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Fatty Acid Synthesis by Indonesian Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis PRATIWI, ALBERTA RIKA; SYAH, DAHRUL; HARDJITO, LINAWATI; PANGGABEAN, LILY MARIA GORETTI; SUHARTONO, MAGGY THENAWIDJAJA
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 16, No 4 (2009): December 2009
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (134.069 KB) | DOI: 10.4308/hjb.16.4.151

Abstract

Since the primary storage nutrients in diatoms consist of lipid, they are potential for the industrial fatty acid production. High value fatty acids include arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This study aimed to analyze fatty acid synthesis by Chaetoceros gracilis diatom during growth. There was a large increase in lipid yield from 4pg cell-1 mass of lipid per cell at the exponential phase to 283pg cell-1 at stationary phase. The lipid concentrations also increased significantly from the stationary phase to the death phase, but not significantly from the end exponential phase to the stationary phase. The relative percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA) of the total fatty acid was higher than that of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) at all of growth phase. The highest PUFA was found at stationary phase at the same time when SAFA was being the lowest. The majority of SAFA was palmitic acid (24.03-40.35%). MUFA contained significant proportion of oleic acid (19.6-20.9%). Oleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid were found at every stage growth. These fatty acids are considered as precursor for production of long chain PUFA-Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA/22:6ω3) through series of desaturation and elongation step with all of desaturase enzyme (Δ8-D, Δ9-D, Δ12-D, Δ15-D, Δ17-D, Δ6-D, Δ5-D, and Δ4-D) and elongase enzyme (E).         Key words: Chaetoceros gracilis, fatty acid, synthesis, saturated fatty acid (SAFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)
Characteristic of Fishball from Mixed-Surimi of Decapterus spp. and Lutjanus sp. on Chilling Storage Chairita, .; Hardjito, Linawati; Santoso, Joko; Santoso, .
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2009): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (240.403 KB)

Abstract

The utilization of scad (Decapterus spp.) has not been done optimally. This species is a potential fish to be processed into surimi that is a raw material of fish jelly products, such as fishball. It contains red meat in greater proportion compared to white meat. For this reason, surimi of scad (Decapterus spp.) was produced using alkaline leaching method and mixed with red snapper (Lutjanus sp) surimi to be used a raw material of fishball. The fishball was added by chitosan at concentration of 0.1% as preservative, while carrageenan was added at concentration of 1% as gelling agent. The fishball was stored in chilling condition (0-4 oC). The results indicated that surimi of Decapterus spp. being leached twice showed the same quality as white meat surimi. Fishball containing red snapper surimi and scad surimi of 1:3 added by 25% of tapioca starch showed good physical and sensory characteristics. The mixed surimi of fresh fish meat was better in term of its physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics compared to the frozen one. Chitosan added at 0.1% could preserve the fishball for two weeks on chilling storage (0-4 oC) without causing any change of its physical and chemical characteristics. The fishball produced has a better flavor and texture was similar to commercial one.Keywords: chilling storage, Decapterus spp, fishball, Lutjanus sp, mixed-surimi.
MUTU SOSIS FERMENTASI IKAN PATIN (Pangasius sp.) SELAMA PENYIMPANAN SUHU RUANG Harmain, Rita Marsuci; Hardjito, Linawati; Zahiruddin, Winarti
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 15, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (357.566 KB)

Abstract

Catfish (Pangasius sp.) is a potential commodity for local and export market. Fermented sausage wich is highly flavor product and has specific aroma provides health benefit. The study was aimed to characterise fermented sausage of catfish (Pangasius sp.) during storage at room temperature for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days including hedonic sensory, microbiological and chemical  characteristics. Fermented sausage of catfish using lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 1B1 used to optimize the fermentation process. Analysis conducted during storage include hedonic sensory (texture, color, flavor), chemical (pH and a) and microbiological (total plate count), total lactic acid bacteria L. plantarum 1B1, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp., Salmonella sp., and mold/yeast) to obtain the best storage time. The result showed that the hedonic sensory was like-neutral, the chemical profile showed pH of 3,93-3,69 and aw of 0,88-0,79.  Microbiological profile obtained total plate count 1.8 x108 CFU/g, total lactic acid bacteria L.plantarum 1B1 8.8 x 108 CFU/g. During storage there were no bacteria E. coli, Staphylococcus sp. and Salmonella sp., but the molds/yeasts obtained in storage on the 8th to 16th day.Key words: chemical, fermented sausage, hedonic sensory, microbiology, storage.
Inhibitors Screening of β-lactamase Axinella Sponge Simbion Bacteria sp. Abdullah, Asadatun; Hardjito, Linawati; Ernawati, .; Abdillah, Fatimah
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 11, No 2 (2008): Buletin Teknologi Hasil Perikanan
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (610.415 KB)

Abstract

Salah satu jenis antibiotik yang umum digunakan dalam pengobatan adalah β-laktam. Saat ini terdapat banyak bakteri patogen pada manusia yang resisten terhadap antibiotik β-laktam. Bakteri patogen yang resisten terhadap antibiotik β-laktam adalah bakteri yang mampu memproduksi enzim β-laktamase. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menapis produk alami inhibitor β-laktamase dari mikroorganisme simbion Axinella sp. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan sebelumnya, telah diisolasi dan diidentifikasi secara biokimia 7 isolat bakteri simbion sponge Axinella sp. Penapisan inhibitor β-laktamase dilakukan dengan metode agar difusi menggunakan bakteri target E.coli dan S.aureus resisten ampisilin koleksi Laboratorium Bioteknologi Hasil Perairan. Pengukuran resistensi terhadap E.coli dan S.aureus dilakukan pada konsentrasi ampisilin >32 μg/ml. Dari 7 isolat bakteri simbion yang ditapis secara intraseluler dan ekstraseluler, 4 isolat pada ekstraselulernya positif menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri patogen E.coli dan S.aureus. 4 bakteri simbion tersebut adalah Bacillus sp., Halomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. dan Alteromonas sp. Identifikasi molekuler bakteri simbion dan karakterisasi golongan senyawa inbitor β-laktamase sedang dalam proses penelitian.Keywords : bakteri simbion Axinella sp., inhibitor β-laktamase, E.coli, S.aureus
Ethnomedicinal Plant Terong Pungo (Solanum sp.) HARDJITO, LINAWATI
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 2, No 2 (2008): August 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5454/mi.2.2.2

Abstract

The leaf of terong pungo Solanum sp. had been used traditionally in Aceh to treat toothache and relieve pain. Based on traditional knowledge, this research was conducted to examine the biological activities of its extract as an antibacterial agent and topoisomerase-I inhibitor. The topoisomerase-I inhibitor is one of the target molecules for anticancer compounds. In addition, it is also a target molecule for antimicrobial compounds. The antibacterial activity was examined using disc diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from medical patients. Topoisomerase-I inhibitor activity was determined using the method reported by TopoGEN, and its toxicity was examined against Artemia salina. Chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol treatments yielded crude extracts of 1.44, 1.20, and 2.69%, respectively. The chloroform extract exhibited neither antibacterial nor topoisomerase-I inhibitor activities, while the ethylacetate and methanol extracts at a concentration of 300 μg/paper disk positively inhibited the growth of both target bacteria or enzyme activity of topoisomerase-I at a concentration of 50 μg ml-1. The ethylacetate extract showed better activity against target bacteria and was chosen for further investigation. The results suggest that the crude extract showed antibacterial and topoisomerase-I inhibitor activity. Identification of the isolated active fraction indicated that it contained a steroidal alkaloid compound. This investigation revealed that the leaf of terong pungo contains biologically active compounds of pharmacological relevance.
The Influence of Oil Concentration, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Composition on Crude Oil Biodegradation by Epyzim and Mixed Cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Arthrobacter simplex NOOR, ERLIZA; HARDJITO, LINAWATI
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 2, No 3 (2008): December 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Biological methods have gained attention as an alternative treatment for oil degradation in pollution remediation. External and internal factors have a great influence on crude oil biodegradation. This experiment studied the effect of oil concentrations and ratios of Ammonium and Phosphate on oil degradation in mixed cultures of local strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Arthrobacter simplex. The oil degradation ability of this mixed culture was compared to the dormant culture of Epyzim. The increase of oil concentration, from 1, 3, 5 and 10% (w/v), significantly lowered the ability of both cultures to degrade the oil i.e from 83 % for 1% oil concentration to 64% for 10% oil concentration using local strains. The local strains showed better capability compare to the dormant culture. Medium composition was designed by three levels of ammonium concentration (7.6, 37.9 and 75.8 mg l-1) and two levels of phosphate concentration (2.0 and 9.9 mg l-1). The ratio of ammonium to phosphate of 3.8:1.0 in the growth media has resulted the maximum level of oil degradation, i.e 83% and 88%, for dormant and local cultures respectively. The results suggest a potential usage of local microorganisms in degrading crude oil-polluted water.
Inhibitors Screening of β-lactamase Axinella Sponge Simbion Bacteria sp. Abdullah, Asadatun; Hardjito, Linawati; Ernawati, .; Abdillah, Fatimah
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 11, No 2 (2008): Buletin Teknologi Hasil Perikanan
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (610.415 KB) | DOI: 10.17844/

Abstract

Salah satu jenis antibiotik yang umum digunakan dalam pengobatan adalah β-laktam. Saat ini terdapat banyak bakteri patogen pada manusia yang resisten terhadap antibiotik β-laktam. Bakteri patogen yang resisten terhadap antibiotik β-laktam adalah bakteri yang mampu memproduksi enzim β-laktamase. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menapis produk alami inhibitor β-laktamase dari mikroorganisme simbion Axinella sp. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan sebelumnya, telah diisolasi dan diidentifikasi secara biokimia 7 isolat bakteri simbion sponge Axinella sp. Penapisan inhibitor β-laktamase dilakukan dengan metode agar difusi menggunakan bakteri target E.coli dan S.aureus resisten ampisilin koleksi Laboratorium Bioteknologi Hasil Perairan. Pengukuran resistensi terhadap E.coli dan S.aureus dilakukan pada konsentrasi ampisilin >32 μg/ml. Dari 7 isolat bakteri simbion yang ditapis secara intraseluler dan ekstraseluler, 4 isolat pada ekstraselulernya positif menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri patogen E.coli dan S.aureus. 4 bakteri simbion tersebut adalah Bacillus sp., Halomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. dan Alteromonas sp. Identifikasi molekuler bakteri simbion dan karakterisasi golongan senyawa inbitor β-laktamase sedang dalam proses penelitian.Keywords : bakteri simbion Axinella sp., inhibitor β-laktamase, E.coli, S.aureus
Characteristic of Fishball from Mixed-Surimi of Decapterus spp. and Lutjanus sp. on Chilling Storage Chairita, .; Hardjito, Linawati; Santoso, Joko; Santoso, .
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2009): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Department of Aquatic Product Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (240.403 KB) | DOI: 10.17844/jphpi.v12i1.892

Abstract

The utilization of scad (Decapterus spp.) has not been done optimally. This species is a potential fish to be processed into surimi that is a raw material of fish jelly products, such as fishball. It contains red meat in greater proportion compared to white meat. For this reason, surimi of scad (Decapterus spp.) was produced using alkaline leaching method and mixed with red snapper (Lutjanus sp) surimi to be used a raw material of fishball. The fishball was added by chitosan at concentration of 0.1% as preservative, while carrageenan was added at concentration of 1% as gelling agent. The fishball was stored in chilling condition (0-4 oC). The results indicated that surimi of Decapterus spp. being leached twice showed the same quality as white meat surimi. Fishball containing red snapper surimi and scad surimi of 1:3 added by 25% of tapioca starch showed good physical and sensory characteristics. The mixed surimi of fresh fish meat was better in term of its physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics compared to the frozen one. Chitosan added at 0.1% could preserve the fishball for two weeks on chilling storage (0-4 oC) without causing any change of its physical and chemical characteristics. The fishball produced has a better flavor and texture was similar to commercial one.Keywords: chilling storage, Decapterus spp, fishball, Lutjanus sp, mixed-surimi.
MUTU SOSIS FERMENTASI IKAN PATIN (Pangasius sp.) SELAMA PENYIMPANAN SUHU RUANG Harmain, Rita Marsuci; Hardjito, Linawati; Zahiruddin, Winarti
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 15, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Department of Aquatic Product Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (357.566 KB) | DOI: 10.17844/jphpi.v15i2.6167

Abstract

Catfish (Pangasius sp.) is a potential commodity for local and export market. Fermented sausage wich is highly flavor product and has specific aroma provides health benefit. The study was aimed to characterise fermented sausage of catfish (Pangasius sp.) during storage at room temperature for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days including hedonic sensory, microbiological and chemical  characteristics. Fermented sausage of catfish using lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 1B1 used to optimize the fermentation process. Analysis conducted during storage include hedonic sensory (texture, color, flavor), chemical (pH and a) and microbiological (total plate count), total lactic acid bacteria L. plantarum 1B1, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp., Salmonella sp., and mold/yeast) to obtain the best storage time. The result showed that the hedonic sensory was like-neutral, the chemical profile showed pH of 3,93-3,69 and aw of 0,88-0,79.  Microbiological profile obtained total plate count 1.8 x108 CFU/g, total lactic acid bacteria L.plantarum 1B1 8.8 x 108 CFU/g. During storage there were no bacteria E. coli, Staphylococcus sp. and Salmonella sp., but the molds/yeasts obtained in storage on the 8th to 16th day.Key words: chemical, fermented sausage, hedonic sensory, microbiology, storage.
Ekstrasi Senyawa Antibakteri Dari Diatom Chaetoceros gracilis dengan Berbagai Metode Setyaningsih, Iriani; Hardjito, Linawati; Monintja, Daniel R.; Sondita, M. Fedi A.; Bintang, Maria; Lailati, Nispi; Panggabean, Lily
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 5, No 1 (2008): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (98.24 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v5i1.3203

Abstract

ABSTRACTExtraction of Antibacterial Compound from Diatom Chaetoceros gracilis WithDifferent Methods. Diatom is phytoplankton which is commonly found in off shore.Chaetoceros produce antibacterial which inhibit some bacteria. This research was donein 3 steps. At first, Chaetoceros gracilis was cultivated in temperate controlled roomwith lighting 24 hours. The culture was harvested on 14 days, then it was dried andweighted. The second step, biomass was disrupted by different method such as sonicator,glass beads, and undisrupting. Then the biomass was maserated, filtrated, and evaporated.The crude extracts were tested to pathogen bacterial. The third step, the extraction wasconducted using hexana (non polar solvent), ethyl acetate (semi polar solvent), andmethanol (polar solvent). The crude extracts were tested to the pathogenic bacteria.The result showed that the produce cell disruption antibacterial activity by sonicator.The biggest inhibition zone was obtained by hexana but produced lower yield.Key words: Chaetoceros gracilis, growth, extraction, disrupting, antibacteria