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Perbedaan Pengaruh Pemberian Etomidate Dan Penthotal Terhadap Agregasi Trombosit

Jurnal Anestesiologi Indonesia Vol 3, No 3 (2011): Jurnal Anestesiologi Indonesia
Publisher : Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Anestesiologi dan terapi Intensif

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Abstract

Background: Perioperative bleeding is frequently found in a surgery, while anesthesia agent for induction (etomidate and penthotal) influences inhibition of thrombocyte aggregation.Aim of study: to define the difference between etomidate and penthotal effect towards thrombocyte aggregation.Methods: This experimental research included 43 subjects who received general anesthesia. Subjects were divided in two groups subsequently, Group I (n=23) received intravenous etomidate 0,3mg/kgBW, while group II (n=20) received intravenous penthothal 5 mg/kgBW. Blood samples were drawn from each patient 5 minutes before and 5 minutes after induction. Trombocyte aggregation test were performed in Clinical Pathology Laboratory afterwards to all samples using ADP 10, 5, and 2 µM as inductor. Paired t-test and independent t-test were performed as statistical analysis (with p<0,05 considered as significant).Results: ADP 10 µM is the most sensitive inductor in detecting hypoaggregation. The differences in maximum thrombocyte aggregation percentage between before and after administration of anesthetic agents are significant in both group, with p value 0,000 respectively. Trombocyte aggregation percentage post intervention on group I (66,0±8,9) is significantly different compared to group II (77,9±6,8), with p value 0,000. Substraction between post and pre intervention trombocyte aggregation percentage between group I (14,7±3,9) was also significantly different compared to group II (3,6 ± 3,2), with p value 0,000. Hypoaggregation was found in 14 from 23 patients at group I, and I from 20 patients at group II.Conclusions: Intravenous etomidate 0,3mg/kgBB and penthotal 5mg/kgBB were both causing significant decrease in trombocyte aggregation, however etomidate caused more significant decrement in thrombocyte aggregation compared to penthotal. Besides, hypoaggregation was also more common to be found in etomidate group.Keywords : Etomidate, Penthothal, ADP, Trombocyte aggregationABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Perdarahan perioperatif sering dijumpai dalam setiap operasi. Penggunaan obat anestesi induksi (etomidat dan pentotal) berpengaruh dalam menghambat agregasi trombosit.Tujuan: untuk mengetahui perbedaan pengaruh etomidat dan pentotal terhadap agregasi trombosit.Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental pada 43 pasien yang mendapat anestesi umum. Subjek selanjutnya dibagi menjadi dua kelompok, dengan kelompok I mendapatkan etomidat dosis 0,3mg/kgBB intravena, sedang kelompok II (n=20) mendapatkan penthothal dosis 5mg/kgBB intravena. Sampel darah pasien pada kedua kelompok diambil 5 menit sebelum dan 5 menit sesudah induksi. Semua spesimen dibawa ke Laboratorium Patologi Klinik untuk dilakukan pemeriksaan Tes Agregasi Trombosit dengan ADP 10, 5, dan 2 µM sebagai induktor. Uji statistik menggunakan paired t-test dan independent t-test (dengan p< 0,05 dianggap signifikan).Hasil: ADP 10 µM merupakan induktor yang paling sensitif dalam mendeteksi hipoagregasi. Pada penggunaan ADP 10 µM sebagai induktor didapatkan perbedaan persentase agregasi maksimal trombosit yang bermakna antara sebelum dan sesudah pemberian etomidat maupun pentotal dengan nilai p masing-masing 0,000. Persentase agregasi trombosit pasca perlakuan pada kelompok I (66,0±8,9) berbeda bermakna dengan kelompok II (77,9±6,8), dengan nilai p 0,000. Selisih persentase agregasi trombosit sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan pada kelompok I (14,7±3,9) juga berbeda bermakna dengan kelompok II (3,6±3,2), dengan nilai p 0,000. Hipoagregasi ditemukan pada 14 dari 23 pasien pada kelompok I, dan 1 dari 20 pasien pada kelompok II.Kesimpulan: Etomidat 0,3mg/kgBB intravena dan pentotal 5mg/kgBB intravena menyebabkan penurunan agregasi trombosit yang bermakna, namun penurunan agregasi trombosit pada kelompok etomidat lebih rendah secara bermakna dibandingkan pentotal, selain itu lebih banyak pasien dari kelompok etomidat yang mengalami hipoagregasi.

Bentuk Optimalisasi Teknologi Informasi dalam Mendukung E-Commerce Usaha Kecil dan Menengah

BISNIS Vol 5, No 2 (2017): BISNIS: Jurnal Bisnis dan Manajemen Islam
Publisher : Fakultas Ekonom dan Bisnis Islam Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Kudus

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Abstract

This research are intended to explore the utilization of information technology for small and medium enterprises (SMEs)to develop market share in the form of e-marketing. The results showed that SMEs in the city of Semarang has utilized information technology, from the simplest to the advanced. Hand Phone and computer are a tool that used it, although for computers not all SMEs have been using it. The form of communications media used by SMEs such as: SMS, whatshap, e-mail, website, blog, istagram, blackbarry, line, and the like. The acceptable outcomes of SMEs when they use technology are in addition to encouraging increased sales, as well as obtaining convenience when communicating with customers, ordering, marketing products, identifying customer needs, identify supplier needs, consumer surveys and the like.

FANTASI TOKOH SERIAL MISTERI PEDANG SKINHEALD KARYA ATAKA AWWALLUR RIZQI

Madah: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra Vol 3, No 1 (2012): MADAH
Publisher : Balai Bahasa Riau

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Abstract

This study is aimed at describing the fantasy of the characters in the children stories entitled “Misteri Pedang Skinheald: Sang Pembuka Segel” and “Misteri Pedang Skinheald II: Awal Petualangan Besar” by Ataka Awwallur Rizqi. The subjects of the research were two children stories. They were entitled “ Misteri Pedang Skinheald: Sang Pembuka Segel” and “Misteri Pedang Skinheald II: Aw al Petualangan Besar” by Ataka Awwallur Rizqi. The objects of the research were the fantasy character in both children stories. The study used intrinsic approach. It is an approach applying close reading of the stories with an emphasis on the determinatio ns of the fantasy character. The analysis wasdone by making categories, data tabulation, and verbal description. These phases were then continued by making inferences, such as a profound comprehension, a comparison between one inference and the other, an d conclusion drawing. The results of the research are as the following: First, the character contains the flat character and round character. Second, there are elements of fantasy which support the story events such as magics,supernatural swords, and supernatural capabilities inside the characterization.