Sutjipto A. Hadikusumo
Bagian Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Kombinasi Boraks dan Asam Borat sebagai Bahan Penghambat Api dan Antirayap Pada Kayu Meranti Merah Santoso, Mahdi; Hadikusumo, Sutjipto A.; Aziz, Abdul
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 6, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB)

Abstract

Woods have properties which are easy to be ignited by fire and most of them have a low natural durability. Therefore, it is required to improve the quality of wood by impregnating the fire-retardant and anti-termites possessed chemicals. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of impregnation duration by combination of borax:boric acid ( 1:1) against the fire and termites. This study used red meranti wood (Shorea spp) with the dimension of 6 x 15 x 500 cm. The pressure times were 1, 2, and 3 hours as the concentration of borax:boric acid was 7% in 5 replications. Empty cell method was applied as preservation method by 12 kg/cm2 of pressure. Testing the fire resistance referred ASTM E 69-02 B and anti-termite evaluation was conducted by no-choice feeding method. Observed parameters were absorption, actual retention, burn intensity, maximum combustion temperature, glowing time, termite mortality, mass loss, the degree of damage and visual observation. The results showed that the combination of borax: boric acid (1: 1) could improve the quality of red meranti samples against the fire and termite attacks. The most effective impregnation process were 2 hours of pressing time to obtain the 331 kg/ m3 of absorption; actual retention of 28.8 kg/ m3; burnt intensity of 10.9%; maximum combustion temperature of 140ºC; glowing time of 1.03 minutes, termite mortality of 100%; mass loss of 0.002%; and mild degrees of damage category. IntisariKayu mempunyai sifat yang mudah terbakar dan sebagian besar mempunyai keawetan alami yang rendah. Perbaikan kualitas kayu dilakukan untuk mengatasi kelemahan tersebut, salah satunya dengan mengimpregnasikan bahan kimia yang bersifat menghambat api dan beracun terhadap organisme perusak kayu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melihat kemampuan boraks:asam borat (1:1) untuk meningkatkan ketahanan kayu meranti merah terhadap api dan rayap kayu kering dan mengetahui proses pengawetan yang efektif. Penelitian ini menggunakan kayu meranti merah (Shorea spp) berukuran 6 x 15 x 500 cm. Waktu pengawetan adalah 1, 2, dan 3 jam serta konsentrasi bahan pengawet 7% dalam 5 ulangan. Metode pengawetan menggunakan metode sel kosong dengan tekanan 12 kg/cm2 . Pengujian ketahanan terhadap api mengacu pada ASTM E 69-02 prosedur B, pengujian ketahanan terhadap rayap kayu kering mengacu pada metode rayap makan tanpa pilihan. Parameter yang diamati ialah absorpsi, retensi aktual, intensitas bakar, suhu pembakaran maksimal, lama pembaraan, mortalitas rayap kayu kering, pengurangan berat contoh uji, derajat kerusakan dan kondisi fisik sampel setelah uji bakar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi boraks:asam borat (1:1) memiliki efektivitas yang tinggi untuk meningkatkan ketahanan kayu meranti merah terhadap api dan rayap kayu kering. Proses pengawetan yang paling efektif adalah lama penekanan 2 jam dengan absorpsi 331 kg/m3 ; retensi aktual 28,8 kg/m3 ; intensitas bakar 10,9%; suhu pembakaran maksimal 140ºC; lama pembaraan 1,03 menit; mortalitas rayap kayu kering 100%; pengurangan berat contoh uji 0,002%; serta derajat kerusakan kategori ringan.Katakunci: penghambat api, anti rayap, boraks, Shorea spp, Cryptotermes cynocephalus
Kombinasi Boraks dan Asam Borat sebagai Bahan Penghambat Api dan Antirayap Pada Kayu Meranti Merah Santoso, Mahdi; Hadikusumo, Sutjipto A.; Aziz, Abdul
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 6, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jik.5735

Abstract

Kayu mempunyai sifat yang mudah terbakar dan sebagian besar mempunyai keawetan alami yang rendah. Perbaikan kualitas kayu dilakukan untuk mengatasi kelemahan tersebut, salah satunya dengan mengimpregnasikan bahan kimia yang bersifat menghambat api dan beracun terhadap organisme perusak kayu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melihat kemampuan boraks:asam borat (1:1) untuk meningkatkan ketahanan kayu meranti merah terhadap api dan rayap kayu kering dan mengetahui proses pengawetan yang efektif. Penelitian ini menggunakan kayu meranti merah (Shorea spp) berukuran 6 x 15 x 500 cm. Waktu pengawetan adalah 1, 2, dan 3 jam serta konsentrasi bahan pengawet 7% dalam 5 ulangan. Metode pengawetan menggunakan metode sel kosong dengan tekanan 12 kg/cm2 . Pengujian ketahanan terhadap api mengacu pada ASTM E 69-02 prosedur B, pengujian ketahanan terhadap rayap kayu kering mengacu pada metode rayap makan tanpa pilihan. Parameter yang diamati ialah absorpsi, retensi aktual, intensitas bakar, suhu pembakaran maksimal, lama pembaraan, mortalitas rayap kayu kering, pengurangan berat contoh uji, derajat kerusakan dan kondisi fisik sampel setelah uji bakar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi boraks:asam borat (1:1) memiliki efektivitas yang tinggi untuk meningkatkan ketahanan kayu meranti merah terhadap api dan rayap kayu kering. Proses pengawetan yang paling efektif adalah lama penekanan 2 jam dengan absorpsi 331 kg/m3 ; retensi aktual 28,8 kg/m3 ; intensitas bakar 10,9%; suhu pembakaran maksimal 140ºC; lama pembaraan 1,03 menit; mortalitas rayap kayu kering 100%; pengurangan berat contoh uji 0,002%; serta derajat kerusakan kategori ringan.Katakunci: penghambat api, anti rayap, boraks, Shorea spp, Cryptotermes cynocephalus Borax and Boric Acid Combination As Fire Retardant and Anti-termite Agents on Red Meranti WoodAbstractWoods have properties which are easy to be ignited by fire and most of them have a low natural durability. Therefore, it is required to improve the quality of wood by impregnating the fire-retardant and anti-termites possessed chemicals. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of impregnation duration by combination of borax:boric acid ( 1:1) against the fire and termites. This study used red meranti wood (Shorea spp) with the dimension of 6 x 15 x 500 cm. The pressure times were 1, 2, and 3 hours as the concentration of borax:boric acid was 7% in 5 replications. Empty cell method was applied as preservation method by 12 kg/cm2 of pressure. Testing the fire resistance referred ASTM E 69-02 B and anti-termite evaluation was conducted by no-choice feeding method. Observed parameters were absorption, actual retention, burn intensity, maximum combustion temperature, glowing time, termite mortality, mass loss, the degree of damage and visual observation. The results showed that the combination of borax: boric acid (1: 1) could improve the quality of red meranti samples against the fire and termite attacks. The most effective impregnation process were 2 hours of pressing time to obtain the 331 kg/ m3 of absorption; actual retention of 28.8 kg/ m3; burnt intensity of 10.9%; maximum combustion temperature of 140ºC; glowing time of 1.03 minutes, termite mortality of 100%; mass loss of 0.002%; and mild degrees of damage category.
Daya Racun Ekstraktif Kulit Kayu Pucung terhadap Rayap Kayu Kering Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light. Toxicity of Pucung-wood Bark Extractives to Dry Wood Termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light Sari, Laila; Hadikusumo, Sutjipto A.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 2, No 1 (2004): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (181.641 KB)

Abstract

Wood preservation using chemicals may pollute the environment. One of the efforts to reduce the effect is using naturally constituents from plants as preservative. The purpose of this study was to observe the effectiveness of soluble fraction in n-hexane, diethyl ether and ethyl acetate of pucung-wood bark after extracted in acetone to dry wood termite attack on paper disc. Pucung-wood (Pangium edule Reinw.) barks were dried and powdered and then cold-extracted with acetone. Thick extract solution in acetone was extracted in n-hexane solution. Soluble fraction in n-hexane was separated. Remained solution was extracted in diethyl ether. Soluble fraction was separated. Remained solution was extracted in ethyl acetate. Soluble fraction in ethyl acetate was separated. Each of soluble fractions was separated from the solution using evaporation method to obtain dry extracts. Each dry extracts were dissolved in each solution to make solutions with concentration of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%. Filter paper was used as sample and soaked in the extract solution for 24 hours. After air-dried, filter paper was placed on petri dish and feed to 50 dry termites for 4 weeks. Results shown that 2.5% extract solution in n-hexane or in ethyl ether, or 5% in acetone or 10% in ethyl acetate were effectively inhibiting dry wood termite attack with mortality of 95 ~ 100%.