Articles

Enzymatic Interesterification of Fish Oil with Lauric Acid for the Synthesis of Structured Lipid Subroto, Edy; Hidayat, Chusnul; ., Supriyadi
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 19, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (273.389 KB) | DOI: 10.6066/340

Abstract

Structured lipid (SL) containing of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) at sn-2 position has superior dietary and absorption characteristics. The most methods for the enzymatic synthesis of SL were through two steps process, so that it was inefficient. Caprilic acid was usually used as a source of MCFA. In this research, SL was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification between fish oil and lauric acid. The specific lipase from Mucor miehei was used as catalyzed. Factors, such as the incubation time, substrate mole ratio, and reaction temperature were evaluated. The incorporation and the position of lauric acid on glycerol backbone and glyceride profile were determined. The results showed that SL containing of lauric acid at the outer position and PUFA at sn-2 was successfully synthesized, and it was done through one step process. From regiospecific determination, it showed that the position of lauric acid incorporation was only at the sn-1 and sn-3. Only 0.87% of lauric acid was incorporated at the sn-2. The optimum time and temperature of the reaction, and the substrate mole ratio were 12 h, 50?C and 1:10, respectively, in which the incorporation of lauric acid was 62.8% (mol). Glyceride profile was affected by incubation time, substrate mole ratio and reaction temperature. Triglyceride concentration decreased with an increase in the incubation time (> 12 h). In contrast, the diglyceride concentration increased at longer incubation time (> 12 h). Beside, triglyceride concentration increased with an increase in substrate mole ratio to 1:10, but it decreased when mole ratio of substrate was 1:15. At higher temperature (50?C), triglyceride decreased with an increase in the reaction temperature. In summary, the SL was successfully synthesized by the interesterification of fish oil and lauric acid using specific lipase of Mucor miehei.Key words : Interesterification, fish oil, lauric acid, structured lipids, lipase
SINTESIS LIPIDA TERSTRUKTUR DARI ASAM LAURAT DAN GLISEROL DALAM PELARUT ISOOKTANA DENGAN BIOKATALIS LIPASE Candida rugosa Poerwanto, Sriyono; Hidayat, Chusnul; Supriyadi, Supriyadi
REAKTOR Volume 13, Nomor 1, Juni 2010
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (262.848 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.13.1.44-50

Abstract

Lipida terstruktur (LS) yang mengandung asam lemak rantai medium mempunyai keuntungan untuk kesehatan dan banyak dipelajari kegunaannya untuk keperluan medis, fungsional nutrisi, dan makanan. Dalam penelitian ini dikaji sintesis enzimatik LS rantai medium dari asam laurat dan gliserol menggunakan lipase Candida rugosa. Berbagai pengaruh parameter reaksi seperti konsentrasi enzim, lama reaksi, suhu, penambahan molecular sieve, dan perbandingan molar substrat (mmol asam laurat/mmol gliserol telah dikaji). Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa kondisi terbaik untuk sintesis gliserida rantai medium dicapai pada suhu reaksi 37°C selama 24 jam dengan  jumlah lipase sebanyak 80 mg, penambahan molecular sieve 0,1 mg, dan perbandingan molar substrat asam laurat/gliserol 3:1. Analisa produk reaksi menggunakan kromatografi gas menunjukkan bahwa lipase Candida rugosa dapat menghasilkan gliserida dengan komposisi persentase molar 15,55% monolaurin, 10,29% dilaurin, dan 1,41% trilaurin
PENGARUH WAKTU DAN SUHU REAKSI TERHADAP SINTESIS LIPID TERSTRUKTUR DARI MINYAK IKAN DAN ASAM LAURAT Subroto, Edy; Hidayat, Chusnul; -, Supriyadi
Jurnal Teknotan Vol 5, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Jurnal Teknotan

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Abstract

Lipid terstruktur dengan medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) pada posisi luar dan polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) pada posisi sn-2 memiliki nilai gizi dan absorbsi yang sangat baik. Dalam penelitian ini lipid terstruktur disintesis secara langsung melalui interesterifikasi enzimatis antara minyak ikan dan asam laurat. Reaksi dikatalisis oleh lipase spesifik 1,3 dari Mucor miehei. Faktor-faktor seperti waktu inkubasi  dan suhu reaksi dipelajari. Selanjutnya tingkat inkorporasi asam laurat dan profil gliserida ditentukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa waktu dan suhu reaksi optimum berturut-turut 12 jam dan 50 oC. Rasio mol optimum minyak ikan dan asam laurat adalah 1:10 dengan dihasilkan inkorporasi laurat mencapai 62,8 mol %. Pada waktu inkubasi yang lama, (lebih dari 12 jam), trigliserida menurun seiring dengan meningkatnya waktu inkubasi, sedangkan digliserida meningkat seiring dengan meningkatnya waktu inkubasi. Pada suhu reaksi di atas 50 oC, trigliserida menurun seiring dengan meningkatnya suhu reaksi. Metode interesterifikasi ini cukup efektif untuk mensintesis lipid terstruktur spesifik. Kata kunci : Interesterifikasi, Minyak ikan, Asam laurat, Lipid terstruktur, Inkorporasi
Production of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester Catalyzed by Crude Rice Bran (Oryza sativa) Lipase in a Modified Fed-batch System: A Problem and its Solution Prastowo, Indro; Hidayat, Chusnul; Hastuti, Pudji
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2015: BCREC Volume 10 Issue 3 Year 2015 (SCOPUS Indexed, December 2015)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.10.3.8511.230-236

Abstract

A fed-batch system was modified for the enzymatic production of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester (OAEE) using rice bran (Oryza sativa) lipase by retaining the substrate molar ratio (ethanol/oleic acid) at 2.05:1 during the reaction. It resulted in an increase in the ester conversion of up to 76.8% in the first 6 h of the reaction, which was then followed by a decrease from 76.8% to 22.9% in 6 h later. The production of water in the reaction system also showed a similar trend. The water was hypothesized to lead lipase to reverse the reaction which resulted in a decrease in both (water and esters) in the last 6 h of the reac- tion. In order to overcome the problem, zeolite powder (25 and 50 mg/mL) were added into the reaction system at 5 h of the reaction. As the result, the final ester conversions increased drastically up to 90 - 95.7%. Thus, the combination of a constant substrate molar ratio (ethanol/oleic acid) during the reaction (at 2.05:1) with the addition of zeolite powder (25 and 50 mg/mL) to the reaction system at 5 h is effective for the enzymatic synthesis of OAEE. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd May 2015; Revised: 20th June 2015; Accepted: 2nd July 2015 How to Cite: Prastowo, I., Hidayat, C., Hastuti, P. (2015). Production of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester Catalyzed by Crude Rice Bran (Oryza sativa) Lipase in a Modified Fed-batch System: A Problem and its Solution. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (3): 230-236. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.3.8511.230-236) Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.3.8511.230-236
Production and Optimization of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester Synthesis Using Lipase From Rice Bran (Oryza sativa L.) and Germinated Jatropha Seeds (Jatropha curcas L.) by Response Surface Methodology Prastowo, Indro; Hidayat, Chusnul; Hastuti, Pramudji
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 17, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Recently, the fatty acid ethyl ester has been synthesized in place of fatty acid methyl ester since ethanol has been more renewable. In this research, oleic acid ethyl ester (OAEE) was synthesized using germinated jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas.L) and rice bran (Oryza sativa) as source of lipase. The objective of the research was to optimize the synthesis conditions using Response Surface Methodology. Factors, such as crude enzyme concentration, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol, and the reaction time, were evaluated. The results show that lipase from germinated jatropha seeds had the hydrolitic and esterifi cation activity about 6.73 U/g and 298.07 U/g, respectively. Lipase from rice bran had the hydrolitic and esterifi cation activity about 10.57 U/g and 324.03 U/g, respectively. The optimum conditions of esterifi cation reaction using germinated jatropha seed lipase as biocatalyst were crude enzyme concentration of 0.31 g/ml, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol of 1 : 1.81, and reaction time of 50.9 min. The optimum conditions of esterifi cation reaction using rice bran lipase were crude enzyme concentration of 0.29 g/ml, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol of 1 : 2.05, and reaction time of 58.61 min. The obtained amounts of OAEE were 810.77 μmole and 626.92 μmole for lipases from rice bran and germinated jatropha seed, respectively.
Ethanol Fermentation on Mixed Sugars Using Mixed Culture of Two Yeast Strains ., Jasman; Prijambada, Irfan Dwidya; Hidayat, Chusnul; Widianto, Donny
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 18, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of mixed cultures of the recommended yeast strainsfrom a previous study on ethanol fermentation using a substrate mixture consisting of sucrose, glucose, andfructose. There were three mixed (combination) cultures namely OUT7096/OUT7913, OUT7096/OUT7921,and OUT7913/OUT7921. The fermentation medium contained sugar mixture consisting of glucose, fructose,and sucrose with a composition generally close to the composition of sugars in sweet sorghum juice. Overall,fermentation is carried out in two stages. First fermentation was performed using the three mixed culturesto determine the best combination based on the concentration of ethanol produced and the concentration ofresidual sugar. Second fermentation was conducted using the best mixed culture obtained from the fi rst stage.This second stage was intended to describe the pattern of the changes in the concentration of ethanol, sugarsand biomass during the fermentation progresses and to determine some kinetic parameters namely ethanolyield (Yp/s), growth yield (Yx/s) and specifi c growth rate (μ). The results of the fi rst fermentation showed thatthe best mixed culture was OUT7913/OUT7921 and the subsequent fermentation using this culture providethe highest ethanol yield (Yp/s) = 0.47 g.g-1 that was reached at 53rd hour, growth yield (Yx/s) = 0.425 g.g-1, andμ = 0.12 hour-1.Keywords : fermentation, ethanol, mixed culture, mixed sugar
SIFAT FISIKA DAN KIMIAWI KOMPONEN ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA HASIL ADSORPSI PADA ARANG AKTIF Kadir, Syahraeni; Darmadji, Purnama Darmadji; Hidayat, Chusnul; Supriyadi, Supriyadi
AGROLAND Vol 21, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : AGROLAND

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Abstract

Characterization of physical and chemical properties of aroma compounds from liquid smoke is a challenge because there is no satisfactory method of separation due to compound contributors generally present in a matrix at very low concentrations. This study aimed to separate and identify the components of "strong and pungent" liquid smoke aromatic compounds by adsorption using activated carbon method. The observed variables analyzed using GC-MS including yield, phenol, carbonyl, titration acidity and chemical compound profiles. The chemical components of liquid smoke found on the analysis by GC-MS were further analyzed using a molecular mechanics software to determine the polarizability, hydrophobicity and dwipol moment of each compound     in the liquid smoke fraction adsorption results. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPSS software version 16, followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test at the level of 1% was employed especially for the yield of liquid smoke adsorption. The physico-chemical characteristics of  25 fractions of liquid smoke resulted from adsorption on activated carbon at pH 2-6 comprising of 0.53 to 3.89% phenolic; 1.09 to 2.59% carbonyl; 7.17 to 10.75% acidicity; and pH range from     2.39 to 2.91 with the color spectrum in the range of 308-415 nm. The results of the analysis using the molecular mechanics methods showed that the higher the value of polarizability and dipole moment of a compound, the more polar the compound. It is concluded that the removal of the "strong and pungent" aroma compounds on coconut shell liquid smoke in order to produce a mild scent (soft) can be performed by activated carbon adsorption method despite the results were not optimal yet. A polar adsorbent such as zeolite is requiredin the adsorption method for the removal of "strong and pungent” aroma compounds on liquid smoke
Surface Modification of Macroporous Matrix for Immobilization of Lipase in Ester Fructose Oleic Synthesis Hilmanto, Hani; Hidayat, Chusnul; Hastuti, Pudji
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis Article In Press 2016
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.0.x.9792.xxx-xxx

Abstract

The objective of this research was to modify the matrix surfaces to obtain both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic-hydrophobic matrices by the addition of 2-fenilpropionaldehid and the addition of glutaraldehyde, followed by the addition of polyethylenimine, and 2-fenilpropionaldehid, respectively. Matrices were used for the immobilization of lipase. Factors, such as salt concentration and adsorption time were evaluated. The immobilized lipase was used to catalyse the synthesis of fructose oleic ester. The results show that there was an increase in the peak area at wave number 1610 cm-1 after matrix surface modification from FTIR analysis. It indicated that imine groups (C= N) were formed by the reaction between the amine groups of matrix and the aldehyde groups of 2-fenilpropionaldehid. The optimum conditions of lipase immobilization was obtained at buffer pH 7 containing 0.5 M NaCl for hydrophobic matrix (9.27mg lipase / g matrix), whereas lipase adsorption decreased at the presence of salt in buffer on the hydrophilic-hydrophobic matrix. The adsorbed lipase was 9.23 mg lipase/g matrix in buffer pH 7 without salt for the hydrophilic-hydrophobic matrix. The immobilization time was 2 h for both types of matrix. The best immobilized matrix concentration was about 8 % (75.96%) and 6% (57.74%) for the hydrophobic matrix and hydrophilic-hydrophobic matrix, respectively. The optimum time of esterification was 24h (75.96%) and 18h (85.29%) for hydrophobic matrix and hydrophilic-hydrophobic matrix, respectively. Hydrophilic-hydrophobic matrix produced higher sugar ester yield (56.04%) than hydrophobic matrix (31.71%) when using the same amount of lipase on the matrix. The immobilized lipase could be used up to 3 cycle esterification reaction.
Enzymatic phorbol esters degradation using the germinated Jatropha curcas seed lipase as biocatalyst: optimization process conditions by Response Surface Methodology Wardhani, Avita Kusuma; Hidayat, Chusnul; Hastuti, Pudji
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis Article In Press 2016
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.0.x.9819.xxx-xxx

Abstract

Utilization of jatropha curcas seed cake is limited by the presence of phorbol esters (PE), which are the main toxic compound and heat stable. The objective of this research was to optimize the reaction conditions of the enzymatic PE degradation of the defatted jatropha curcas seed cake (DJSC) using the acetone-dried lipase from the germinated jatropha curcas seeds as biocatalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using three-factors-three-levels Box Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the reaction time, the ratio of buffer volume to DJSC, and the ratio of enzyme to DJSC on PE degradation. The results showed that the optimum conditions of PE degradation were 29.33 h, 51.11 : 6 (mL/g), and 30.10 : 5 (U/g cake) for the reaction time, the ratio of buffer volume to DJSC, and the ratio of enzyme to DJSC, respectively. The predicted degradation of PE was 98.96% was not significant different with the validated data of PE degradation. PE content was 0.035 mg/g, in which it was lower than PE in non-toxic Jatropha seeds. The results indicated that enzymatic degradation of PE may a promising method for degradation of PE.
PROFIL AROMA ASAP CAIR TEMPURUNG KELAPA HASIL DISTILASI FRAKSINASI BERTINGKAT PADA BERBAGAI PERLAKUAN SUHU Profile Liquid Smoke Aroma of Coconut Shell Products at Various Temperatures Using Multistages Distillation Vessel Kadir, Syahraeni; Darmadji, Purnama; Hidayat, Chusnul; ., Supriyadi
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 01 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

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Abstract

Have been carried out in stages distillation liquid smoke at a temperature of  90, 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140 °C,which aims to assess the decrease in the intensity of the aroma of coconut shell liquid smoke through fractionation by distillation storey.The results were obtained a total recovery of 90.52 % with the highest at a temperature range of 100-130 °C distillation ie 88.88 %. Sensory evaluation results showed that the liquid smoke fraction II at a temperature of 120 °C obtained the highest percentage of acceptance by panelists namely 65 %. The main volatile components as a liquid smoke aroma contributors are grouped into four, namely: Group alcohols, acids and esters, carbonyl group, phenol and its derivatives as well as guaiacol and its derivatives. All of the tested liquid smoke fractions containing groups of the compounds with varying intensity.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan distilasi asap cair secara bertingkat pada suhu 90; 100; 110; 120; 130 dan 140 °C, yang bertujuanmengkaji penurunan intensitas aroma asap cair tempurung kelapa melalui distilasi fraksinasi bertingkat. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh total rendemen sebesar 90,52 % dengan hasil tertinggi pada suhu distilasi berkisar 100-130 °C yakni88,88 %. Hasil pengujian sensoris menunjukkan bahwa asap cair fraksi ll yang didistilasi pada suhu 120 °C memperoleh persentase penerimaan tertinggi oleh panelis yakni 65%. Komponen volatil utama sebagai kontributor aroma asap cair dikelompokkan ke dalam empat golongan yaitu: (1) Kelompok alkohol, asam dan ester, (2) Kelompok karbonil, (3) Fenol dan turunannya serta (4) Guaiakol dan turunannya. Seluruh fraksi asap cair yang diujikan mengandung kelompok senyawa tersebut dengan intensitas yang bervariasi.