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Decreased Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis post Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Exposures in Sprague Dawley Male Mice Cardiac Cells

Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 61 No. 7 July 2011
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Aviators often experience intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) which may cause apoptosis. This study was aimed to analyze the effects of IHH on oxidative stress and apoptosis. Experimental study conducted in February-April 2010 consisted of one control group and four exposed groups of male mice Sprague Dawley. Each group consisted of 7 mice. The control group did not have IHH. The exposed groups (with an interval of one week) had once, twice, three, or four times IHH using a chamber flight. All exposed groups were treated hypobaric equivalent to: 35 000 ft altitude (one minutes), 25 000 ft (five minutes), and 18 000 ft (25 minutes). Protein MnSOD and Caspase-3 expression on mice heart cell were detected by Western Blot methods. In regard to protein MnSOD expressions, subjects with four time IHH exposures had likely similar level of oxidative stress (p=0.4057) compared with control groups. However, in term of protein Caspase-3 expressions, subjects with one, two times IHH exposures had increased apoptosis (p=0.0000; p=0.0001 respectively); three and four time exposures had decreased apoptosis (p=0.0187; p=0.0001 respectively). In conclusion, oxidative stress and apoptosis cell started to decrease after three-time IHH exposures in Sprague Dawley male mice. J Indon Med Assoc.2011;61:289-92.Keywords: intermittent hypobaric hypoxia, MnSOD, Caspase-3, Sprague Dawley Male Mice

Pajanan Hipoksia Hipobarik Intermiten Menurunkan Metabolisme Anaerobik pada Tikus Jantan Spraque Dawley

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 10, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Hipoksia hipobarik intermiten (HHI) sering dialami oleh para penerbang maupun awak pesawat. Jika hipoksia berlanjut, maka terjadi metabolisme anaerobik yang berlebihan dan gangguan pada mitokondria yang menyebabkan apoptosis. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis efek pajanan HHI terhadap metabolisme anaerobik dengan mengukur ekspresi LDH dan kadar asam laktat sebagai indikator glikolisis serta ekspresi caspase-3 untuk melihat apoptosis sel. Dilakukan penelitian eksperimental selama periode Januari-April 2010 pada tikus jantan Spraque Dawley yang dipajankan HHI satu sampai empat kali dengan interval satu minggu. Satu kelompok kontrol tidak dipajankan hipobarik hipoksia sedangkan empat kelompok perlakuan dipajankan pada hipobarik hipoksia menggunakan type I chamber flight profile (ruang udara bertekanan rendah – RUBR) dengan modifikasi. Tekanan RUBR disesuaikan setara ketinggian 35.000 kaki selama 1-2 menit, 25.000 kaki selama 5 menit, dan 18.000 kaki selama 25 menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar asam laktat menurun dengan semakin seringnya tikus terpajan HHI. Ekspresi protein LDH dan Caspase-3 dengan imunohistokimia dan Western Blot juga menurun dengan semakin seringnya tikus terpajan hipoksia hipobarik. Terdapat korelasi antara penurunan ekspresi protein LDH dan Caspase-3 (r = 0,522; p=0,0031). Simpulannya adalah pajanan HHI menurunkan metabolisme anaerobik yang ditandai dengan penurunan glikolisis dan apoptosis pada tikus jantan jenis Spraque Dawley.Kata kunci: hipoksia hipobarik intermiten, metabolisme anaerobik, LDH, asam laktat, Caspase-3

Ekspresi Bcl-2 dan Caspase-3 Pascapaparan Hipoksia Hipobarik Intermiten

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 43, No 4 (2011)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Hipoksia hipobarik intermiten sering dialami oleh awak pesawat, karena selama di dalam kabin pesawat bernapas dengan tekanan udara yang lebih rendah. Tubuh akan beradaptasi dengan cara mengikat oksigen lebih banyak dan juga mengurangi dampak hipoksia. Fungsi mitokondria akan terganggu pada hipoksia, yaitu permiabilitas membran luar mitokondria karena protein Bcl-2 menurun. Jika hipoksia berlanjut akan terjadi kebocoran membran mitokondria, pelepasan sitokrom-c, dan proses apoptosis berlangsung. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis protein Bcl-2 sebagai antiapoptosis dan caspase-3 sebagai indikator apoptosis akibat paparan hipoksia hipobarik intermiten. Dilakukan penelitian eksperimental pada tikus jantan Spraque Dawley periode Januari–April 2010 dengan melakukan paparan hipoksia hipobarik intermiten satu sampai empat kali dengan interval satu minggu. Jantung tikus dijadikan spesimen untuk dilakukan pemeriksaan ekspresi protein dengan pulasan imunohistokimia di Departemen Patologi Anatomi RS Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung dan western blot di Bagian Biomolekuler FK Universitas Indonesia Jakarta. Ekspresi protein Bcl-2 meningkat sesuai dengan frekuensi paparan hipoksia hipobarik intermiten, sebaliknya ekspresi protein caspase-3 menurun (rs=-0,448, p=0,013). Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa terjadi penurunan tingkat apoptosis akibat paparan hipoksia hipobarik intermiten, hal ini disebabkan mekanisme adaptasi natural yang ditandai dengan menurunnya apoptosis sel dan secara tidak langsung akan memberi efek kardioprotektif. [MKB. 2011;43(4):166–70].Kata kunci: Apoptosis, Bcl-2, caspase-3, hipoksia hipobarik intermitenBcl-2 and Caspase-3 Expression Post Exposure of Intermittent Hypobaric HypoxiaIntermittent hypobaric hypoxia often suffered by cabin crew due to the fact that they are breathing lower pressured air inside the plane cabin. Human body will adapt by binding more oxygen and reducing hypoxia effect. Mitochondria function will be irritated by hypoxia which affect, outer mithochondrial membrane permeability due to decrease of Bcl-2 protein. Later on if hypoxia continues mitochondrial membrane will leaked cytocrome-c will released and apoptotic pathway will occur. The purpose of this study was to analyze Bcl-2 protein as antiapoptosis and caspase-3 as apoptosis indicator of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia exposure. Experimental study >was subjected to Spraque Dawley male mice during January–April 2010 by exposing them to several intermittent hypobaric hypoxias (one to four treatment) in an interval of one week. Protein expression on mice heart cell were detected by immunohistochemistry in the Department of Pathology Anatomy Padjadjaran University-RS Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung and western blot methods in Department Biomolecullar Indonesia University Jakarta. Bcl-2 protein expressions increased according with the frequency of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia exposures while a reverse trend was found for caspase-3 protein expressions (rs=-0.448, p=0.013). From the study it can be concluded that apoptosis will be decreased as a result of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia exposures, which occurred from natural adaptation mechanism indicated by decrease of cell apoptosis and cardio protective effect will be emerged. [MKB. 2011;43(4):166–70].Key words: Apoptosis, Bcl-2, caspase-3, intermittent hypobaric hypoxia

PENGARUH PERBEDAAN JUMLAH PAPARAN HIPOKSIA HIPOBARIK INTERMITEN TERHADAP DAYA TAHAN JANTUNG MELALUI EKSPRESI PROTEIN BCL-2, MNSOD, LDH, CASPASE-3 DAN KADAR ASAM LAKTAT PADA TIKUS JANTAN SPRAQUE DAWLEY

Indonesian Journal of Applied Sciences Vol 2, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Hipoksia hipobarik intermiten (HHI) sering dialami oleh para awak pesawat. Jika hipoksia berlanjut menyebabkan apoptosis.Tujuan penelitian menganalisis efek paparan HHI terhadap stres oksidatif , glikolisis dan apoptosis melalui ekspresi Bcl-2,MnSOD, LDH dan Caspase-3 pada sel jantung tikus. Penelitian eksperimental dilakukan pada 5 kelompok tikus jantan Spraque Dawley, yang masing-masing terdiri dari tujuh ekor tikus. Kontrol tidak dipaparkan HHI, sedangkan empat kelompok yang lain dipaparkan HHI dengan interval satu minggu menggunakan ruang udara bertekanan rendah (RUBR). Tekanan RUBR berturutturut disesuaikan setara ketinggian 35.000 kaki selama 1 menit, 25.000 kaki selama 5 menit, dan 18.000 kaki selama 25 menit. Ekspresi protein Bcl2, MnSOD, LDH dan Caspase-3 sel jantung tikus diperiksa dengan metoda Imunohistokimia dan Western Blot. Hasil pemeriksaan kadar asam laktat dengan Elisa cenderung menurun dengan makin seringnya terpapar hipoksia hipobarik. Dari pemulasan Imunohistokimia dapat diinterpretasi ekspresi protein Bcl-dan MnSOD tersebut cenderung meningkat dengan makin seringnya terpapar hipoksia hipobarik, sebaliknya ekspresi protein LDH dan Caspase-3 cenderung menurun. Selanjutnya terdapat korelasi negatif antara kadar asam laktat dengan ekspresi protein Bcl-2 dan MnSOD (r=-0,52 ; r=-0,41), sedangkan terhadap ekspresi protein LDH dan caspase-3berkorelasi positif (r=0,65;r=0,79). Terdapat korelasi yangsangat kuat antara kadar asam laktat di sirkulasi dengan ekspresi protein Bcl-2,MnSOD,LDH dan Caspase-3 (R=0,84, p<0,00)) Begitu pula hasil pemeriksaan Western Blot.

Aspek Nonteknis dan Indikator Efisiensi Sistem Pertanaman Tumpang Sari Sayuran Dataran Tinggi

Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 14, No 3 (2004): September 2004
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di sentra produksi sayuran dataran tinggi Pangalengan, Jawa Barat pada bulan No vem ber2001. Observasi lapang dan survai for mal melalui wawancara dengan 23 orang petani responden diarahkan untukmemperoleh data/informasi dasar mencakup aspek non-teknis dan indikator efisiensi sistem pertanaman tumpangsaripada komunitas sayuran dataran tinggi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komoditas sayuran utama yangdiusahakan secara monokultur maupun tumpangsari di Pangalengan adalah kentang, kubis, petsai, cabai dan tomat.Petani mempersepsi kentang sebagai komoditas sayuran yang teknik budidayanya pal ing dikuasai serta pal ing dapatdiandalkan/menguntungkan. Sementara itu, tomat dan kubis dikategorikan sebagai jenis sayuran yang memiliki risikoproduksi pal ing tinggi (terutama dikaitkan dengan risiko kehilangan hasil panen akibat serangan hama penyakit).Sebagian besar petani responden cenderung lebih sering memilih sistem pertanaman tumpangsari berdasarkanpertimbangan (a) memberikan ruang gerak yang lebih leluasa bagi petani untuk menghindarkan kemungkinankehilangan hasil secara to tal serta kerugian finansial yang disebabkan oleh rendahnya harga salah satu komoditas yangditanam, (b) memanfaatkan lahan dan energi sinar matahari secara lebih efisien, (c) instabilitas hasil yang disebabkanoleh cekaman lingkungan maupun serangan hama penyakit secara keseluruhan dapat dikurangi oleh karena sistemterdiri dari dua atau lebih spesies tanaman yang berbeda, (d) memungkinkan penggunaan tenaga kerja dan modalproduksi secara lebih efisien, dan (e) dua atau lebih cabang usaha (jenis tanaman) yang menopang sistem tersebutdapat saling menutupi jika salah satu di antaranya mengalami kerugian. Sebagian besar petani responden cenderungmemberikan penilaian positif terhadap sta tus sistem pertanaman tumpangsari berkaitan dengan kemungkinanpeningkatan pendapatan usahatani, pengurangan risiko harga/hasil dan pemeliharaan/perbaikan kelestarianlingkungan. Evaluasi produktivitas sistem pertanaman tumpangsari menunjukkan bahwa nisbah kesetaraan lahanuntuk berbagai kombinasi tanaman, berkisar antara 1,13-2,10. Berdasarkan urutan kepentingannya, petanimempersepsi fluktuasi harga, ketersediaan modal dan insiden hama penyakit sebagai tiga kendala terpentingkeberhasilan sistem pertanaman tumpangsari sayuran dataran tinggi. Secara berturut-turut kemudian diikuti olehketersediaan lahan, ketersediaan pupuk/pestisida, ketersediaan air/pengairan, erosi tanah atau kesuburan tanah,ketersediaan informasi teknis dan ketersediaan tenaga kerjaABSTRACT. Adiyoga, W., R. Suherman, N. Gunadi dan A. Hidayat. 2002. Nontechnical aspects and efficiencyindicators of highland vegetable multiple cropping systems. This study was carried out in November 2001, in thehigland vegetable production center, Pangalengan, West Java. Field observation and formal survey to interview 23respondents were aimed to obtain information on non-technical aspects and efficiency indicators of highlandvegetable multiple cropping systems. Results indicate that potato, cabbage, chinese cabbage, hot pepper and tomatoare the most common vegetable crops grown in monocropping and multiple cropping systems. Farmers perceivepotato as the most familiar/manageable, in terms of cultural practices, and the most profitable crop. Tomato andcabbage are perceived as crops that have highest risk, in relation to pest and disease yield losses. There is an increasingtrend of the use of multiple cropping by farmers since (a) it may avoid the yield and financial total loss, (b) it couldutilize land and lights more efficiently, (c) it may reduce the yield instability caused by environmental stress andpests/diseases incidence, and (d) it may use labor and capital more efficiently. Most respondents are in favor of or inagreement with the multiple cropping system’s potential in increasing net income, reducing price and yield risks, andmaintaining and improving environmental conservation. Productivity evaluation of multiple cropping systems showsthat the land-equivalent ratio for some crop combinations is quite high (1.13-2.10). Based on its relative importance,farmers perceive price fluctuation, working capital availability and pest and disease incidence as the main threeconstraints that hamper the succesfulness of the highland vegetable multiple cropping systems. The other secondarycontraints are related to the availability of land, fertilizer and pesticide, water and irrigation, technical information,labor, and soil fertility and ero sion.

Studi Bedengan Kompos Permanen Untuk Budidaya Kentang di Pekarangan

Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 12, No 4 (2002): Desember 2002
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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Abstract

Abstrak. Sumiati, E. dan A. Hidayat. 2000. Studi Bedengan Kompos Permanen untuk Budidaya Kentang di Pekarangan.Kebutuhan pupuk buatan/kimia untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan hasil umbi kentang, sebagian dapat disubstitusi melaluipemanfaatan bahan limbah organik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui teknik pengomposan dan efektivitas bedengan komposuntuk budidaya tanaman kentang di lahan kering. Penelitian dilakukan di dataran tinggi Samarang-Garut, Jawa Barat. Rancanganpercobaan digunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok, dengan 6 ulangan. Perlakuan pada bedengan permanen terdiri atas 4 macam for -mula, yaitu menggunakan komposisi berbagai macam campuran limbah organik, serta pupuk kandang sapi sebagai kontrol. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa bedengan permanen yang digarit dan diisi limbah organik pupuk kandang sapi 20 tha-1 ditambah NPK(15-15-15) 40 kgha-1, memberikan pertumbuhan serta hasil dan kualitas umbi kentang kultivar Gra nola yang tertinggi. Selain itu,proses dekomposisi limbah organik pupuk kandang sapi, sangat cepat yang tercermin dari nilai C/N yang terendah setelah 1 bulanterjadi proses pengomposan.Kata kunci : Solanum tuberosum L., limbah organik, pengomposan, hasil umbi.Abstract. Sumiati, E. dan A. Hidayat. 2000. Study on the permanent plot of organic waste materials for cultivation of potato onthe dry-land area. The application of several kinds of organic waste materials hopefully may support and substitute the need ofchemical fertilizers to increase the growth and yield of potato which sustainable and lower environmental pollution. Research activityhave been conducted in highland area of Samarang-Garut, West Java. A Randomized Block Design with six replication was set up inthe field. Treatments on the permanent plots comprised of mixture of several kinds of waste organic materials, including cattle manureas control. Research results revealed that the permanent plot with cattle manure of 20 tha-1 + NPK (15-15-15) 40 kgha-1, gave the bestgrowth and the highest yield of potato cultivar Granola. Moreover, the decomposition process of cattle manure was the faster whichwas identified by the lowest C/N value gained after one month of decomposition process took place.

Increasing the Production Capacity of Upland Food Crops

Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 3, No 02 (2009): Desember 2009
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Agriculture Land Resource Development

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Abstract

Upland agriculture plays an important role in producing various kinds of food crops. However, data of the annual upland crops areas that are needed as a basis for area extensification planning is not available. Therefore land area of 10 commodities of annual upland crops was estimated based on its comparison with paddy field areas, with the assumption of cropping index of 100 (one crop per year). For example, upland area planted to maize is assumed 60% of the total harvested area of maize, because the remaining 40% is produced in paddy field areas. Based on these predictions, the upland areas planted to 10 food crops is only about 5.53 million ha or 37.7% of the total annual upland agriculture area of 14.6 million ha. To evaluate the production capacity of the upland areas, we grouped those areas based on soil fertility and potential yield for each commodity. The results indicate that if the 5.53 million ha upland areas are used optimally for food crop production, it can produce 2.82 million tons of unhusked upland rice, 9.15 million tons of corn grain, 0.23 million tons of soybean grain, 0.73 million tons of peanuts pods, 0.20 million tons of mungbeans, 20.81 million tons of cassava, 0.58 million tons of sweet potato, 1.0 million tons of potatoes, 0.21 million tons of shallots and 1.3 million tons of sugarcane. If in the coming year, the total area of upland can be increased gradually from 37.7% to 70% of the total available annual upland areas, i.e. to about 10.2 million ha, thus the upland crops production capacity will increase to 4.9 million tons of upland rice , 16.2 million tons of corn, 0.4 million tons of soybeans, 1.5 million tons of peanuts, 0.35 million tons of mungbeans, 37.3 million tons of cassava, one million tons of sweet potatoes, 1.8 million tons of potato, 0.27 million tons of shallots and 2 million tons of sugarcane. By increasing the upland areas of about 5 million, it will lead to the national selfsufficiency of most commodities until the year of 2050, except for soybeans, potatoes and shallots. Therefore, to maintain selfsufficiency in rice and maize , as well as promote self-sufficiency of other food crop production, the extensification of upland agricultural areas for food crops is a prerequisite.

Prospect of Soybean Extensification in Indonesia

Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 3, No 01 (2009): Juli 2009
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Agriculture Land Resource Development

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Indonesia which covers 188.2 million ha of land area has great opportunities for soybean expansion. Until now, domestic need for soybean is still complied from import. Soybean is one of the strategic commodities for food and industrial needs, which in 2008 became a national issue because of the scarcity in the market. Therefore, the Department of Agriculture launched a selfsufficiency policy on soybeans targetted in the year 2014 through breakthrough efforts. To support the target, suitable land for soybean has been identified in 17 provinces. The results showed that land suitable for soybeans is around 16.7 million ha, scatteredin various location, namely 4.9 million ha in wetland area, 1.7 million ha in dry land area, 1.7 million ha in plantation area, 2.9 million ha in mix garden area, and 5.5 million ha in grass land area. If 30% of the assumed land suitable for soybeans in ricefield and upland can be utilized, these can produce 2.4 million tons of soybeans with the assumption that the average productivity levels is 1.2 tonnes/ha and once a year planting to maintain the balance of others commodity production. By utilizing 2 million ha of ricefield and upland, soybean self-sufficiency can be achieved in 2015. The development and extensification of soybean planting area should consider land suitability level. Area selection which historically has became soybean production center in 1990 is also has to take into account as well as farmer’s habit in soybean farming system. To accelerate the soybean self sufficiency, the improvement of human resources must be supported in form of assisting, motivation, extention, training, and plot dmeonstration, in order to gain optimal land productivity and technological application. In addition, the government supports are needed for the provision ofproduction facilities, capital, building the marketing chain, as well as conditions to create reasonable prices so that there isincentive for communities to develop soybeans.

Indonesian Land Resources: Potency, Problems, and Utilization Strategy

Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 3, No 02 (2009): Desember 2009
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Agriculture Land Resource Development

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Indonesia mainland has variety of soils, parent materials, landforms, elevations and climates. This condition is the main capitals to produce sustainable agricultural commodities. The utilization of land resources to develop agriculture should consider its potentials in gaining the optimum results. Up to now the agricultural area used for agricultural purposes cover 70.2 million hectares consisting of rice field, upland crop field, yard, plantation, grazing land, trees, and fish pond. Based on the assessment results by Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, the land in Indonesia which is potential or suitable for agriculture covers 94 million hectares, comprising 25.4 million hectares of wetland (rice field) and 68.6 million hectares of upland/ dryland. There are 30.67 million hectares of the total area which is potential for agricultural extensification comprising of 8.28 million hectares annual wetland agriculture (rice field), 7.08 million hectares annual upland agriculture, and 15.31 million hectares perennial agriculture. Wetland for annual crops covers swampy land with the total of 2.98 million hectares (mainly in Papua) and non swampy land 5.30 million hectares. In Indonesia the potential land as well as available land for agricultural extensification is still sufficient, but by the increasing needs of land for agriculture and non-agriculture, careful utilization is needed. The landuse competition in the future as a consequences to keep national food security and develop bioenergy needs to be overcome. Some efforts that can be done are by increasing the productivity (intensification), correct landuse based extensification, and developing primary technological innovation.

Land Resource Potential for Agricultural Commodity Development in West Kalimantan Province

Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan Vol 2, No 01 (2008): Juli 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Agriculture Land Resource Development

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West Kalimantan province with total areas of 14.64 million ha has already had spatial database of land resources at scale of 1:250,000 resulted from reconnaissance soil mapping (2004-2007). This database can be used for composing agricultural planing at province level. The area is composed of wetland ecosystem which covers 3,659,736 ha (24.99%), drylands with <15% slopes covers 4,356,790 (29.74%) and >15% slopes covers 6,441,956 ha (44.0%). The coverage of existing landuse for agriculture is only about 13.85% of the total area. In general, the area belongs to wet climate with average annual rainfall varies from 2,663 to 4,191 mm, and belongs to A, B1, and C agroclimatic zones. The area has various kinds of parent materials consisting of alluvium, organic matter deposit, old volcanic rocks, intrusive rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks that formed soil orders of Histosols, Entisols, Inceptisols, Spodosols, Ultisols, and Oxisols, which give variation in their properties. The result of the land resource potential analysis for agricultural commodity development is directed to: (a) land intensification for rice fields covers about 221,381ha, upland food crops (maize, upland rice, legumes, tuber crops) covers 173,581 ha, annual or estate crops (rubber, oil palms, coconut, pepper, and coffea) including fruit crops covers 570,266 ha, and for brackish fishpond covers 7,394 ha, and (b) land extensification for rice fields covers 869,133 ha, upland food crops 1,316,058 ha, estate crops (oil palm, rubber, coconut, pepper, coffea) covers 3,098,269 ha (as first priority at 15-25% slopes) and 1,300,374 ha (as second priority at 25-40% slopes), and for brackish fishponds covers 25,437 ha. The availability of spatial land resource information to develop high economic value of agricultural commodities, especially estate crops, would support establishing growth centre of agribusiness and agroindustry in the area.