profiles. The chemical components of liquid smoke found on the analysis by GC-MS were further analyzed using a molecular mechanics software to determine the polarizability, hydrophobicity and dwipol moment of each compound     in the liquid smoke fraction adsorption results. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPSS software version 16, followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test at the level of 1% was employed especially for the yield of liquid smoke adsorption. The physico-chemical characteristics of  25 fractions of liquid smoke resulted from adsorption on activated carbon at pH 2-6 comprising of 0.53 to 3.89% phenolic; 1.09 to 2.59% carbonyl; 7.17 to 10.75% acidicity; and pH range from     2.39 to 2.91 with the color spectrum in the range of 308-415 nm. The results of the analysis using the molecular mechanics methods showed that the higher the value of polarizability and dipole moment of a compound, the more polar the compound. It is concluded that the removal of the "strong and pungent" aroma compounds on coconut shell liquid smoke in order to produce a mild scent (soft) can be performed by activated carbon adsorption method despite the results were not optimal yet. A polar adsorbent such as zeolite is requiredin the adsorption method for the removal of "strong and pungent” aroma compounds on liquid smoke

PROFIL AROMA ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA HASIL DISTILASI FRAKSINASI BERTINGKAT PADA BERBAGAI PERLAKUAN SUHU Profile Liquid Smoke Aroma of Coconut Shell Products at Various Temperatures Using Multistages Distillation Vessel

Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 01 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Have been carried out in stages distillation liquid smoke at a temperature of  90, 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140 °C,which aims to assess the decrease in the intensity of the aroma of coconut shell liquid smoke through fractionation by distillation storey.The results were obtained a total recovery of 90.52 % with the highest at a temperature range of 100-130 °C distillation ie 88.88 %. Sensory evaluation results showed that the liquid smoke fraction II at a temperature of 120 °C obtained the highest percentage of acceptance by panelists namely 65 %. The main volatile components as a liquid smoke aroma contributors are grouped into four, namely: Group alcohols, acids and esters, carbonyl group, phenol and its derivatives as well as guaiacol and its derivatives. All of the tested liquid smoke fractions containing groups of the compounds with varying intensity.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan distilasi asap cair secara bertingkat pada suhu 90; 100; 110; 120; 130 dan 140 °C, yang bertujuanmengkaji penurunan intensitas aroma asap cair tempurung kelapa melalui distilasi fraksinasi bertingkat. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh total rendemen sebesar 90,52 % dengan hasil tertinggi pada suhu distilasi berkisar 100-130 °C yakni88,88 %. Hasil pengujian sensoris menunjukkan bahwa asap cair fraksi ll yang didistilasi pada suhu 120 °C memperoleh persentase penerimaan tertinggi oleh panelis yakni 65%. Komponen volatil utama sebagai kontributor aroma asap cair dikelompokkan ke dalam empat golongan yaitu: (1) Kelompok alkohol, asam dan ester, (2) Kelompok karbonil, (3) Fenol dan turunannya serta (4) Guaiakol dan turunannya. Seluruh fraksi asap cair yang diujikan mengandung kelompok senyawa tersebut dengan intensitas yang bervariasi.

OPTIMASI EKSTRAKSI OLEORESIN PALA (Myristica fragrans Houtt) ASAL MALUKU UTARA MENGGUNAKAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM)

Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 04 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to obtain the optimum extraction conditions by performing the optimization of temperature and extraction time and characterization of constituent chemical components of oleoresin nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) Origin of North Maluku. Oleoresin extracted using maceration method, for optimization of extraction conditions was done by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) design with the Central Composite Design (CCD) two factors X1 (temperature / oC) and X2 (times / minute). As for the characterization of the chemical constituent components of nutmeg oleoresin used GC-MS. From the results obtained by the optimization of extraction conditions for extracting the optimum temperature of 51.98 °C and the optimum extraction time was 273.82 minutes with the results for the optimum result of oleoresin obtained by 14.88%. The results of characterization by using GC-MS obtained with 39 components making up oleoresin chemical compound with the largest relative area of ​​the compound methyleugenol (33,397%), myristicine (10,898%), cis-methyl isoeugenol (9,086%), elemicin (8,329% ), and isocoumarin (5,608%) with 34 percent of the components that have relatively minor area.Keywords: Nutmeg oleoresin, extraction optimization, Response Surface Methodology, characterization ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh kondisi ekstraksi yang optimum dengan melakukan optimasi suhu dan lama ekstraksi dan karakterisasi komponen kimia penyusun oleoresin pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt) Asal Maluku Utara. Oleoresin diekstrak menggunakan metode maserasi, untuk optimasi kondisi ekstraksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Response Surface Methodology (RSM) dengan disain rancangan Central Composite Design (CCD) dua faktor yaitu X1 (suhu/oC) dan X2 (waktu/menit). Sedangkan untuk karakterisasi komponen senyawa kimia penyusun oleoresin pala digunakan GC-MS. Hasil optimasi kondisi ekstraksi diperoleh suhu optimum ekstraksi sebesar  51,98oC dan waktu optimum ekstraksi adalah selama 273,82 menit dengan hasil optimum hasil oleoresin yang diperoleh sebesar 14,88 %. Hasil karakterisasi dengan menggunakan GC-MS diperoleh 39 komponen dengan 5 senyawa kimia penyusun oleoresin dengan luas area relatif terbesar yaitu senyawa methyleugenol (33.397%), myristicine (10.898%), cis-methyl isoeugenol (9.086%), elemicin (8.329%), dan isocoumarin (5.608%) dengan 34 komponen  yang memiliki persen relatif luas area minor. Kata kunci: Oleoresin pala, optimasi ekstraksi, Response Surface Methodology, karakterisasi

EFEKTIVITAS MIKROEMULSI O/W DENGAN SURFAKTAN NON IONIK DALAM MENGHAMBAT FOTOOKSIDASI VITAMIN C PADA MODEL MINUMAN (Effectiveness of Oil-in-Water Microemulsions with Nonionic Surfactants in Inhibiting Photooxidation of Vitamin C in Beverage Model)

Jurnal Agritech Vol 33, No 01 (2013)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

The objective of this study was to obtain the effectiveness of oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion using nonionic surfactans to improve the stability and inhibit the deterioration rate of vitamin C in beverage model systems caused by photooxidation. O/W microemulsions were formulated with oil-surfactan ratio (15:85 v/v), with surfactant mixture consisting of Tween 80:Span 80:Tween 20 = 92:5.5:2.5 (% v/v) and water content 65%. O/W microemulsions were subjected to stability towards pH and dilution. The dilution were done by dilute microemulsions with water and citrate buffer (pH: 3.5; 4.5 and water pH 6.5) with proportion 1:1, 1:9 and 1:99. The microemulsios were tested the stability on heating treatment at 105 °C for 5 hours and during storage for 8 weeks at room temperature. The baverage models were vitamin C solution (450 mg/L, citric acid (1%) and sucrose (6%). The o/w microemulsions added in the beverage models were microemulsion that had been diluted 50 and 100 times with water pH 6.5. The beverage model was added with 5 ppm erythrosin as sensitizer and without erythrosin as control. The models were exposed to fl ourescent light with an intensity of 2000 lux. Vitamin C concentration was mesured by the method of ribofl avin-sensitized photodynamic UV spectrophotometry every 2 hours. The o/w microemulsion was stable at pH 3.5 to 6.5 and dilution (1:1, 1:9, and 1:99), heating and storage. The o/w microemulsions which were diluted 100 times effectively increased the stability of vitamin C, but the o/w microemulsions diluted 50 times was more efective to inhibit the rate of distruction of vitamin C due to photooxidation in beverage model.Keywords: Microemulsions, vitamin C, photooxidation, surfactant ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh efektivitas mikroemulsi o/w dengan surfaktan non ionik untuk meningkatkan stabilitas dan menghambat laju kerusakan vitamin C akibat fotooksidasi pada model minuman. Mikroemulsi oil-inwater(o/w) dibentuk dari campuran minyak–surfaktan (15:85 v/v) dengan perbandingan surfaktan Tween 80:Span 80:Tween 20 = 92:5,5: 2,5 (% v/v) dengan kadar air 65%. Mikroemulsi o/w diuji stabilitas terhadap pH dan pengenceran dengan cara mengencerkan mikroemulsi dengan media air dan buffer sitrat (pH: 3,5; 4,5 dan aquades pH 6,5) dengan proporsi 1:1. 1:9 dan 1:99, selanjutnya mikroemulsi o/w yang telah dilakukan pengenceran dengan pH berbeda ini diuji stabilitasnya pada pemanasan 105 °C selama 5 jam dan stabilitas penyimpanan selama 8 minggu pada suhu ruang. Model minuman terdiri dari larutan vitamin C (450 mg/L), asam sitrat (1%) dan sukrosa (6%). Mikroemulsi o/w yang ditambahkan ke dalam model minuman adalah mikroemulsi diencerkan 50 kali dan 100 kali dengan aquades pH 6,5. Selanjutnya ditambahkan dengan/tanpa eritrosin sehingga masing-masing larutan mengandung eritrosin 5 ppm sebagai sensitiser. Sampel tersebut kemudian dipapar dengan lampu fl uoresen dengan intensitas cahaya 2000 lux. Konsentrasi vitamin C diukur dengan metode ribofl avin-sensitized photodynamic UV spectrophotometry tiap 2 jam. Mikroemulsi o/w stabil pada pH 3,5 sampai 6,5 dan pengenceran (1:1. 1:9 dan 1:99), pemanasan dan penyimpanan. Mikroemulsi o/w diencerkan 100 kali efektif meningkatkan stabilitas vitamin C, namun mikroemulsi o/w diencerkan 50 kali lebih efektif untuk menghambat laju kerusakan vitamin C akibat fotooksidasi pada model minuman.Kata kunci: Mikroemulsi, vitamin C, fotooksidsi, surfaktan

OPTIMASI KONDISI FERMENTASI WHEY DANGKE SEBAGAI PRODUK MINUMAN DENGAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 03 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Optimization of Fermentation Conditions of Dangke Whey as Beverage Product by Using Response SurfaceMethodologyABSTRAKWhey dangke merupakan limbah dangke yang belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Whey dangke dipisahkan dari curdmenggunakan getah buah pepaya sebagai sumber enzim. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi kondisifermentasi (level inokulum, waktu inkubasi dan level tapioka) whey limbah dangke sebagai produk minuman denganresponse surface methodology. Minuman fermentasi komersial digunakan sebagai target dalam menentukan kondisioptimal. Whey dicampur tepung tapioka level 0, 0,35., 0,7., 1,05 dan 1,4% dan dipanaskan sambil diaduk selama 5menit suhu 70 oC. Whey selanjutnya dipasteurisasi suhu 80oC selama 30 menit. Setelah dingin diinokulasi L.acidophiluslevel 1, 3, 5, dan 7% serta diinkubasi suhu 37 oC selama 8, 12, 16, 18 dan 24 jam. Karakteristik produk minuman yangdiperoleh dengan penambahan level inokulum 5%, tapioka level 0,7% dan diinkubasi 16 jam hampir sama karakteristikminuman fermentasi komersial adalah kandungan asam laktat 0,58%, viskositas 0,21 poise dan pH 3,7. Karakteristiktersebut dapat didekati dengan mengoptimasi kondisi fermentasi menggunakan metode RSM.Kata kunci: Whey dangke, kondisi fermentasi, produk minuman, response surface methodologyABSTRACTDangke whey is a dangke by-product that has not been widely utilized. Dangke whey is separated from curd using thepapaya latex as source of enzymes. The objectives of the study were to optimize fermentation conditions (tapioca level,inoculum level, and incubation time) of whey from dangke waste by using a response surface methodology. Commerciallyfermentative beverage was used as a target to determine the optimal conditions. Whey was mixed with tapioca level of0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, and 1.4%, and was heated by stirring for 5 minutes at temperature of 70 oC. The whey was pasteurizedat the temperature of 80 oC for 30 minutes. The whey was cool, and inoculated with L.acidophilus at the level of 1,3, 5, and 7%, and incubated at 37 °C for 8, 12, 16, 18, and 24 hours, respectively. The characteristics of fermentationbeverage obtained by the addition of inoculum level of 5%, tapioca 0.7% level and incubated for 16 hours were similarto the characteristics of commercially fermentative beverage. The characteristics of fermentated beverage were asfollows: lactic acid was 0.58%, viscosity was 0.21 poise and pH was 3, 7, respectively. These characteristics could beobtained by optimization of fermentation conditions by using RSM method.Keywords: Dangke whey, fermentation conditions, beverage product, response surface methodology