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Antimicrobial Activity Test of Methanol Extract of Sygyzium cordatums Leaves on Eschericia coli and Staphylococcus aureus Using Kirby-Bauer Method Ardhuha, Fadhlan; Harapan, Harapan
The Journal of The Indonesian Medical Students Association Vol. I No. 01 January - June 2010
Publisher : The Journal of The Indonesian Medical Students Association

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A research for determining antimicrobial activity from leaf extract of Syzygium cordatum to E. coli dan S. aureus has been conducted. This research was based on Kirby-Bauer method by using BHIB media and MHA agar. Five hundred gram of sample was dried then extracted with 1 litre methanol. The methanol extract obtained was evaporated with water bath at 50oC. Furthermore, antimicrobial activity test for E. coli and S. aureus was done in different concentration: 60%, 30%, 15%, and 7,5%. Inhibition activity of leaf extract of S. cordatum to S. aureus in 60% concentration is 16,5 mm. In concentration of 30%, 15%, and 7,5%, the inhibition activity for S. aureus were 14.5 mm, 13,5 mm, and 11 mm. Inhibition activity for positive control (Chloramphenicol) is 24,5 mm for E. coli and S. aureus. No inhibition activity was shown in negative control (methanol) for E. coli and S. aureus. There was no inhibition activity of leaf extract of S. cordatum for E. coli. In conclusion, leaf extract of S. cordatum have antimicrobial activity for S. aureus but not for E. coli. Furthermore, a research to identify this component have to be conducted. Key words: Antimicrobial, Sygyzium cordatum, Staphylococcus aureus, Eschericia coli, Kirby-Bauer method
Role of Fasting on Enteroendokrin Cell Remodelling to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Harapan, Harapan; Fitri Jamil, Kurnia; Hayati, Zinatul; Muhammad, Iqbal
The Journal of The Indonesian Medical Students Association Vol. I No. 01 January - June 2010
Publisher : The Journal of The Indonesian Medical Students Association

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Hitherto, there was no study dedicated to analyze the effect of fasting associated enteroendocrine (EE) cell population remodelling on type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention. This article aimed at discussing the molecular and cellular mechanisms of fasting associated EE cell remodelling to type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention and estimating its effectiveness. It was shown that fasting could inhibit EE cell hyperplasia, thus decreased glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) production from K and L cells. Both hormones caused hyperinsulinemia -via enteroinsular axis- and obesity when they interacted with their respective receptors GIPR and GLP-1R in pancreatic beta cell and adipocyte. This would cause insulin resistance through PI-3 kinase and Cb1. Thus, the levels of GIP and GLP-1 are diabetic predisposition factors. Another study also revealed that EE cell remodelling due to fasting had effective target site on type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention - and was also more superior than GIP and GLP-1 analogs. Key words: type 2 diabetes mellitus, fasting, enteroendocrine cell, GIP, GLP-1
HIV-related stigma and discrimination: a study of health care workers in Banda Aceh, Indonesia Harapan, Harapan; Feramuhawan, Syarifah; Kurniawan, Hendra; Anwar, Samsul; Andalas, Mohd.; Hossain, Mohammad B.
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 22, No 1 (2013): February
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (319.257 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v22i1.518

Abstract

Background: The aim of this study was to identify the level of stigmatized and discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) among health care workers (HCWs) and the factors that influenced these attitudes.Methods: This research was conducted at Dr. Zainoel Abidin General Hospital Banda Aceh, Indonesia. A cross-sectional study design was adopted for this research. Eighty nine HCWs were included in this study and they were selected purposively. Correlation analysis, analysis of variance and independent sample t test analysis was used according to the type of data. Finally, a multiple linear regression model was used to identify the predictor factor for stigmatized and discriminatory attitudes.Results: We found that the level of stigmatized and discriminatory attitudes was high. Bivariate analysis showed that type of HCW, education, marital status, knowledge on transmission and prevention of HIV and irrational fear of HIV transmission were significant related with stigmatized attitudes (p < 0.05). Type of HCW, marital status, age, knowledge on transmission and prevention of HIV and irrational fear of HIV transmission indicated significant (p < 0.05) differences in the levels of discriminatory attitudes. A multiple linear regression model identified type of HCW and irrational fear of HIV transmission correlated with stigmatized attitudes (R2 = 0.230) and knowledge on transmission and prevention of HIV correlated with discriminatory attitudes (R2 = 0.119).Conclusion: Irrational fear of HIV transmission and type of HCW are significant predictors to stigmatized attitudes; knowledge on transmission and prevention of HIV is a predictor to discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV among HCWs. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:22-9)Keywords: Discrimination, discriminatory attitudes, HIV, PLHIV, stigmatized attitudes.