Articles

Enzymatic Interesterification of Palm Stearin and Sardine oil to Produce Margarine-fat Hastuti, Pudji; Utami, Tyas
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 14, No 1 (2003): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (234.548 KB) | DOI: 10.6066/647

Abstract

Enzymatic interesterification of Palm Stearin (PS) and Sardine Oil (SO) as source of Eicosa Pentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosa Hexaenoic Acid (DHA) have been of interest to modify the physical properties of the triglyceride. An attempt to enzymatic-restructure PS and SO to form Structured Lipid (SL) which is suitable for margarine was investigated using immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and that from Candida antartica. The effect of reaction time course, ratio of PS/SO and ratio of enzyme/substrate were studied in the present study. At the end of interesterification, the enzyme was filtered from the reaction mixture through a filter paper. The Solid Fat Index (SFI) was determined by dillatometry. The Slip Melting Point (SMP) was determined by capillary tube method. Both of interesterification catalyzed by immobilized sn 1,3 specific lipase from R.miehei,and non specific lipase from C.antartica were found to decrease the SFI value at 10; 21.1 and 33.30C. The SMP value was decrease from 58-500C to 37-390C. The change of these parameters were slightly faster in the reaction which catalyzed by lipase from R miehei than lipase from C.antartica . The more the utilization of the enzyme the faster the change were occurred, especially the increase of enzyme utilization from 2.5% to 5%, which decrease the SFI value at 33,30C. The decrease of the PS/SO ratio resulted in the decrease of SFI and SMP values. It was found that the most suitable SFI and SMP value for margarine fat is the SL formed by carrying out the enzymatic-interesterification of PS/SO with the ratio of 40/60 using enzyme 2.5% of the total fat, for 8 hours at 600C. Key words : Palm stearin, sardine oil, enzymatic-interesterification, solid fat index and slip melting point
MODEL PERUBAHAN VOLUME KERIPIK BUAH SELAMA PROSES PENGGORENGAN SECARA VAKUM [Model for Volume Changes in Fruit Chips during Vacuum Frying] Jamaluddin, .; Rahardjo, Budi; Hastuti, Pudji; Rochmadi, .
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 22, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (430.447 KB) | DOI: 10.6066/3401

Abstract

MODEL PERUBAHAN VOLUME KERIPIK BUAH SELAMA PROSES PENGGORENGAN SECARA VAKUM  [Model for Volume Changes in Fruit Chips during Vacuum Frying] Jamaluddin1)*, Budi Rahardjo2), Pudji Hastuti2) dan Rochmadi3) 1) Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri Makassar 2) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada 3) Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada   Diterima 11 Agustus 2010 / Disetujui 24 Desember 2010 ABSTRACT   Expansion and puffing are specific characteristics of fried products critical for consumer preferences. To obtain expanded and puffed dried products that fit well with consumer acceptance criteria, it is necessary to pay attention to the process conditions which change the raw material characteristics during frying. The important changes include volume and density ratio of the products during frying. Hypothetically, these changes are due to water vaporization and the decrease dry matter in the products. The objective of this research is to develop a mathematical model of volume and density ratio changes for jack fruit during vacuum frying as a function of water and starch content reductions. Samples were vacuum fried at 70–100OC and pressure of 80-90 kPa for 15–60 min. The parameters observed were volume and density as well as water and starch contents of samples before and after vacuum frying. The results showed that the developed model can be used to predict changes in volume and density ratio of jack fruit during vacuum frying.   Keywords: volume, density, water content, starch contentand vacuum frying
Rekayasa Pemekaran dan Tekstur Keripik Buah Nangka Selama Penggorengan Vakum ., Jamaluddin; Rahardjo, Budi; Hastuti, Pudji; ., Rochmadi
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol 23, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian
Publisher : PERTETA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Rising and development also hard and crispy are the specific characteristic of the fry product that acceptableby consumer. To produce rising and texture of the fry product according to the consumer requirement it wasnecessary to control process conditions, take account of characteristic and transformation of raw materialduring frying process. The change of volume (rising and shrinkage) and texture (hardness and crispy) arehappened during frying process of food materials. Volume and texture change were predicted affected byevaporation of water and decreasing of starch content on solidity. This research is done with aim to developmodel of Jackfruit texture and volume change during vacuum frying caused by decreasing of water contentand starch content. As the sample of the research was used the fresh Jackfruit frying on vacuum withtemperature of 70, 80, 90 and 100 OC, with frying duration of 15 to 60 minute and with vacuum pressure of80, 85, 90 kPa. The analyses parameters were consist of volume, texture, water content, and starch contentof the sample before and after frying. Result of the research shows that the higher of the temperature andpressure of the vacuum frying the lower of the starch content and water content of the jackfruit chip. Themathematical model that was developed can be used to predict the change of the jackfruit’s chip textureand volume during vacuum frying.Keywords : jackfruit, vacuum frying, Chip, textureDiterima: 7 Mei 2009; Disetujui: 16 September 2009
Inhibition Effect of Mace Extract Microemulsion on Vitamin C Photooxidation in Aqueous Systems Hasbullah, Hasbullah; Raharjo, Sri; Hastuti, Pudji
International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology Vol 4, No 6 (2014)
Publisher : International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1081.681 KB)

Abstract

Photooxidation in food systems cause nutritional losses and produces undesirable flavor, toxic and color compounds, which make foods less acceptable or unacceptable to consumers. The objective of this research was to know the effectiveness of mace extract microemulsion to inhibit vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous systems. Aqueous food systems used are both beverage model system and apple juice beverage, where in each system enriched by 100 ppm vitamin C as substrate and 20 ppm erytrosin as photosensitiser. It is about one percent and two percent of microemulsion that contain mace extract of 0, 500 and 750 ppm were added into each of aqueous food system. Inhibition effect of mace extract microemulsion toward vitamin C photooxidation based on the rate of vitamin C degradation in aqueous food systems that illuminated by fluorescent light with 2000 lux intensity within eight hours. The result indicated the mace extract microemulsion has anti-photooxidation activity and ability to inhibit vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous systems.
Stabilitas Mikroemulsi Fucoxanthin dan Efektifitasnya dalam Menghambat Foto Oksidasi Vitamin C pada Model Minuman Suhendra, Lutfi; Hastuti, Pudji; Hidayat, Chusnul
Agritech Vol 34, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9503

Abstract

Fucoxanthin microemulsion was prepared by dissolvingfocoxanthin in Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) and mixture of surfactants (Tween 20:Tween 80:Span 80 = 92:5.5:2.5 (% v/v)with oil-surfactan ratio 15:85 v/v, then added with water until the concentration reaching 600 ppm fucoxanthin. The fucoxanthin microemulsions were analyzed the stability towards pH, the samples were diluted 50 times and 100 times with water media and citrate buffer (pH:3.5; 4.5 and distilled water pH 6.5). Subsequently, the samples were tested for centrifugation and storage stability at room temperature. The appearance of fucoxanthin microemulsion stability was measured with spectrometer UV/VIS at a wavelength of 458 nm. The beverage models were made of vitamin C (450 mg/L), citric acid (1%) and sucrose (6%). Fucoxanthin microemulsions were added to the beverage model that had been diluted 50 time and 100 time with distilled water pH 6.5. Subsequenly, the samples were added 5 ppm erytrhosine as a sensitizer and without erytrhosine as control. The beverage models were exposed to flourescent light with an intensity of 2000 lux. Vitamin C concentration was mesured by the method of riboflavin-sensitized photodynamic UV spectrophotometry every 2 hours. Fucoxanthin microemulsions were stable at pH 3.5 to 6.5 and even the heating treatment, centrifugation and dilution. Fucoxanthin microemulsion above 6 ppm was not effective in inhibiting degradation rate of vitamin C on photooxidation in beverage models.ABSTRAKMikroemulsi fucoxanthin dibuat dengan melarutkanfucoxanthin dalam VCO dan ditambah surfaktan (Tween 20:Tween 80:Span 80 = 92:5,5: 2,5 (% v/v), dengan rasio minyak-surfaktan 15:85 v/v, kemudian ditambahkan air hingga konsentrasi fucoxanthin mencapai 600 ppm. Mikroemulsi fucoxanthin dianalisis stabilitasnya meliputi pengujian stabilitas terhadap pH yang dilakukan pengenceran 50 kali dan 100 kali dengan media air dan buffer sitrat (pH: 3,5; 4,5 dan aquades pH 6,5). Selanjutnya sampel-sampel tersebut diuji stabilitasnya terhadap sentrifugasi dan penyimpanan pada suhu kamar. Stabilitas kenampakan mikroemulsi fucoxanthin diukur absorbansinya dengan spektrometer UV/VIS pada panjang gelombang 458 nm. Model minuman merupakan larutan yang tersusun dari vitamin C (450 mg/L), asam sitrat (1%) dan sukrosa (6%). Mikroemulsi fucoxanthin yang ditambahkan ke dalam model minuman yang telah diencerkan 50 kali dan 100 kali dengan aquades pH 6,5. Selanjutnya ke dalam sampel ditambahkan 5 ppm eritosin sebagai sensitiser atau tanpa penambahan eritrosin sebagai kontrol. Sampel tersebut kemudian diletakkan di dalam generator oksigen singlet yang telah dilengkapi lampu fluoresens dengan intensitas cahaya 2000 lux. Konsentrasi vitamin C diukur dengan metode riboflavin-sensitized photodynamic UV spectrophotometry dengan interval 2 jam. Mikroemulsi fucoxanthin yang diperoleh stabil pada pH 3,5 sampai 6,5 dan meskipun telah mengalami perlakuan pemanasan, sentrifugasi dan pengenceran. Mikroemulsi fucoxanthin di atas 6 ppm tidak efektif lagi dalam menghambat laju kerusakan vitamin C pada foto oksidasi dalam model minuman.
Rekayasa Pemekaran dan Tekstur Keripik Buah Nangka Selama Penggorengan Vakum ., Jamaluddin; Rahardjo, Budi; Hastuti, Pudji; ., Rochmadi
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol 23, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian
Publisher : PERTETA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Rising and development also hard and crispy are the specific characteristic of the fry product that acceptableby consumer. To produce rising and texture of the fry product according to the consumer requirement it wasnecessary to control process conditions, take account of characteristic and transformation of raw materialduring frying process. The change of volume (rising and shrinkage) and texture (hardness and crispy) arehappened during frying process of food materials. Volume and texture change were predicted affected byevaporation of water and decreasing of starch content on solidity. This research is done with aim to developmodel of Jackfruit texture and volume change during vacuum frying caused by decreasing of water contentand starch content. As the sample of the research was used the fresh Jackfruit frying on vacuum withtemperature of 70, 80, 90 and 100 OC, with frying duration of 15 to 60 minute and with vacuum pressure of80, 85, 90 kPa. The analyses parameters were consist of volume, texture, water content, and starch contentof the sample before and after frying. Result of the research shows that the higher of the temperature andpressure of the vacuum frying the lower of the starch content and water content of the jackfruit chip. Themathematical model that was developed can be used to predict the change of the jackfruit’s chip textureand volume during vacuum frying.Keywords : jackfruit, vacuum frying, Chip, textureDiterima: 7 Mei 2009; Disetujui: 16 September 2009
Government Intervention to Encourage the Increase of Innovation Activities: The Case of Automotive Component Industry Ricardo Nurzal, Erry; Hastuti, Pudji
The Asian Journal of Technology Management (AJTM) Vol 2, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : School of Business and Management Institut Teknologi Bandung

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (237.111 KB)

Abstract

The increasingly globalizing and very tight competition in the world market nowadays requires companies to increase their competitiveness to maintain and strengthen their position. One of the efforts has to be taken into consideration by companies is innovating sustainably. Evidence shows that companies characterised by innovation have above-average productivity and become leader in the industry. Firms innovate either to produce technologically new products or services, or to produce technologically improved products or services. To produce technologically new and improved products or services, firms need to undertake some innovation activities. Innovation activities are all those scientific, technological, organizational, financial and commercial steps, including investment in new knowledge, which actually, or are intended to, lead to the implementation of technologically new or improved products or processes. Small and medium enterprises face some problems to innovate. Government. intervention is needed to manage the problems, and is expected to increase innovation in the industry.Innovation activities discussed in this paper are focused on those occurred in small and medium enterprises in the automotive component sector as one of the sectors will be developed by the government. In the first part is the introduction which presents problem background. Then, the explanation about methodology and followed by the purpose of the study. The next part is results and discussion. Finally, the paper provides recommendation on intervention necessarily to be taken by the government in order to increase innovation activities in the industry.Key words: Government Intervention, Innovation Activities, and Automotive Component Industry
Formulasi Mikroemulsi Minyak dalam Air (O/W) yang Stabil Menggunakan Kombinasi Tiga Surfaktan Non Ionik dengan Nilai Hlb Rendah, Tinggi dan Sedang Yuwanti, Sih; Raharjo, Sri; Hastuti, Pudji; Supriyadi, Supriyadi
Agritech Vol 31, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9722

Abstract

The aim of this research was to determine the proportion of oil, surfactant and water which could produce a stable O/W microemulsion using combination of three nonionic surfactants with low, high and medium HLB values; and to determine the role of surfactant with a medium HLB value in O/W microemulsion formulation. The first group of microemulsions were prepared using combination of Tween 80, Span 80 and Span 40 (80 %:10 %:10 %) with dif- ferent proportions of VCO:surfactant (1:3, 1:3.5 dan 1:4).  The second goups of microemulsion were prepared using combination of Tween 80, Span 80 and Span 40 (90 %:5 %:5 %) with different proportions of VCO:surfactant 1:4,1:4.5 dan 1:5.  The stability of microemulsion was determined during storage at room temperature and after being ovened at 105 0C 5 hours and centrifuged at 2300 g 15 minutes. Microemulsion stability was determined by measur- ing absorbance of the microemulsion at 502 nm and then converted to turbidity (%).  In order to determine the role of surfactant with a medium HLB value in the formulation of O/W microemulsion, one set microemulsions were made without surfactant with a medium HLB value, and another set of microemulsions were prepared with different ratios of low and medium HLB surfactant (1:1, 2:1 and 1:2). The most stable microemulsion was achieved when the proportion of VCO:surfactant:water was 4:20:76 and combination of Tween 80:Span 80:Span 40 with the ratio of 90:3.33:6.67. A more stable O/W microemulsion could be obtained when surfactant with a medium HLB value was added to O/W microemulsion formulation. Surfactant with a medium HLB value would link the oil phase and water phase with sur- factant layer, interaction of surfactant-oil and surfactant-water increased. It provided a smooth transition between oil phase and water phase, and the microemulsion became more stable.ABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan proporsi minyak, surfaktan dan air yang dapat menghasilkan mik- roemulsi minyak dalam air yang stabil menggunakan kombinasi tiga surfaktan non ionik dengan nilai HLB rendah, tinggi dan sedang; dan mengetahui peran surfaktan dengan nilai HLB sedang dalam formulasi mikroemulsi minyak da- lam air. Kelompok mikroemulsi yang pertama disiapkan dengan kombinasi surfaktan Tween 80, Span 80 dan Span 40 (80 %:10 %:10 %) dan variasi proporsi VCO:surfaktan 1:3, 1:3,5 dan 1:4. Kelompok mikroemulsi yang kedua disiap- kan dengan kombinasi surfaktan Tween 80, Span 80 dan Span 40 (90 %:5 %:5 %) dan variasi proporsi VCO:surfaktan1:4, 1:4,5 dan 1:5. Uji stabilitas mikroemulsi dilakukan dengan disimpan pada suhu kamar, dioven 105 0C selama 5 jam dan disentrifuge 2300 g selama 15 menit. Pengamatan stabilitas mikroemulsi dilakukan dengan mengukur absorbansi mikroemulsi pada λ 502 nm yang dikonversi menjadi persen turbiditas. Untuk mengetahui peran surfaktan dengan HLB sedang maka dibuat mikroemulsi tanpa surfaktan HLB sedang, dan juga dibuat mikroemulsi dengan variasi rasio surfaktan  HLB rendah dan sedang yaitu 1:1, 2:1 dan 1:2. Mikroemulsi paling stabil diperoleh dari formula dengan proporsi VCO:surfaktan:air = 4:20:76 dengan kombinasi surfaktan Tween 80:Span 80:Span 40 = 90:3,33:6,67. Pe- nambahan surfaktan HLB sedang pada formulasi mikroemulsi minyak dalam air lebih menstabilkan mikroemulsi yang dihasilkan. Surfaktan HLB sedang menjembatani fase minyak dan air dengan lapisan surfaktan sehingga meningkatkan interaksi surfaktan-air dan surfaktan-minyak, transisi antara fase minyak dan fase air menjadi lebih halus dan mikro- emulsi menjadi lebih stabil.
Hidrolisis Enzimatis Stearin Sawit Menjadi Monogliserida oleh Lipase dari Rhizomucor miehei dan Pankreas Karaouw, Steivie; Suparmo, Suparmo; Hastuti, Pudji; Utami, Tyas
Agritech Vol 33, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9567

Abstract

The objectives of the research were to evaluate the effect of the pH, ratio of substrate:phospate buffer, and reaction time on the enzymatic hydrolysis of palm stearin to obtain monoglyceride by R. miehei and pancreatic lipases. Hydrolysis was evaluated at various pH (6.0; 6.5; 7.0; 7.5 dan 8.0). Enzymatic hydrolysis reactions were held at various ratio of substrate:phospate buffer (10:1, 10:2, 10:3, 10:4, 10:5, 10:6) and duration time of 6, 12, 18, 24 hours by R. miehei lipase and 24, 30, 36, 42, 48 hours by pancreatic lipase. Enzymatic hydrolysis reaction was carried out in waterbath shaker 80 stroke/minute, at 40oC with R.miehei lipase and 37oC with pancreatic lipase. The hydrolysis products were monitored using TLC with petroleum ether:diethyl ether:acetic acid=60:40:1 as developing solvent on silica gel F254 20×20 cm plate. The results showed that optimum pH for both R. miehei and pancreatic lipases were 6.5 and their activities were 332.25 unit/g enzyme amobile and 228.04 unit/g enzyme, respectively. The highest monoglyceride fraction was obtained from ratio substrate:phospate buffer 10:1 at 18 hours of incubation by Rhizomucor miehei lipase (21,59%) and ratio substrate:phospate buffer 10:4 at 42 hours of incubation by pancreatic lipase (40,45%).ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pH, rasio substrat:buffer fosfat dan waktu hidrolisis terhadap produksi monogliserida 2-monopalmitin secara enzimatis menggunakan lipase dari Rhizomucor miehei dan lipase pankreas. Hidrolisis dilakukan pada pH (6,0; 6,5; 7,0; 7,5 dan 8,0), dengan rasio substrat:buffer fosfat (10:1, 10:2, 10:3, 10:4, 10:5 dan 10:6) dan waktu hidrolisis (6, 12, 18 dan 24 jam) menggunakan lipase dari R. miehei dan (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 dan 48 jam) menggunakan lipase pankreas. Reaksi hidrolisis berlangsung dalam shaker waterbath 80 stroke/menit, pada suhu 40oC untuk lipase dari R. miehei dan 37oC untuk lipase pankreas. Hasil hidrolisis dianalisis dengan kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT) menggunakan larutan pengembang petroleum eter:dietil eter:asam asetat = 60:40:1 pada pelat silica gel F254 plat aluminiun 20×20 cm. Lipase R. miehei dan lipase pankreas memiliki pH optimum 6,5 dan aktivitasnya masing-masing 332,25 unit/g enzim amobil dan 228,04 unit/g bubuk enzim. Proporsi fraksi monogliserida tertinggi  diperoleh pada penggunaan lipase dari R. miehei dengan rasio substrat:buffer fosfat 10:1 dalam waktu 18 jam yakni sebesar 21,59 %, sedangkan penggunaan lipase pankreas menghasilkan fraksi monogliserida tertinggi dalam waktu inkubasi 42 jam pada rasio substrat buffer fosfat 10:4 menghasilkan 40,45%.
Peningkatan Kadar Patchouli Alkohol Minyak Nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth) dengan Menggunakan Membran Selulosa Asetat Aisyah, Yuliani; Hastuti, Pudji; Sastrohamidjojo, Hardjono; Hidayat, Chusnul
Agritech Vol 30, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9672

Abstract

The aims of this research were to increase patchouli alcohol content of patchouli oil using cellulose acetate membrane and evaluated performance  of the membrane. The nanofiltration  cellulose acetate membrane used in this study was the Vivaspin 15R. The filtration process of patchouli oil was carried out using centrifugation speed 212, 850 and 1912 g, and centrifugation time 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 6 minutes. Analysis of patchouli oil was carried out using gas chromatography, meanwhile  the separation performance membrane can be described as a permeability  (flux) and selectivity. The nanofiltration  process of patchouli oil using cellulose acetate membrane showed that the patchouli  alcohol content increase 2 times (58.11 %) of the initial content of patchouli alcohol (30.08 %) by using centrifugation speed of 1912 g and centrifugation time of 50 minutes. There are significant effect of centrifugation speed and centrifugation time on patchouli alcohol content, flux and selectivity. The highest value of flux is 166,81 L/m2.jam and selectivity is 44.91 %.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kadar patchouli alkohol dalam minyak nilam dengan menggunakan membran nanofiltrasi  selulosa asetat dan mengevaluasi  kinerja membran yang digunakan. Membran yang digunakan adalah membran nanofiltrasi selulosa asetat tipe Vivaspin 15R. Proses filtrasi  minyak  nilam  dilakukan dengan menggunakan kecepatan sentrifugasi 212 , 850, dan 1912 g serta  waktu sentrifugasi 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, dan 60 menit.  �adar patchouli  alkohol  di analisis menggunakan kromatografi  gas, sedangkan kinerja  membran dinyatakan sebagai permeabilitas (fluks) dan selektivitas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa filtrasi dengan menggunakan membran nanofiltrasi selulosa asetat dapat meningkatkan  kadar patchouli  alkohol  sebesar 2 kali (61,52 %) dari kadar patchouli alkohol awal (30,08%) pada kecepatan sentrifgasi 1912 g dan waktu sentrifugasi 50 menit. Kecepatan dan waktu sentrifugasi berpengaruh signifikan terhadap nilai fluks dan selektivitas membran �ilai fluks tertinggi diperoleh sebesar 166,81 L/m2.jam dan selektivitas membran sebesar 44,91 %.