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Marek's Disease in Chicken: I. Aetiology, Pathogenesis and its Control Adjid, R M A; Damayanti, R; Hamid, H; Sjafriati, T; ., Darminto
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (153.523 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v12i2.768

Abstract

Marek’s disease (MD) is a neoplastic and neuropathic disease of poultry, especially chicken, caused by a highly contagious cell-associated herpesvirus. Marek’s disease is one of poultry diseases that is seriously concerned by poultry farmers. Before introduction of vaccine technology, the disease caused great economic loss in poultry industry, for example, in the United State the annual losses was estimated around $150 millions. Marek’s disease virus is relatively resistant to physical and chemical influence.  In  poultry  farms  the  virus  remains infectious  for  months  and  play  an  important  role  as  source of  infection. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex and influenced by factors. There are four phases of infection: early cytolytic infection, latent infection, second phase of cytolytic infection, and proliferative infection. Pathogenesis influenced by factors causes variety on clinical syndroms and incubation period of the disease in field condition. Successful disease control can be achieved, with vaccination as the main program, by selection of breed resistance and good management systems. The emergence of more virulent pathotypes of MD is a serious threat to the poultry industry, which requires development of more effective control strategies.   Key words. Marek, poultry, etiology, pathogenesis, control
The effects of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit on rumen microbes and performance of sheep Thalib, Amlius; Widiawati, Y; Hamid, H; Suherman, D; Sabrani, M
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 2, No 1 (1996)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (434.975 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v2i1.39

Abstract

Eighteen local sheep weighing approximately 15 kg were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups . All animals received a mixture of elephant and native grasses (50 :50) ad libitum + concentrate (0.5% of liveweight) . The treatments given were : (1) no additive, (II) addition of placebo and (III) addition of methanol-extracted Sapindus rarak fruit (MES) at level of 0.07% of liveweight. Placebo and MES were given orally every 3 days . Feeding treatments were conducted for 14 weeks . Rumen liquor of all animals were collected in the third week "and observed for rumen ecosystem and ruminal digestibility . Bodyweight gain and feed consumption were measured . The results showed that MES eliminates the protozoal population by 57% and sequently increases bacterial population by 69% when compared to control (1). Lowered protozoa population has no effect on lactic acid and total volatile fatty acids productions, and a consequence, does not change pH (Pa0.05) . However, lowered protozoa population decreased NH3-N content (P<0 .05) . Cumulative gas production resulting from substrate (rice straw) fermented by rumen liquor from sheep fed MES-added diet (III) increased by 13% when compared to control (1)). Compared to control (I), average daily gain of sheep fed MES-added diet (111) is increased by 44% with an improved efficiency by 28%.   Keywords : Saponin, protozoa, bacteria, performance of sheep
Mareks Disease in Chicken: I. Aetiology, Pathogenesis and its Control Adjid, R M A; Damayanti, R; Hamid, H; Sjafriati, T; ., Darminto
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (153.523 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v12i2.768

Abstract

Marek’s disease (MD) is a neoplastic and neuropathic disease of poultry, especially chicken, caused by a highly contagious cell-associated herpesvirus. Marek’s disease is one of poultry diseases that is seriously concerned by poultry farmers. Before introduction of vaccine technology, the disease caused great economic loss in poultry industry, for example, in the United State the annual losses was estimated around $150 millions. Marek’s disease virus is relatively resistant to physical and chemical influence.  In  poultry  farms  the  virus  remains infectious  for  months  and  play  an  important  role  as  source of  infection. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex and influenced by factors. There are four phases of infection: early cytolytic infection, latent infection, second phase of cytolytic infection, and proliferative infection. Pathogenesis influenced by factors causes variety on clinical syndroms and incubation period of the disease in field condition. Successful disease control can be achieved, with vaccination as the main program, by selection of breed resistance and good management systems. The emergence of more virulent pathotypes of MD is a serious threat to the poultry industry, which requires development of more effective control strategies.   Key words. Marek, poultry, etiology, pathogenesis, control
Nutritive value of fermented coconut meal in ration of laying ducks with various phosphorous levels Sinurat, A.P; Purwadaria, T; Habiebie, A; Pasaribu, T; Hamid, H; Rosida, J; Haryati, T; Sutikno, I
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 1 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (697.545 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i1.88

Abstract

A series of experiment was conducted to improve the utilization of coconut meal in poultry ration . A bioprocess (fermentation) approach was adopted. Coconut meal was fermented followed by an enzymatic process at room temperature or 50 OC.The nutritive value of the fermented products was determined chemically. Product with the highest nutritive value was then used for a feeding trial to study the interaction effect between dietary levels of fermented coconut meal and phosphorous level on the performances of laying ducks. Nine experimental diets were formulated, i.e ., the factorial of 3 levels of fermented coconut meal (0, 30 and 40%) and 3 levels of total phosphorous (0.6, 0.8 and 1 .0%) . The diet was fed to pullet ducks and the performances of the ducks were observed for 16 weeks of production period. The results showed that the nutritive value of coconut meal increased by fermentation and the highest yield was achieved when the enzymatic process was performed at 500C. There was no significant interaction effect between dietary fermented coconut meal levels and the phosphorous levels on all parameters observed, except on egg weight. Inclusion of fermented coconut meal in the ration up to 30% did not produce negative effects on the productivity oflaying ducks, however, higher levels (40%) ofinclusion reduced the egg size   Keywords: Coconut meal, fermentation, ducks, egg production
Solid state fermentation of palm kernel meal by using Aspergillus niger ., Supriyati; Pasaribu, T; Hamid, H; Sinurat, A.P
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 3 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (152.824 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i3.112

Abstract

The solid state fermentation technique on palm kernel meal by using Aspergillus niger wild type and NRRL 337 was studied. The fermentation was carried out at 30oC for 3 days continued with enzymatic process at room temperature and 40oC for 2 days. The result showed that at the third days of fermentation spores started to grow on the surface. The 3rd days fermentation can improve protein content and in vitro digestibility (IVDMD) with minimal loss of dry matter. The dry matter contents at 3 days fermentation were 48.88 and 48.83% for product using Aspergillus niger wild type and NRRL 337. Combination 3 days fermentation and 2 days enzymatic process at room temperature by using Aspergillus niger NRRL 337 type gave the best product with optimal IVDMD value and protein digestibility of 51.47 and 71.33%.   Key words : Palm kernel meal, fermentation, Aspergillus niger
In-Vivo Digestibility of Rice Straw Silage Added With Buffalo Rumen Microbes In Ongole Cross Breed Bestari, John; Thalib, Amlius; Hamid, H; Suherman, D
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 4, No 4 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v4i4.164

Abstract

An experiment was cunducted to investigate the effect of rice straw silage added with buffalo rumen microbes on the in-vivo nutrient digestibility in Ongole cross breed. Twelve male young cattle (222 + 14 kg) were distributed into 3 groups, with 4 animals in each group. The dietary treatments were : Elephant grass (R1) fresh rice straw (R2) and rice straw silage added with buffalo rumen microbes (R3). Grass and concentrate were given at 2.25% of live weight. The experiment was conducted for 15 weeks in Ciawi using total collection and arranged in a Completely Randomized Design. The results showed that digestible DM and OM intakes of R3 was 6882 and 5974 g/head/day which was not significantly different from R1 (6905 and 6188 g/head/day) but significantly different from R2 (6654 and 5588 g/head/day). The digestible protein intake of R3 was 905 g which was higher than R2 (827 g)(P < 0.05). Intake of digestible protein of R1 (951 g/head/day) was 46 g higher than R1 (P > 0.05) and 124 g higher than R2 (P < 0,05). DM and OM digestibilities of R3 (i.e. 68.16% and 78.02%) were significantly higher than R2 (61.79% and 71.58%) but similar to R1 (66.34% and 76.37%). Digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and fat intake were different among each treatment. In conclusion, rice straw silage added with buffalo rumen microbes has a similar nutritive value as elephant grass when fed to Ongole crossbreed cattle.   Key words : Rice straw silage, microbe, digestibility
In-Vivo Digestibility of Rice Straw Silage Added With Buffalo Rumen Microbes In Ongole Cross Breed Bestari, John; Thalib, Amlius; Hamid, H; Suherman, D
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 4, No 4 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (137.446 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v4i4.165

Abstract

An experiment was cunducted to investigate the effect of rice straw silage added with buffalo rumen microbes on the in-vivo nutrient digestibility in Ongole cross breed. Twelve male young cattle (222 + 14 kg) were distributed into 3 groups, with 4 animals in each group. The dietary treatments were : Elephant grass (R1) fresh rice straw (R2) and rice straw silage added with buffalo rumen microbes (R3). Grass and concentrate were given at 2.25% of live weight. The experiment was conducted for 15 weeks in Ciawi using total collection and arranged in a Completely Randomized Design. The results showed that digestible DM and OM intakes of R3 was 6882 and 5974 g/head/day which was not significantly different from R1 (6905 and 6188 g/head/day) but significantly different from R2 (6654 and 5588 g/head/day). The digestible protein intake of R3 was 905 g which was higher than R2 (827 g)(P < 0.05). Intake of digestible protein of R1 (951 g/head/day) was 46 g higher than R1 (P > 0.05) and 124 g higher than R2 (P < 0,05). DM and OM digestibilities of R3 (i.e. 68.16% and 78.02%) were significantly higher than R2 (61.79% and 71.58%) but similar to R1 (66.34% and 76.37%). Digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and fat intake were different among each treatment. In conclusion, rice straw silage added with buffalo rumen microbes has a similar nutritive value as elephant grass when fed to Ongole crossbreed cattle.   Key words : Rice straw silage, microbe, digestibility
Nutritive value of palm oil sludge fermented with Aspergillus niger after therma1 drying process Purwadaria, T; Sinurat, A.P; ., Supriyati; Hamid, H; Bintang, I.A.K
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 4, No 4 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (160.3 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v4i4.168

Abstract

Solid substrate fermentation by Aspergillus niger has been carried out to improve the nutritive value of palm oil sludge (POS). POS was fermented aerobically for four days in a fermentor chambers (28°C, RH 80%), with 60% moisture content Some of the product was further incubated anaerobically for 2 days at 28°C. Both products from aerobic and anaerobic fermentation processes were dried by various methods, i.e. sunlight, oven at 60°C, oven with blower at 40°C, at the moisture content less than 11%. Results of the drying methods were also compared with the fresh fermented product. Statistic analysis using factorial design (2 x 4) showed that there was no interaction between kind of fermentation processes (aerobic and anaerobic) and drying methods (fresh, sunlight, oven 60°C, and blower 40°C) for almost all parameters except total a-amino acid content Significant results (p<0.05) were obtained on the drying methods for parameters of crude protein, true protein, in vitro dry matter and protein digestibilities, and mannanase and cellulase activities. There were no significant results between treatments in the crude fiber analysis and soluble nitrogen content Significant results also did not occur between treatment of aerob and anaerob fermentation processes for almost all parameters except for dry matter digestibilities. Results from true protein and in vitro digestibilities show that the fresh fermented product has the best nutritive value, while product dried by sunlight was best among other drying processes. Results from in vivo of protein and energy digestibilities show that there were better metabolizable energy and protein for product with aerobic process and dried with oven and blower treatments, while sunlight drying was best for product processed in anaerobic condition. Although fresh fermented product gave better result from in vitro digestibilities and enzyme activity analyses, for some reasons (easy handling and preservation) sunlight drying gave best results for products processed under anaerobic condition, especially when sunlight drying is cheap.   Key words: Palm oil sludge, fermentation product, Aspergillus niger, thermal drying
The effects of inorganic and organic Zn, Cu and Mo supplementation to the in vitro digestibility of grass ., Supriyati; Yulistiani, D; Wina, E; Hamid, H; Haryanto, B
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 5, No 1 (2000)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (166.578 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v5i1.176

Abstract

The effects of inorganic and organic Zn, Cu and Mo supplementation to the in vitro digestibility of Elephant grass were studied in this trial. The in vitro trial used the TILLEY dan TERRY method modified by VAN SOEST with the incubation of the grass for 48 hours in sheep rumen liquor medium. Mineral added as fonn of organic and inorganic. The treatment of mineral inorganic supplementations were by adding single e1emen Cu, Zn and Mo and its combination. Mineral added was Zn (as chloride and sulphate salts) 5 ppm, Cu (sulphate salt) 0,1 ppm dan Mo (molybdate salt) 5 ppm, with 4 replicates. Meanwhile the organic minerals added were in the proteinate fonns. Parameter measured were in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), pH, VF A total and NH3. Statistical analysis was done by using Complete Split splitsplot design. The supplementation increased pH value, VFA total, IVDMD and IVOMD value (P<0,05) and decreased NH3 value. The highest IVDMD and IVOMD values obtained at the mixture supplementation of mineral Zn (as Zn S04), Cu and Mo, from 58,31 became 69.73% and 52.22 became 62.55% respectively for IVDMD and NOMD. pH value increased from 6.48 to 7.05 and ammonia content decreased from 1,17 to 0,14%. The organic mineral supplementation, en-proteinate dan Zn-proteinate showed that the adding of Zn, Zn and Mo, Zn and Cu also the combination of Zn, Cu and Mo, resulted in IVDMD values as 70.29; 69.97, 64.12 and 63.93%. Further more IVDMD value at the supplementation of Cu and the combination of Cu and Mo were 65.08 and 60,49%. It can be concluded that the supplementation of minerals in the form of inorganic or organic could improve the IVDMD values   Key words: Three element, in vitro digestibility, sheep
Technique for preparation of anaerobic microbes: Rodshaped cellulolytic bacteria Thalib, Amlius; Haryanto, B; ., Kuswandi; Hamid, H; ., Mulyani
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 6, No 3 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (123.62 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i3.234

Abstract

Preparation of anaerobic-rod cellulolytic bacteria with coating technique has been conducted. Steps of the processes involved were cultivation, coating, evaporation, and drying. Coating agent used was Gum Arabic, and drying techniquesconducted were freeze drying and sun drying. pH of culture media was firstly optimized to obtain the maximal population ofbacteria. Both coated and uncoated preparates were subjected to drying. Morphological and Gram type identifications showed that uncoated preparate dried with freeze drying is not contaminated (ie. all bacteria are rod shape with Gram-negative type) while the one dried with sun drying is not morphologically pure (ie. containing of both rod and coccus shapes with Gram negative and positive). The coated preparates dried by both freeze and sun drying, were not contaminated (ie. all are rods with Gram-negative). The coating and drying processes decreased viability of preparates significantly. However, the decreasing of viability of coated preparate are lower than uncoated preparate (ie. 89 vs. 97%). Total count of bacteria in sun-drying coated preparate are higher (P<0.05) than the uncoated preparate (ie. 3.38 x 1010 vs.  1.97 x 1010 colony/g DM). Activity of sun-drying coated preparate to digest elephant grass and rice straw was higher (P<0.01) than the sun-drying uncoated preparate with the in vitro DMD values were 42.7 vs. 35.5% for elephant grass substrate and 29.3 vs. 24.6% for rice straw substrate. Therefore, it is concluded that coating technique has a positive effects on the preparation of rumen bacteria.   Key words : Anaerobic bacteria, coating, drying