Muhammad Hakimi
Faculty of Economics & Management, The National University of Malaysia (UKM)

Published : 6 Documents
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Relationship of the seasonal variations with the incidence of preeclampsia Dr. Sardjito, General Hospital Yogyakarta, 1999-2003

Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol. 32 No. 3 Juli 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

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Abstract

Objectives: To study the correlation between seasonal variation and preeclampsia and to describe how factor such as age, parity, and type of pregnancy influence the preeclampsia. Design/data identification: The study used a cross sectional.Setting: Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta. Material and methods: The data of mother in 1999-2003 were extracted from electronic medical record, register books, delivery books, and other factor were age, parity, and type of pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of season on preeclampsia. The analyses was controlled by age and parity.Result: The study found a total of 6,726 deliveries in RSUP Dr. Sardjito during 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2003, among these 926 (13.77%) women were preeclampsia. The incidence of preeclampsia was low in Januari (11.97%) and high in August (15.30%). The mean age of mothers was 31.0 ± 5.9 years, 81.1% were 20-35 years. Mother with high risk age (< 20 and > 35 years) increase the risk 1.65 compared to mother age 20-35. Primigravida has risk of 0.96 to multigravida. Multiple pregnancy increase the risk preeclampsia 2.36 compared to single pregnant (p=0.000). Dry/wet season statistically did notreveal any correlation with preeclampsia (OR=0.96; p=0.53).Conclusion: Season is not correcalted with preeclampsia. This factors for preeclampsia are high risk age of mother and multiple pregnancy.Keywords: preeclampsia, season, mother’s age, multiple pregnancies.

Farmers’ Practices in Developing Agricultural Land in Malaysia: Is there an Islamic Microfinance Solution?

Tazkia Islamic Finance and Business Review Vol 8, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Institute for Research and Community Empowerment (LPPM TAZKIA)

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Abstract

Objective – This paper attempts to highlight the farmers’ lives in Malaysia and their problems in developing idle agricultural land.Methods - This paper is using descriptive and exploratory method of study which refer to the situation of agricultural sector in Malaysia.Results - The scheme aPLS (agricultural production and loss sharing) that proposed cannot stand alone in the traditional fiqh to be implemented now. Therefore, the combinations of aPLS contract with ujrah principle are really needed. This is important to ensure the flexibility of the contract that can offer a fully comprehensive scheme of Islamic agricultural finance.Conclusion – The land together with labour can be considered as a form of capital and therefore has a similarity to the contracts of mudaraba and musharaka. Hence, it can be said that these principles are “agricultural production and loss sharing (aPLS)” because land will naturally produce an output or a product. Muzara’a and musaqa therefore can be said to be contracts which are based on sharing output rather than sharing profit.Keywords: Idle Agricultural Land, Islamic agricultural finance, Malaysia

Pengembangan metode skrining gizi untuk pasien dewasa rawat inap

Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia Vol 8, No 4 (2012): April
Publisher : Minat S2 Gizi dan Kesehatan, Prodi S2 IKM, Fakultas Kedokteran UGM

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Abstract

Background: A comprehensive nutrition assessment needs to be done on all hospitalized patients. The accuracy of nutritional assessment are necessary to ensure the provision of optimal nutrition support for the patient to prevent iatrogenic malnutrition and speed up the healing process. The nutrition screening tools has limited ability to be used as a valid indicator for comprehensive nutritional assessment. Thus, it is necessary to develop a new nutrition screening tool.Objective: To develop a simple, quick and valid malnutrition screening tool that can be used to identify adult patients at risk of malnutrition.Methods: This is an observational study with cross sectional design. The subjects were 495 patients admitted to Sardjito General Hospital, excluding paediatric, maternity, and psychiatric patients. All patients were screened using the Nutrition Screening Tool of University Gadjah Mada (NST-UGM). The validity of the NST-UGM will be tested by measuring the sensitivity and specifi city value compared to Subjective Global Assessment (SGA).Result: The newly developed nutrition screening tool consisted of 6 questions with a cut-off of 0-2 classifi ed as not at risk of malnutrition and > 2 classifi ed as at risk of malnutrition. The sensitivity and specifi city value of the new screening tool compared with SGA were 91.28 and 79.78 respectively. Therefore, the convergent and predictive validity of NSTUGM was established. Conclusion: The NST-UGM is a simple, quick and valid tool which can be used to identify patients at risk of malnutrition. 

Spatial Analyses of Low Birth Weight Incidence, Indonesia

Indonesian Journal of Geography Vol 50, No 1 (2018): Indonesian Journal of Geography
Publisher : Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

The etiology of Low Birth Weight (LBW) in Murung Raya is still unclear. This study aimed to find out the relationship between environmental and health behavior risk factors of LBW in Murung Raya. 150 women were recruited through the incidence data 2013- 2014, and the questionnaires, medical records, and geographic data were measured by McNemar, ANOVA, logistic, IRR, MI, z (Gi), and NNI tests. Bivariate analysis showed significant correlation of LBW with TBA care OR= 10, drinking popa OR= 5, smoking OR= 6.1, and accessibility OR = 2.3, with adjusted OR for TBA care OR= 32.78, ANC OR= 27.52 revealing trend lines with ANOVA F=49, and clustering RR=7, MI >0 (four clusters), z (Gi) >1 (two high clusters), and NNI>1 (two high clusters). The spatial analysis provided greater statistical power to detect an effect that was not apparent in the case-control study. This study suggests that preventions, interventions and treatment for LBW not only be conducted by the current epidemiology approach but also by new modern geographic positioning analysis.

Pengembangan metode skrining gizi untuk pasien dewasa rawat inap

Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia Vol 8, No 4 (2012): April
Publisher : Minat S2 Gizi dan Kesehatan, Prodi S2 IKM, Fakultas Kedokteran UGM

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Abstract

Background: A comprehensive nutrition assessment needs to be done on all hospitalized patients. The accuracy of nutritional assessment are necessary to ensure the provision of optimal nutrition support for the patient to prevent iatrogenic malnutrition and speed up the healing process. The nutrition screening tools has limited ability to be used as a valid indicator for comprehensive nutritional assessment. Thus, it is necessary to develop a new nutrition screening tool.Objective: To develop a simple, quick and valid malnutrition screening tool that can be used to identify adult patients at risk of malnutrition.Methods: This is an observational study with cross sectional design. The subjects were 495 patients admitted to Sardjito General Hospital, excluding paediatric, maternity, and psychiatric patients. All patients were screened using the Nutrition Screening Tool of University Gadjah Mada (NST-UGM). The validity of the NST-UGM will be tested by measuring the sensitivity and specifi city value compared to Subjective Global Assessment (SGA).Result: The newly developed nutrition screening tool consisted of 6 questions with a cut-off of 0-2 classifi ed as not at risk of malnutrition and > 2 classifi ed as at risk of malnutrition. The sensitivity and specifi city value of the new screening tool compared with SGA were 91.28 and 79.78 respectively. Therefore, the convergent and predictive validity of NSTUGM was established. Conclusion: The NST-UGM is a simple, quick and valid tool which can be used to identify patients at risk of malnutrition. 

PENGARUH INISIASI MENYUSU DINI TERHADAP JUMLAH PERDARAHAN PASCA PERSALINAN

JURNAL KESEHATAN REPRODUKSI Vol 1, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : IPAKESPRO

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Abstract

PENGARUH INISIASI MENYUSU DINI TERHADAPJUMLAH PERDARAHAN PASCA PERSALINANSumarah,Mohammad Hakimi, Shinta PrawitasariABSTRACTBackground: Mortality and morbidity among women during pregnancy and labour are a major problem in poorand developing countries including Indonesia. The prevalence of postpartum hemorrhage is between 2-11% outof all childbirth. Postpartum hemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality (28%). Maternal mortalitymainly occurs within the first 4 hours after childbirth. Uterus contraction after childbirth greatly minimizes therisk of hemorrhage. Early breastfeeding initiation stimulates the back of hypofiche gland to produce oxytoxinthat ignites womb muscle contraction so that the risk for the prevalence of postpartum hemorrhage can beminimized.Objective: To identify the impact of early breastfeeding initiation to the amount of postpartum hemorrhage.Method: The study was observational with prospective cohort design. Subject of the study were normal partummothers at Sleman Hospital taken using non probability with consecutive sampling technique (62 samples). Dataanalysis used univariate with frequency distribution and percentage, bivariate with independent t-test andmultivariate with linear regression.Result and Discussion: Average amount of blood in postpartum mothers that practised early breastfeedinginitiation (EBI) was lower than those without EBI. The average amount of hemorrhage in mothers that practiceEBI was 77,26 + 33,6 cc, and in mothers that did not practiced EB was 115,4 +31,0 cc. Average difference in theamount of hemorrhage in the two groups was -38,1 cc. This difference was statistically significant with p<0,05(p=0,000), 95%CI=-54,6- -21,7. External variables, either age, parity or education of mothers, had no significantassociation with the amount of postpartum hemorrhage (p>0,05).Conclusion: EBI affected the amount of postpartum hemorrhage. Average amount of postpartum hemorrhage inmothers that practiced practised EBI was 38,1 cc less than in those that did not practise EBI.Keywords: postpartum, early breastfeeding initiation, skin to skin contactABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Mortalitas dan morbiditas pada wanita selama kehamilan dan persalinan adalah masalah besardi negara-negara miskin dan berkembang termasuk Indonesia. Prevalensi perdarahan postpartum adalah 2-11%dari semua persalinan. Perdarahan postpartum merupakan penyebab utama kematian ibu (28%). Kematian ibuterutama terjadi dalam 4 jam pertama setelah melahirkan. Kontraksi rahim setelah melahirkan sangatmeminimalkan risiko perdarahan. Inisiasi menyusui dini merangsang bagian belakang kelenjar hypofiche untukmenghasilkan oxytoxin yangmemicu kontraksi otot rahimsehingga resiko untuk prevalensi perdarahan postpartumdapat diminimalkan.Tujuan: Untuk mengidentifikasi dampak dari inisiasi menyusui dini terhadap jumlah perdarahan postpartum.Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah observasional dengan rancangan kohort prospektif. Subyek penelitian adalahibu yang melahirkan normal di Rumah Sakit Sleman diambil menggunakan non probability dengan teknikpengambilan sampel berturut-turut (62 sampel). Analisis data yang digunakan univariat dengan distribusi frekuensidan persentase, bivariat dengan t-test independen dan multivariat dengan regresi linier.Hasil dan Pembahasan: Jumlah rata-rata darah pada ibu pasca melahirkan yang dilakukan tindakan inisiasimenyusui dini (IMD) lebih rendah dibandingkan mereka yang tidak dilakukan IMD. Jumlah rata-rata perdarahanpada ibu yang berlatih IMD adalah 77,26 + 33,6 cc, dan pada ibu yang tidak melakukan IMD adalah 115,4 + 31,0cc. Rata-rata perbedaan jumlah perdarahan pada kedua kelompok adalah -38,1 cc. Perbedaan ini secara statistiksignifikan dengan p <0,05 (p = 0,000), 95% CI = 54,6—21,7. Variabel eksternal, baik usia, paritas atau pendidikanibu, tidak memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dengan jumlah perdarahan postpartum dengan p> 0,05.Kesimpulan: IMD mempengaruhi jumlah perdarahan postpartum. Jumlah rata-rata perdarahan postpartum padaibu yang dilakukan IMD adalah 38,1cc lebih sedikit dibanding mereka yang tidak berlatih IMD.Kata kunci: postpartum, inisiasi menyusui dini, kontak kulit dengan kuli