Articles

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS DURING SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF MAIZE [Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mikroorganisme pada Fermentasi Spontan Jagung] Rahmawati, .; -Hariyadi, Ratih Dewanti; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Fardiaz, Dedi; Richana, Nur
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 24, No 1 (2013): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS DURING SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF MAIZE [Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mikroorganisme pada Fermentasi Spontan Jagung] Rahmawati1,2), Ratih Dewanti-Hariyadi1,3)*, Purwiyatno Hariyadi1,3), Dedi Fardiaz1,3) and Nur Richana4) 1) Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia 2) Department of Food Technology, Sahid University, Jakarta, Indonesia 3) Southeast Asia Food Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia 4) Indonesian Center for Agricultural Post Harvest Research & Development (ICAPRD), Bogor, Indonesia   Accepted April 05th 2013 / Approved June 12th  2013 ABSTRACT   Maize was traditionally the second most common staple food in Indonesia. Conversion to maize flour has been accomplished to improve its convenience. Traditionally, maize flour is produced by soaking the kernels in water followed by grinding. It was reported that final physicochemical characteristics of the maize flour were influenced by spontaneous fermentation which occurred during soaking. This research aimed to isolate and identify important microorganisms that grew during fermentation thus a standardized starter culture can be developed for a more controlled fermentation process. Soaking of maize grits was conducted in sterile water (grits:water=1:2, w/v) in a closed container at room temperature (±28ºC) for 72 hours. After 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 hours, water and maize grits were sampled and tested for the presence of mold, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Isolates obtained from the spontaneous fermentation were reinoculated into the appropriate media containing starch to observe their amylolytic activity. Individual isolate was then identified; mold by slide culture method, while yeast and LAB by biochemical rapid kits, i.e. API 20C AUX and API CH50, respectively. The number of each microorganism was plotted against time to obtain the growth curve of the microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation. The microorganisms were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, A. flavus, A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, R.oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Acremonium strictum, Candida famata, Kodamaea ohmeri, Candida krusei/incospicua, Lactobacillus plantarum 1a, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. brevis 1, L. plantarum 1b, and L. paracasei ssp paracasei 3. Four molds and one yeast were amylolytic while none of the LAB was capable of starch hydrolysis. The growth curve suggested that the amylolitic mold and yeast grew to hydrolyze starch during the course of fermentation, while the LABs benefited from the hydrolyzed products and dominated the later stage of the fermentation.  
OptimationStudy of Processing Technology of Instant Corn Grits ., Sugiyono; Soekarto, Soewarno T; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Supryadi, Agus
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 15, No 2 (2004): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

This research was aimed to process corn kernels into instant corn-grits. Corn kernels were milled into grits and pregelatinized before drying to make them instant product. The study showed that pre-gelatinization step affected the degree of gelatinization of corn-grits, which inturn significantly affected characteristics of the product such as cooking time, degree of swelling and amount of water absorbed. Processing of corn kernels into instant corn-grits yielded 60 – 63% product. Instant corn grits can be cooked for 5 minutes. The shelf life of the product lasted for 12.8 – 13.4 months. Key words : Pre-gelatinization, instant, corn-grits.
Pasta Pati Jagung Putih Waxy dan Non-Waxy yang Dimodifikasi Secara Oksidasi dan Asetilasi-Oksidasi Aini, Nur; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Modification of corn starch will give different effects depending on the corn variety. Gel forming capacity increased with increase in concentration of the samples and least gel concentration was maximal in higher amylose starch. Initial pasting temperature of native starch reduced from following oxidation and acetylation. Among the samples, the highest pasting temperature was recorded in native and values for peak viscosity during heating. The modified starch has better stability than native starch and lower tendency for syneresis and improve the freeze thaw stability.Keywords: white corn starch, oxidation, acetylation-oxidation, corn variety
HUBUNGAN ANTARA WAKTU FERMENTASI GRITS JAGUNG DENGAN SIFAT GELATINISASI TEPUNG JAGUNG PUTIH YANG DIPENGARUHI UKURAN PARTIKEL ., Nur Aini; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Muchtadi, Tien R.; Andarwulan, Nuri
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 21, No 1 (2010): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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HUBUNGAN ANTARA WAKTU FERMENTASI GRITS JAGUNG DENGAN SIFAT GELATINISASI  TEPUNG JAGUNG PUTIH YANG DIPENGARUHI UKURAN PARTIKEL [Relationship between Fermentation Time of Corn Grits and Gelatinization Properties of White Corn Flour Influenced by Particle Size] Nur Aini 1)*, Purwiyatno Hariyadi 2, 3), Tien R. Muchtadi 2),  dan Nuri Andarwulan 2,3) 1)Program Studi dan Teknologi Panagan Universitas Soedirman 2) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, FATETA-IPB 3)South East Asian Food & Agriculture Science & Tcehnology (SEAFAST) Center Institut Pertanian Bogor   Diterima  23 November 2009 / Disetujui 16 Juni 2010 ABSTRACT   The uses of white corn in Indonesia’s food industries are still limited. To explore the potential uses, evaluation of functional properties of white corn flour is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gelatinization properties of white corn flour, and its changes as affected by spontaneous fermentation of white corn grits and particle size of its flour.  White corn flour was prepared by soaking of white corn grits followed by drying and grinding.  Soaking was done in a closed pan at a controlled temperature, to promote spontaneous fermentation.  The fermented  flour was fractionated by particle size using multiple sieves of 100 mesh (150 µm), 150 mesh (106 µm) and 200 mesh (75µm) and analyzed for its chemicals, physicals and gelatinization characteristics. The result showed that the smaller particle size resulted in increased breakdown viscosity and the tendency to retrogradate. Overall, the  result showed that control of length of fermentation of corn grits and particle size could be used as a mean to control breakdown viscosity and tendency to the retrogradation of the corn flour.   Key words: white corn flour, gelatinization, particle size, spontaneous fermentation
KOMPOSISI KIMIA BIJI DAN SIFAT FUNGSIONAL PATI GAYAM (Inocarpus edulis Forst.) 1) [Chemical Composition of Gayam ( Inocarpus edulis Forst.) Seed and Functional Properties of Its Starch] Epriliati, Indah; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Apriyantono, Anton
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 13, No 2 (2002): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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KOMPOSISI KIMIA BIJI DAN SIFAT FUNGSIONAL PATI GAYAM (Inocarpus edulis Forst.) 1) [Chemical Composition of Gayam ( Inocarpus edulis Forst.) Seed and Functional  Properties of Its Starch] Indah Epriliati 2) , Purwiyatno Hariyadi 3) , dan  Anton Apriyantono 3) 1) Makalah dipresentasikan pada Seminar Nasional  PATPI, Semarang   9-10 Oktober 2001 2) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian  Unika Widya Mandala Surabaya 3) Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fateta-IPB   ABSTRACT   Basic  information on physical and chemical properties of Gayam (Inocarpus edulis Forst), one of the domestic commodities, is still very limited. The objectives of this research were to investigate chemical composition of gayam seed and the functional properties of gayam starch, especially the pasting behavior and the characteristic of its gel. Moisture, crude protein, lipid, ash, and carbohydrate content of gayam seed, respectively, were 50.11% (w/w), 11.66%, 8.21 %, 3.39% , and 76.74% (dw). The gayam starch granules were very strong and remain physically intact  during  heating up to 90°C. The highest swelling-power (24.76) occurred at 95°C, with low amylose leaching (0.27% dw) and solubility (0.25° Brix). Pasting behavior of starch suspension (10% w/v) showed the initial pasting temperature at 81°C and  peak viscosity 750 Brabender unit (BU) reached at 90 °C. The paste viscosity was relatively  stable at 95°C. The gel was formed during  cooling. The gel of gayam  starch was unstable at (-16°C) at which six times freezing-thawing cycles resulted in 66.95% water dripped. The gel characteristics may indicated the high amylose content. Scanning electron micrographs of freeze-dried gel revealed the sponge-strucuture. The data indicated  that gayam starch has great potential to be explored further  for industrial applications.   Key  words : Gayam seed, starch, chemical composition,  and function properties
PENGARUH PROSES HEAT-MOISTURE TREATMENT (HMT) TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK FISIKOKIMIA PATI [Effect of Heat-Moisture Treatment (HMT) Process on Physicochemical Characteristics of Starch] Syamsir, Elvira; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Fardiaz, Dedi; Andarwulan, Nuri; Kusnandar, Feri
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 23, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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FORMULATION AND PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF MUFFIN PRODUCED FROM COMPOSITE FLOUR OF CORN, WHEAT AND SWEET POTATO [Formulasi dan Optimasi Proses dari Mufin Produksi dari Tepung Komposit Jagung, Gandum, dan Ubi Jalar] Purnomo, Eko Hari; Sitanggang, Azis B.; Agustin, Denny S.; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Hartono, Stefani
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 23, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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FORMULATION AND PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF MUFFIN PRODUCED FROM COMPOSITE FLOUR OF CORN, WHEAT AND SWEET POTATO[Formulasi dan Optimasi Proses dari Mufin Produksi dari Tepung Komposit Jagung, Gandum, dan Ubi Jalar] Eko Hari Purnomo1,2)*, Azis B. Sitanggang1,2), Denny S. Agustin2), Purwiyatno Hariyadi1,2) and Stefani Hartono1) 1) Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 2) South East Asian Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor   Submitted November 02th 2012 / Accepted December 06th 2012 ABSTRACT   Intensification of use of local carbohydrate sources such as corn and sweet potato is expected to minimize wheat import and support food diversification program. The objective of this research was to optimize the composite flour composition and baking process conditions in muffin production. This research was divided into 3 steps namely formula optimization using mixture design techniques, process optimization using response surface methodology and final product analysis. The formula and process optimization was based on sensory parameter using hedonic rating test involving 70 untrained panelists. The results showed that the optimum formula was a formula with 4% wheat flour, 86% corn flour, and 10% sweet potato flour. The optimum baking condition was 39 minutes at 157°C. Analysis of muffin made with the optimum formula and baking conditions showed that the muffin had hardness, moisture, ash, protein, fat, cabohydrate, and crude fibre of 107.3 gf, 23.22%, 1.83%, 5.89%, 22.46%, 69.82%, and 0.26%, respectively.   Keywords: composite flour, corn flour, muffin, sweet potato flour ABSTRAK   Intensifikasi penggunaan sumber karbohidrat lokal, misalnya jagung dan ubi jalar, diharapkan mampu menurunkan impor gandum dalam rangka mendukung program diversifikasi pangan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengoptimasi komposisi tepung komposit dan kondisi pemanggangan dalam pembuatan muffin. Penelitian terdiri dari 3 tahap utama yaitu optimasi formula menggunakan teknik mixture design, optimasi proses pemanggangan menggunakan response surface methodology, dan analisis produk akhir. Optimasi formula dan proses pemanggangan didasarkan pada parameter sensori yang diperoleh dari uji hedonik dengan menggunakan 70 panelis tidak terlatih. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa formula tepung komposit yang optimum adalah 4% tepung terigu, 86% tepung jagung, and 10% tepung ubi jalar. Kondisi optimum pemanggangan adalah pada suhu 157°C selama 39 menit. Analisis produk akhir menunjukkan bahwa muffin dari tepung komposit secara berurutan memiliki kekerasan, kadar abu, protein, lemak, karbohidrat, dan serat kasar sebesar 107,3 gf, 23,22%, 1,83%, 5,89%, 22,46%, 69,82%, dan 0,26%.   Kata kunci: komposit tepung, tepung jagung, muffin, tepung ubi jalar  
Optimization of Deacidification Process to Minimize Destruction of Carotenoids in Purification of Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq Mas’ud, Fajriyati; Muchtadi, Tien R.; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Haryati, Tri
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 31, No 1 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Palm oil contains carotenoid about 500-700 ppm.  Epidemiology study showed that carotenoids are beneficial for health, but most of carotenoids are destructed and loss during purification of palm oil, so need to be modified to minimize the loss and destruction of carotenoids.  One of the methods was to use NaOH to neutralize free fatty acid after degumming step.  The aim of this research was to determine optimum condition of deacidification process of palm oil to minimize the destruction of carotenoids.  This research used Central Composite Design (CCD).  Response surface model was applied to see influence of treatment to rendemen, free fatty acid and carotenoids contents of neutralized palm oil (NPO) with three variables of temperature, time, and consentration of NaOH.  This research showed the optimum condition of deacidification process of palm oil to minimize the destruction of carotenoids, i.e. temperature of 59oC, time 25 minutes, and NaOH 11.1% (16oBe).  In this condition the content of  NPO was 95%, with 0.16% of free fatty acid  and total carotenoids of 390 ppm.     Key words: palm oil, deacidification, carotenoid
Chemical and Rheological Properties Correlation of White Corn Flour Influenced by Spontaneous Fermentation of Corn Grits Aini, Nur; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Muchtadi, Tien R.; Andarwulan, Nuri
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 32, No 1 (2009): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Fermented was reported to have different physicochemical and functional properties to those of non fermented flour.  The objective of this research was to study the effect of spontaneous fermentation to chemical and rheological properties of corn flour and to identifying correlation among parameters.  Flour was prepared by spontaneous fermentation with variation of fermentation time (0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours).  The result indicated that the increasing of corn grits fermentation time was decrease of protein, crude fiber, lipid, ash, starch  and amylase content of corn flour.  The increasing of protein content, reduction sugar, crude fiber, ash, bulk density and gelatinization time were decrease of gel strength.  Gel strength will be promote with increasing of angle of repose and peak viscosity.  Gel stickeness will decrease with increasing of amylosa: amylopecyin ratio and breakdown viscosity.   Key words: white corn, flour,fermentation, chemical, rheological
Pengaruh Laju Pendinginan, Suhu, dan Lama Kristalisasi pada Profil Triasilgliserol dan Sifat Pelelehan Produk Fraksionasi Minyak Kelapa Mursalin, .; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Purnomo, Eko Hari; Andarwulan, Nuri; Fardiaz, Dedi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 18, No 1 (2013): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Dry fractionation will produce a fraction of olein and stearin with different composition of high melting and low melting as well the distribution of triacylglycerol (TAG) in the form of trisaturated (St3), disaturated (St2U) and monosaturated (StU2). This research aimed to study the effect of critical cooling rate and crystallization temperature on the composition and profile of TAG changes as well the melting properties of the fractionated coconut oil products. Coconut oilwas heated at 70°C then cooledat differentcooling rate to reach various crystalization temperatures. The oil was then stirred at 15rpm and allowed to crystallize at different period of time, and finally fractionated by vacuum filtration using Whatman #40 paper. Fractionation temperatures were the same as crystalization temperatures. The results showed that the critical cooling rate was proportional to the solid-like to liquid-like ratio, the content of St3 and SFC profile of olein fraction but inversely proportional to the content of St2U and StU2 TAG. Interval crystallization temperature between 21.30 and 21.73 °C produced the S/L ratio, the content of St3 TAG and SFC profiles of olein fractions lower and the content of St2U and StU2 TAG higher than the temperature interval below or above it. Coconut oil fractionation more effective in higher crystallization temperature or lower critical cooling rate. In these cooling treatments, St3 TAG which has high melting pointwould be concentrated at stearin fraction, while St2U and StU2 TAG and MCTwould be at olein fraction. Therefore, it will increase melting properties of stearin fraction and decrease olein fraction. Keywords: coconut oil, critical cooling rates, crystallization temperature, fractionation, melting properties, TAG profile