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Kemampuan Antagonistik Beberapa Isolat Pseudomonad Fluoresen Terhadap Bakteri Ralstonia Solanacearum Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Tomat WURYANDARI, Yenny; PURNAWATI, Arika; ARWIYANTO, Triwidodo; HADISUTRISNO, Bambang
Jurnal Pengendalian Hayati Vol 1, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Jember

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Abstract

Bacterial Wilt disease (Ralstonia solanacearum) is a main problem in tomato plant.Controls of it have been optimum success yet. Control of it using certainly pseudomonad fluorescentstrain can pressure plant disease developments which cause soil pathogen.The aim of the research, getpseudomonad fluorescent from tomato rizosfer which can inhibit of wilt bacteria disease Ralstoniasolanacearum. Research methods are isolation and identification of pathogen bacteria andantagonistic bacteria. Biological control agents candidate selection was done with antagonistic invitro and inhibit mechanism test. The Research show; there is wilt symptom in tomato areal at WajakMalang. From isolation get Ralstonia solanacearum bacteria with identity white coloni, fluidal,irregular shape in YPGA media and high virulensi. From tomato rizosfer soil isolation in the sameareal get 130 isolate of pseudomonad fluorescent in King’s B media. Antagonistec test in vitro to itisn’t of all bacteria can inhibit Ralstonia solanacearum growing. From them which was tested, getvariation of inhibit zona from 4 mm until more than 30 mm. More of inhibit mechanism isbacteriostatic and only many is bacterisida.
Sebaran Penyakit Hawar Daun Bakteri di Beberapa Sentra Produksi Bawang Merah di Indonesia Asrul, Asrul; Arwiyanto, Triwidodo; Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Widada, Jaka
Biota Biota Volume 18 Nomor 1 Tahun 2013
Publisher : PBI Yogyakarta

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui daerah sebaran penyakit hawar daun bakteri di beberapa sentra pertanaman bawang merah di Indonesia dan kultivar bawang merah yang dapat diinfeksi, serta mengidentifikasi patogen penyebabnya. Penentuan lokasi pengamatan dan pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara stratified purpossive random sampling. Survei dilakukan dengan cara wawancara dan pengamatan di lapangan (observasi) terhadap kultivar bawang dan gejala penyakit yang terinfeksi oleh bakteri patogen. Sampel diidentifikasi melalui pengamatan morfologi koloni, uji postulat Koch, uji reaksi hipersensitif dan pengujian sifat-sifat biokimia dan fisiologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penyakit hawar daun bakteri telah tersebar secara merata di seluruh daerah pertanaman bawang merah di Indonesia, yang meliputi Kabupaten Cirebon, Tegal, Nganjuk, Bantul, dan Sigi, dengan tingkat serangan mencapai 62,5–100%. Penyakit ini menginfeksi bawang merah kultivar Bima curut, Bauji, Biru-sawah, dan Palasa. Gejala hawar daun bakteri yang dijumpai berupa water soaking, terjadi lekukan daun, pengerutan daun,  klorosis, nekrosis, mati pucuk, pertumbuhan kerdil, dan kematian. Isolat bakteri yang ditemukan mempunyai bentuk koloni bulat, cembung, berlendir, dan berwarna kuning. Ciri morfologi koloni, gejala dan karakteristik isolat bakteri mirip dengan sifat-sifat bakteri Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii penyebab penyakit hawar daun pada bawang bombay.Kata kunci: Sebaran, bawang merah hawar daun bakteri, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii
Identification of the Causal Agent of Cocoa Pod Rot Disease from Various Locations Komalasari, Indri; Suryanti, Suryanti; Hadisutrisno, Bambang
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 22, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.24728

Abstract

Cacao (Theboroma cacao L.) is an important estate commodity in Indonesia with high economic value. The interference of cocoa pod rot disease which was affected by Phytophthora palmivora Butl. resulted in the reduction of the quantity and quality of cocoa beans, with losses up to 44%. This research was aimed to figure out the variation in morphology of P. palmivora isolates from cacao. The research was carried out by collecting samples of cocoa pod with rot symptoms in several cacao growing areas in Java, then the pathogen was isolated and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium. The observation was performed on morphological characteristics of isolates macroscopically (colony shape) and microscopically (size of sporangium and chlamydospores). All tested isolates showed various colony shape such as stellate, cottony and irregular as well as sporangium varying from obpyriform, globose, ellipsoid, ovoid and distorted with various size between 30.8×21.9–65.5×46.5 µm in range.IntisariKakao (Theboroma cacao L.) merupakan komoditas perkebunan unggulan di Indonesia dengan nilai ekonomi tinggi. Gangguan penyakit busuk buah kakao yang disebabkan oleh Phytophthora palmivora Butl. mengakibatkan penurunan kuantitas dan kualitas biji kakao, dengan kerugian mencapai 44%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi morfologi isolat P. palmivora asal kakao. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel buah kakao bergejala busuk buah di beberapa area perkebunan kakao di Jawa, kemudian patogen diisolasi dan dikulturkan pada media Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap karakteristik morfologi isolat secara makroskopis (bentuk koloni) dan mikroskopis (ukuran sporangium dan klamidospora). Semua isolat yang diuji menunjukkan bentuk koloni seperti stellate, cottony, dan irregular serta sporangium yang bervariasi dari obpyriform, globose, ellipsoid, ovoid, dan distorted dengan ukuran bervariasi antara 30,8×21,9−65,5×46,5 µm.
PERAN UNSUR CUACA TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PENYAKIT BUSUK PANGKAL BATANG LADA DI SENTRA PRODUKSI LADA DAERAH SULAWESI TENGGARA Bande, La Ode Santiaji; Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Somowiyarjo, Susamto; Sunarminto, Bambang Hendro
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 22, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Pengendalian penyakit tanaman di sentra produksi lada melalui modifikasi lingkungan merupakan pilihan bijak dalam upaya pengurangan penggunaan pestisida. Penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada telah menyebabkan penurunan produksi lada di berbagai daerah sentra rempah. Penyakit ini semakin meningkat dengan adanya pergeseran cuaca yang tidak menentu. Interaksi antar unsur cuaca dan kondisi agroekosistem diduga mempengaruhi perkembangan penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh langsung dan tidak langsung antar unsur cuaca (suhu udara, kelembapan udara, jumlah hari hujan, total curah hujan), suhu tanah, dan lengas tanah terhadap terjadinya peningkatan penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada pada berbagai kondisi agroekosistem lada. Penelitian dilaksanakan di sentra pertanaman lada di Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara. Analisis lintas digunakan untuk mengetahui hubungan antar unsur cuaca dengan intensitas penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahwa unsur cuaca mempengaruhi peningkatan intensitas penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada. Unsur cuaca yang secara langsung menyebabkan peningkatan intensitas penyakit busuk pangkal batang lada pada tiap daerah bervariasi dan paling dominan adalah curah hujan. Unsur cuaca yang mempengaruhi peningkatan intensitas penyakit di Kabupaten Konawe Selatan adalah curah hujan dan lengas tanah, di Kabupaten Konawe oleh suhu udara, kelembapan udara, dan curah hujan, sedangkan di Kabupaten Kolaka oleh jumlah hari hujan, dan curah hujan.
Peranan Faktor Cuaca terhadap Infeksi dan Perkembangan Penyakit Bercak Ungu pada Bawang Merah Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Sudarmadi, Sudarmadi; Subandiyah, Siti; Priyatmojo, Achmadi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (1995)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9351

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Purple blotch disease caused by Alternaria porri (Ell.) Cif. is one of the most important diseases on shallots. The farmers have been using fungicides as a reliable control method, however, the chemical control method has to be considered for the negative effect on the environment and the danger to the other species and causes the resistance to a certain pesticide. Therefore, it is important to develop other method that is safe, effective, and efficient, like the use of climatic data to decide the control strategy.The result of the study on ecology of purple blotch disease carried out at the experimental station in Kramat-Tegal, Kledung-Temanggung, and KP4 Kalitirto in dry and rainy season (1991/1992) suggested that climatic factors played on important role on the daily conidium dissemination of Alternaria porri and on the intensity of purple blotch disease. Daily conidium dissemination which was one of the important component in the epidemy of purple blotch disease was influenced by the temperature, relative humidity, and the wind velocity. Conidium dissemination was occurred both during the day and night and at 10.00 am-14.00 pm when the air temperature and wind velocity were high with low relative humidity, conidium dissemination was maximum. On the other hand, at 22.00 pm – 02.00 am there was minimum conidium dissemination.The result on the effects of leaf wetness period on disease intensity suggested that high humidity was not the only factor caused disease infection but it has to be supported by the presence of thin film water on the leaf surface at least for 4 hours since the attachment of the conidia on the leaves.Key words: purple blotch, climatic factor, Alternaria porri, shallot
Tanggapan Planlet Vanili yang Diradiasi dengan Sinar Gamma dan Keragaannya Setelah Diinokulasi dengan Jamur Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae Mangoendidjojo, Woerjono; Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Inayati, Alfi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 6, No 2 (2000)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.12390

Abstract

Vanilla is one of spice crops and important to world commerce. Indonesia is one of producing and exporting countries for decades. Recently, the planted area tends to decrease due to several factors. One of them is fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum fsp. vanillae. The disease ranked among the most devastating disease attacking vanilla plants. The most effective method controlling fusarium wilt is the use of resistant varieties. The study aimed to know responses of vanilla plantlets irradiated by Gamma rays at several doses (0-4 krad). Five months after irradiation, the survival mutant plantlets were inoculated with suspension of the F. oxysporum fsp. vanillae to evaluate their resistance. Data of first concern taken were survival plantlets; number of leave, root, and sucker initiation; and infection intensity. The results indicated that higher the doses, decreased the survival plantlets. The applied doses performed significantly differences on the number of leave, root, and suckerinitiation. The untreated plantlets showed better responses as compared to those treated. Evaluation on their resistance after inoculation indicated that the survival plantlets irradiated at 3 and 1 krad showed lower infection intensity, eventhough variation within a treatment was observed. Evaluation on the individual plantlet basis seemed to be more helpful in order to identify mutant plantlets with better resistance.
Peranan Faktor Lingkungan terhadap Penyakit Antraknos pada Bawang Merah Hadisutrisno, Bambang
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (1999)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9958

Abstract

Anthrachnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. is one of the most important disease on shallot. Study on its ecological aspects is still limited.The results of the study revealed that anthracnose could be found at various ages of the plant. The climatic factor that had strong effect on the disease intensity was period of rain. The highest disease intensity (more than 54.89 percent) was obtained at plantation when it rained between 08.00–10.00 p.m., while the lowest occurred when it rained between 04.00–06.00 a.m.Key words: environmental factor, anthracnose, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
PENEKANAN PERKEMBANGAN PENYAKIT BUSUK BATANG VANILI (FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. VANILLAE) MELALUI SELEKSI ASAM FUSARAT SECARA IN VITRO Nurcahyani, Endang; Sumardi, Issirep; Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Suharyanto, E.
JURNAL HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN TROPIKA Vol 12, No 1 (2012): Maret, Jurnal Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika
Publisher : Universitas Lampung

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (336.046 KB) | DOI: 10.23960/j.hptt.11212-22

Abstract

The most biological constrain on Vanilla planifolia plantation recently was caused by epidemical disease that laterdecrease vanilla production. The most important disease on vanilla is foot rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.vanillae. So far, the disease has not been successfully controlled although some experiments had been conducted. Onealternative method has been introduced by using a new cultivar which was resistance to Fusarium). A mutant vanilla to thefungus has been initiated by in vitro selection on medium containing fusaric acid. The aims of this research were: (1) to investigate effective concentration of fusaric acid used for in vitro selection, (2) to characterize mutants which have been set up and also to test those mutants for their resistance to the fungus. The results showed that: (1) fusaric acid at the concentration of 110 ppm effectively suppressed the disease intensity up to 25% compared to the concentration of 90 ppm and 100 ppm. In other words, 110 ppm of fusaric acid has increased the category criterion from moderate to resistant, (2) there was an increase of the total phenol content and thickness of lignin in vanilla stem, and (3) the protein profile of vanilla plantlet was different from the control. There was an initiation of a new band of about 18 kD in a mutant predicted as a protein which is responsible for vanilla resistance to Fusarium.
EPIDEMI PENYAKIT BUSUK PANGKAL BATANG LADA PADA KONDISI LINGKUNGAN YANG BERVARIASI Bande, La Ode Santiaji; Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Somowiyarjo, Susamto; Sunarminto, Bambang Hendro
JURNAL HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN TROPIKA Vol 15, No 1 (2015): MARET, JURNAL HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN TROPIKA
Publisher : Universitas Lampung

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (150.335 KB) | DOI: 10.23960/j.hptt.11595-103

Abstract

Foot rot disease epidemic on black pepper in variety of environmental conditions. The foot rot disease on black pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian, is often destructive to farmers of black pepper. This research aims to study the infection rate and the pattern of development of the black pepper foot rot disease in various condition of the environment. The research was conducted in the areas of black pepper cultivation in the Ultisol and Entisol soils. In each location plots were set with few (<25%) and abundant (>75%) weeds. Variable observed was disease incidence. The data were used to analyze model of development of the black pepper foot rot disease and infection rate. Results of the research showed that the model of development of the black pepper foot rot disease was not affected by soil type, but the type of soil affected the infection rate. At the pepper plantation with abundance of weeds, the disease development followes Gompertz model. At the plantation with few weeds, however the disease developed in a logistic model. The rate of disease infection on the black pepper plant with abundant weeds lower compared with those with few weeds.
Peranan Asam Salisilat pada Interaksi Inang-Patogen Penyakit Kudis Ubijalar (Elsinoe batatas) Martanto, Eko Agus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Semangun, Haryono; Hadisutrisno, Bambang
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 9, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.12243

Abstract

The role of salicylic acid on host-pathogen interactions of sweet potato scab disease (E. batatas) was done by measuring (1) the level of resistance of sweet potato cultivars to scab disease, (2) salicylic acid content in sweet potato leaves before inoculation, 3 days, 6 days, and 9 days after inoculation, and (3) effect of salicylic acid to the germination of E. batatas conidia. The result showed that there were different responses of sweet potato cultivars to pathogens infection. Inoculation with E. batatas isolate from Wonosobo (WO2) showed resistant reaction on Muaratakus, moderate resistant on Cangkuang, moderate susceptible on Malothok, and susceptible on Mlg 12549. Resistant cultivar (Muaratakus) has higher salicylic acid content than moderate resistant (Cangkuang), moderate susceptible (Malothok), and susceptible cultivar (Mlg 12549). Salicylic acid inhibited germination of E. batatas conidia.