Biofilter as one of method processing of waste have been introduced since early 20, but in its application have time to be left by effect of newer technological appearance like trickling filter, rotating biological contactor, activated sludge, and fluidized bed reactor. Biofilter very effective in deodorizing, especially dangerous aromas of organic volatile compound, and poisonous air from industry with efficiency 90 - 99,9%. Biofiltrasion become more economic compared to carbon adsorption or oxidation when its organic content under 3000 ppm. Most biofilter operate on organic concentration around 1000 ppm or lower. There are some matter to influence market of biofilter, for example : 1). the increasing of regulation about oxide nitrogen emission coming from hot process. Biofilter do not yield nitrogen oxide addition, 2). The increasing of sigh of society about contamination of aroma of facility processing of waste, processing of solid waste and others, 3). preventive methodologies implementation of pollution using condensation and air emission concentration, 4). Pressure to industry to use processes with discard as small as possible, 5). The increasing of attention to emission of hit and organic air materials, and also low cost water treatment technology.
The level of water services by PDAM (Local Water Service Company) is still 19,4% of Indonesian population. Most of them still rely on groundwater, spring, river and rain. In the big and medium cities the level of water services higher between 40 – 50 and 20 - 30% respectively, but in rural still very low. Recently many source of water is contaminated by domestic, industry, and agricultur waste due to lack of attention of water users to environment. Beside, some dense populated areas with low sanitation fasility make many shalow well contaminated by E.coli. For improving rural water services, It needs government policy that encourage bigger role of rural comunity to develop their ability and organization that maintain and protect source, process, production and distribution of water. Information of Simple Water Treatment Technology is an important that must be distributed to people who live in village or remote areas, in order to improve their knowledge. BPPT has been along time to develop many kind of water treatment technologies for treating river water, groundwater, peatwater, calcareous water, poluted water, brachist water or even sea water to make clean water or potable water. Many of those technologies have already applied in many areas in Indonesia, and up to now BPPT still develop many kind of water treatment technologies for the future.
Coastal Aquifer System of Jakarta consist of unconfined aquifer layers, confined aquifer I and confined aquifer II. Resources of groundwater is very important for Jakarta City, for drinking water, industry, hotel, government offices and various other facility. Important considering of groundwater resources of Jakarta hence needed an effort to preserve the groundwater and awake its continuity by conducting a system management of groundwater. Model used for the management of groundwater system of aquifer coastal referred as Groundwater Model Simulation and Optimization of Quasi Three Dimension ( OPT-Q3D). Model simulation and optimization represent computer model of quasi-three dimensions with method of finite difference used for the operation of infiltration of sea water. This model can conduct current simulation of groundwater flow, head of fresh water and brine, and describe the movement of interface fresh water and sea water. The model can also make optimization of system aquifer with single or multi layers. Jakarta Groundwater Basin assumed consist three layers of aquifer separated by impermeable layer. Applying of groundwater simulation model in Jakarta can give information regarding balance of groundwater, head of freshwater, head of brine, interface brine and freshwater, map of brine distribution and bargain in each; every aquifer. Herein after model optimization will yield various information able to wear upon which consideration to manage the amount of pumping of optimal ground water every area in each layer of aquifer, amount of optimal pumping, optimal freshwater head, head of optimal brine and map of infiltration.
The rapid growth of population in developing country causes environmentalcontamination by increasing significantly pollution load in river and other water body. Itneeds efficient and effective strategy to overcome contamination in certain areas.Technical identification of pollution source and its influence to environmental quality isimportant to should be known and socialized to community. Land use to is important toget priority and should be managed consistently environmentally sound, beside solidwaste and domestic wastewater. Law enforcement also should be applied, especially tocompany or industry which significantly gives contribution to environmental degradation.Environmental restoration need fund, so government as regulator need partner fromprivate to overcome environmental problem. Environmentally based industries andservices is needed to be developed as government counterpart, but up to now thedevelopment of them retarded caused by non competitive interest of commercial bank.Environmental fund should be collected from polluter through regulated mechanism andIn the next future environmental bank should possible manage the fund and financeenvironmental industry and services to overcome environmental pollution, in this casegovernment act as regulator only.
Pasir Regency (Tanah Grogot) has coastal areas which is potential economically. To support the development of the area the local government is planning the development of proper and efficient plan to overcome the water problem of a coastal area. The plan could be implemented by conducting geophysical research and analysis of water quality of existing water resources. Based on this research hopefully an economically proper and efficient plan to develop the potency of existing water resources will be implemented.
Environmental contamination and global climate change cause degradation of freshwater in the whole world. Increasing of oil price also insist the water treatment operationalcost rise, especially for pumping and water lifting from the low land areas to up land. Oneof alternatif solution to reduce operational cost is using Hydraulic ram pumps (hydrampump). Hydram pump are water-lifting devices that are powered by filling water. Suchpumps work by using the energy of water falling a small height to lift a small part of thatamount of water to a much greater height. In this way, water from a spring or stream in avalley can be pumped to a village or irrigation scheme on the hillside. The main andunique advantage of hydram pumps is that with a continuous flow of water, a hydrampump operates automatically and continuously with no other external energy source - beit electricity or hydrocarbon fuel. It uses a renewable energy source (stream of water) midhence ensures low running cost. Minimum up lifting vertical power of pump is twice thanvertical distance of water down and maximum up lifting vertical power is twenty timesthan vertical distance of water down. If there are air captured in distribution pipe, it willneed release valve. In this paper, different aspect of designing a hydraulic-rain pumpsystem is discussed. Application and limitation of hydram pump is presented. It impartsabsolutely no harm to the environment Hydraulic ram pumps are simple, reliable andrequire minimal maintenance. All these advantages make hydram pumps suitable to ruralcommunity water supply and mud backyard irrigation in developing countries.
Solid waste has become a problem for large and small cities, as they relate to environmental sanitation and health, as well as aesthetic issues. High intensity of rainfall influence in a high solubility results of decomposition of waste in both TPS and TPA, brought the flow of water and water soak to soil or water flow to the public drainage. Law Number 8 Year 2007 on waste management require sanitary landfill technology. Currently most of the TPA are still not meet the full construction of sanitary landfill and need to be supported by the application of the 3R (Reduced, Reused, Recycle) program in solidwaste. Processing waste liquid derived from the leachate (seepage water) waste requiring special treatment. There are many type of waste water technology processing, the most important, It can be applied and product water quality meet the standard quality.
In the national water resource management, the data is the basis for the calculation of water reserves. In a large scale and wide, searching the data will require substantial funding, as well as with the updates. Data colecting becomes a problem and not useful if not managed with the system efficiently and effectively. Technology occupies an important role in accelerating the work, such as remote sensing technology using a satellite to determine the condition of forests and water, or a weather that can see the concentration of clouds and wind movement. Determination of catchment areas of waterand protected areas, may of them using remote sensing technology. Water treatment technologies for drinking water and the development of efficient recycling technology of waste water, is very supportive in increasing water use efficiency. Technological developments also influence government policy and the implementation of water resource management. National Policy of Water Resource Management is influenced by economic factors, environmental sustainability and socio-cultural conditions. The role oftechnology are facilitate, accelerate and improve the efficiency of the process, so that the process can be more economical and environmental impact is reduced, and does not conflict with the socio-cultural conditions.
In the event of natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, floods and droughts, water occupies a key role in disaster relief. The presence of water is important for drinking, cooking and support the refugee areas of environmental sanitation and avoiding disaster victims of diseases waterborn disease. Water problem in disaster conditions may occur partly as a result: the disturbance of water sources because change of water quality, to become turbid or salty, the destruction of a piping system, treatmentplant damage, disruption of distribution systems, or the scarcity of water in evacuation areas. Introduction of water quality becomes important to determine which process technology will be used and saved investments in emergency conditions. Priority handling of clean water usually comes first in the refugee areas with communal system, because the need of water for bathing, washing and toilet is big enough, while for a drink in the early events during disaster dominated by bottled water, but for their long-term, they have to boil water. For remote areas and difficult to reach individuals who usually use system more simple and easily operated. Water Supply Technology for emergency response has the characteristic 1). Able to operate with all sorts of water conditions (flexible & adaptable), 2). Can be operated easily, 3). Does not require much maintenance, 4). Little use of chemicals, and 5). Portable and easy removable (Mobile System).
In big cities, the water quality of rivers used as the main raw water sources is getting worse and worse. That is caused by a lot of improper wastewater management systems, especially in industrial and settlement areas. As an example, the raw water of PDAM TKR Bojong Renged which is taken from Cisadane Rives contains Ammonia 3.8 mg/l and it means that the content is not allowed to be used as the raw water for drinking water purpose. To cope with the problem, a bofiltration process can be used as one alternative to reduce Ammonia till the required standard quality. A honeycomb tube type made plastic was the media of biofilter reactor. Operational condition was varied with HRT (Hydrolysis Retention Time) between 1-4 hours and air supply between 0-30 l/minute. The best process condition was found at 2 hour-HRT and 20 l/minute air supply and the Ammonia removal efficiency was about 65%. The linear regression equation was ya = -91.19xa + 77.12, where Y is for removal efficiency and the axis X is for Ammonia loading.