Articles

Found 27 Documents
Search

PULPING SODA PANAS TERBUKA BAMBU BETUNG DENGAN PRAPERLAKUAN FUNGI PELAPUK PUTIH (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS DAN TRAMETES VERSICOLOR) FATRIASARI, Widya; ERMAWAR, Riksfardini Annisa; FALAH, Faizatul; Yuli YANTO, Dede Heri; HERMIATI, Euis
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan Vol 2, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Departemen Hasil Hutan, IPB

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

This research was conducted to study the effects of pretreatment with white-rot fungi on pulp properties of betung bamboo. Inoculum stocks of white-rot fungi (25 ml) were injected into polybag contained barkless fresh bamboo chips of 1.6 cm in width. Each polybag contained 221.21-230.43 g oven dry weight of chips. Bamboo chips in the polybags were inoculated by P. ostreatus and T. versicolor. Both of them were then incubated for 30 and 45 days in an incubator. Bamboo chips were cooked in open hot soda process. The cooked bamboo chips were then fibrillated using beater hollander and stone refiner. Yield, kappa numbers (TAPPI 236 cm-85) and freeness (CSF) of the pulp were then analyzed. Pulp yield pretreated with P.ostreatus and incubated for 30 days was the highest (increased by control 22.31%), while that pretreated with T.versicolor was the lowest (decreased by control 22.20%). The increasing of incubation time had positive correlation with the reduction of kappa number. Statistic test (ANOVA) at 95% level of confidence show that fungi give significant effect on kappa number, freeness, and kappa number degradation. Besides that fungi, the interaction between fungi and incubation times give significant effect on the yield changes and pulp yield. T. versicolor had better activity in 45 days of incubation. Pulp freeness resulted              from this study were still lower than the desired value. Pretreatment of betung bamboo using T. versicolor with               45 days of incubation was considered better than the other treatments.   Keywords : Betung bamboo, biopulping, pulp yield, kappa number, degree of freeness
ANALISIS MORFOLOGI SERAT DAN SIFAT FISIS-KIMIA PADA ENAM JENIS BAMBU SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PULP DAN KERTAS FATRIASARI, Widya; HERMIATI, Euis
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan Vol 1, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Departemen Hasil Hutan, IPB

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Six species of bamboos, that were andong bamboo (Gigantochloa verticillata), tali bamboo (Gigantochloa apus), hitam bamboo (Gigantochloa nigrocillata), ampel bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper), and kuning bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), were analyzed for their fiber morphological as well as their physical-chemical properties. Results of these analysis would be used as a matter of consideration in choosing species of bamboos to be used as raw material for pulp and paper. Fiber morphological analyses include determination of fiber dimensions and followed by calculation of derivation of fiber dimensions.  Determination of fiber dimensions includes fiber length, fiber diameter, lumen diameter and cell wall thickness, while calculation of derivation fiber dimensions includes runkell ratio, felting power/slenderness), muhlsteph ratio, coefficient of rigidity and flexibility ratio. Physical analyses include moisture content and specific gravity, while chemical analyses include determination of extractive (ethanol-benzene), hot water solubles, cold water solubles, lignin, holocellulose, ash and silicate contents.  Results of this study showed that of the six species of bamboos studied, kuning bamboo had the most suitable properties as raw material for pulp and paper, followed by betung, tali, andong, hitam, and ampel bamboos.   Keywords : Bamboo, fiber morphology, physical-chemical properties, pulp, paper
SAKARIFIKASI SERAT TANDAN KOSONG DAN PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT SETELAH PRETREATMENT MENGGUNAKAN KULTUR CAMPURAN JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Trametes versicolor Hermiati, Euis; Risanto, Lucky; Anita, Sita Heris; Aristiawan, Yosi; Hanafi, Ahmad; Abimanyu, Haznan
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 32, No 2 (2014): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Penggunaan kultur campuran jamur pelapuk putih pada proses pretreatment bahan lignoselulosa belum banyak diteliti. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan kultur  Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Trametes versicolor pada proses pretreatment serat tandan kosong dan pelepah kelapa sawit terhadap hasil sakarifikasinya. Inokulum P. Chrysosporium dan T. versicolor dituangkan ke dalam sampel substrat serat tandan kosong dan pelepah kelapa sawit (40-60 mesh) yang telah disterilkan, masing-masing sebanyak 5% (w/v), sehingga total inokulum yang ditambahkan ke dalam kedua macam substrat masing-masing 10% (w/v). Sampel diinkubasikan pada suhu ±27°C selama 4 minggu. Sebagian dari contoh diambil dan lalu diperiksa setelah masa inkubasi 1, 2, 3, dan 4 minggu. Sakarifikasi dilakukan menggunakan enzim selulase sebanyak 20 FPU per g biomassa dan β-glukosidase dalam shaking waterbath pada suhu 50°C selama 48 jam. Analisis gula pereduksi, glukosa dan xilosa dilakukan terhadap hasil sakarifikasi. Rendemen gula pereduksi, konsentrasi glukosa dan xilosa tertinggi dari tandan kosong kelapa sawit. diperoleh dari sakarifikasi serat dengan pretreatment selama 4 minggu, yaitu masing-masing 13,08%, 0,86 mg/g dan 0,13 mg/g, sedangkan rendemen gula pereduksi, konsentrasi glukosa dan xilosa tertinggi dari pelepah kelapa sawit didapatkan dari sakarifikasi substrat dengan pretreatment selama 2 minggu, yaitu masing-masing 8,98%, 0,92 mg/g dan 0,23 mg/g.
Properties of Lignin from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch and Its Application for Plywood Adhesive Risanto, Lucky; Hermiati, Euis; Sudiyani, Yanni
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (212.229 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v18i2.397

Abstract

Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a potential biopolymer for wood adhesive. The aims of this study were to characterize lignin isolated from the black liquor of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber pretreated with steam explosion in alkaline conditions and to examine the bond quality of aqueous polymer isocyanate (API) adhesive prepared from lignin, natural rubber latex (NRL), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as base polymers with isocyanate crosslinkers. Lignin was precipitated from the black liquor by adding hydrochloric acid; then the precipitate was separated by filtration, thoroughly washed with water up to pH 2 and pH 5, and dried. The isolated lignin was characterized by ultimate analysis, UV spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Three-layer plywood samples were prepared, and the bond strengths of the plywood samples were determined in dry conditions and after cyclic boiling. The lignin isolates with different pH values did not have significantly different chemical and thermal properties. Both lignin isolates had similar C, H, and O contents, identical functional groups in the FTIR spectra, similar absorption in the UV spectra, and high decomposition temperatures. The base polymers composition that could produce API adhesive for exterior applications was NRL/PVA/lignin (4/4/2). The use of more lignin in the adhesive formulation decreased the bond strength of the plywood.
Biological Pretreatment of Oil Palm Frond Fiber Using White-Rot Fungi for Enzymatic Saccharification Hermiati, Euis; Anita, Sita; Risanto, Lucky; Styarini, Dyah; Sudiyani, Yanni; Hanafi, Achmad; Abimanyu, Haznan
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 17, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (150.583 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v17i1.260

Abstract

Oil palm frond is one type of lignocellulosic biomass abundantly and daily available in Indonesia. It contains cellulose which can be converted to glucose, and further processed to produce different kinds of value –added products. The aim of this research is to study the effects of biological pretreatment of oil palm frond (OPF) fiber using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor on the enzymatic saccharification of the biomass. The OPF fiber (40-60 mesh sizes) was inoculated with cultures of the two fungi and incubated at 27 °C for 4 weeks. The samples were taken after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation. Chemical components of the biomass after pretreatment were analyzed. The saccharification of the pretreated samples using cellulase and β-glucosidase was performed in a water bath shaker at 50 °C for 48 hours. The concentration of reducing sugar increased with increasing of incubation time, either in those pretreated with culture of P. chrysosporium or with T. versicolor. Pretreatment of OPF fiber using single culture of T. versicolor for 4 weeks gave the highest reducing sugar yield (12.61% of dry biomass).
CENTRAL KALIMANTAN’S FAST GROWING SPECIES: SUITABILITY FOR PULP AND PAPER Adi, Danang Sudarwoko; Wahyuni, Ika; Risanto, Lucky; Rulliaty, Sri; Hermiati, Euis; Dwianto, Wahyu; Watanabe, Takashi
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 2, No 1 (2015): Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2015.2.1.%p

Abstract

Fast growing wood species could be promising to fulfill the gap between wood demand and supply. Due to their low quality, the utilization of fast growing wood species has been limited to pulp and paper. Our previous study on the fiber characteristic and density of the 30 unutilized fast growing wood species from PT Sari Bumi Kusuma, Central Kalimantan, showed that there were five species which could be promising as pulp and paper material. These wood species have fiber lengths of more than 2200 µm. This research was conducted to get information another property of the five woods to more discover their potential utilization, especially for pulp and paper material. The wood species investigated were Endospermum diadenum, Dillenia sp., Adinandra dumosa, Adinandra sp., and Nauclea junghuhnii. The results showed that these five species have a long of fiber length, which are classified in Class I, low to medium density, fiber derived value which the total score felt in the class I. The chemical compositions showed that extractive, holocelullose, α-cellulose, and lignin contents were 1.74-4.12%, 62.73-73.83%, 37.24-46.97%, 29.68-38.92%, respectively. Based on fiber characteristic, density, and chemical properties, these five species could be used as an alternative raw material for pulp and paper industries. 
Penyimpanan Jamur dengan Atmosfir Modifikasi dan Terawasi Hermiati, Euis
Agritech Vol 5, No 1 & 2 (1985)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1765.019 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.18984

Abstract

.
CENTRAL KALIMANTAN’S FAST GROWING SPECIES: SUITABILITY FOR PULP AND PAPER Adi, Danang Sudarwoko; Wahyuni, Ika; Risanto, Lucky; Rulliaty, Sri; Hermiati, Euis; Dwianto, Wahyu; Watanabe, Takashi
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 2, No 1 (2015): Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2015.2.1.21-29

Abstract

Recent studies of  fast growing species grown in PT. Sari Bumi Kusuma, Central Kalimantan, show that based on their fiber dimensions there are five species, namely Endospermum diadenum, Dillenia spp., Adinandra dumosa, Adiandra sp., and Nauclea junghuhnii with good potential for pulp and paper production.  The fiber length of  those five wood species are was more than 2,200 µm on average. This paper studies the physical properties, fiber dimensions and their chemical contents to predict the paper and pulp quality. The result shows that all of  the species were classified in the medium to high density category. All species were classified into the first class quality for pulp and paper. Based on chemical contents, Dillenia sp. is the most suitable species due to its high value of  holocellulose and a-cellulose, low lignin content, and its fiber length is about 3,119 µm on average. A. dumosa also has good opportunities because it had the longest  fiber lengths (3,137 µm on average) and high value of  holocellulose, even though it has the highest lignin content. While Nuclea junghuhnii is  less suitable due to low values of  holocellulose and a-cellulose.
SAKARIFIKASI SERAT TANDAN KOSONG DAN PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT SETELAH PRETREATMENT MENGGUNAKAN KULTUR CAMPURAN JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Trametes versicolor Hermiati, Euis; Risanto, Lucky; Anita, Sita Heris; Aristiawan, Yosi; Hanafi, Ahmad; Abimanyu, Haznan
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 32, No 2 (2014): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2014.32.2.111-122

Abstract

Penggunaan kultur campuran jamur pelapuk putih pada proses pretreatment bahan lignoselulosa belum banyak diteliti. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan kultur  Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Trametes versicolor pada proses pretreatment serat tandan kosong dan pelepah kelapa sawit terhadap hasil sakarifikasinya. Inokulum P. Chrysosporium dan T. versicolor dituangkan ke dalam sampel substrat serat tandan kosong dan pelepah kelapa sawit (40-60 mesh) yang telah disterilkan, masing-masing sebanyak 5% (w/v), sehingga total inokulum yang ditambahkan ke dalam kedua macam substrat masing-masing 10% (w/v). Sampel diinkubasikan pada suhu ±27°C selama 4 minggu. Sebagian dari contoh diambil dan lalu diperiksa setelah masa inkubasi 1, 2, 3, dan 4 minggu. Sakarifikasi dilakukan menggunakan enzim selulase sebanyak 20 FPU per g biomassa dan β-glukosidase dalam shaking waterbath pada suhu 50°C selama 48 jam. Analisis gula pereduksi, glukosa dan xilosa dilakukan terhadap hasil sakarifikasi. Rendemen gula pereduksi, konsentrasi glukosa dan xilosa tertinggi dari tandan kosong kelapa sawit. diperoleh dari sakarifikasi serat dengan pretreatment selama 4 minggu, yaitu masing-masing 13,08%, 0,86 mg/g dan 0,13 mg/g, sedangkan rendemen gula pereduksi, konsentrasi glukosa dan xilosa tertinggi dari pelepah kelapa sawit didapatkan dari sakarifikasi substrat dengan pretreatment selama 2 minggu, yaitu masing-masing 8,98%, 0,92 mg/g dan 0,23 mg/g.
Application of Microwave Heating in Biomass Hydrolysis and Pretreatment for Ethanol Production Hermiati, Euis; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Sunarti, Ttiti C; Suparno, Ono; Prasetya, Bambang
ANNALES BOGORIENSES Vol 14, No 1 (2010): Annales Bogorienses
Publisher : Research Center for Biotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (505.18 KB) | DOI: 10.1234/33

Abstract

Recently, due to depletion of  fossil derived energy stock in the world, there are growing  interests in utilizing biomass sources of bioethanol. There are basically two types of biomass that are usually used or converted to ethanol, starchy and lignocellulosic biomass. The conversion of starchy and lignocellulosic materials are widely explored,  however,  there  are  still  some  drawbacks,  such  as  high  enzyme  cost  and  intensive  energy  needed. Therefore, lower cost as well as energy and time efficient process technology in biomass conversion to ethanol  is important in enhancing the use of biomass to substitute fossil fuel. Microwave heating offers some advantages to overcome these drawbacks, especially due to its quick heat transfer and its heating selectivity. In conventional heating the  heat  was  transferred  through  conduction  or  convection  process  which  took  longer  time.  Thus,  by using microwave, degradation of starchy and lignocellulosic biomass could be completed in shorter time than by using conventional heating method. The roles of microwave heating in the degradation of biomass, especially starchy and lignocellulosic biomass  and its relation to the hydrolysis and pretreatment of that particular biomass for ethanol production are reviewed and discussed.   Keywords: biomass, pretreatment, ethanol, microwave