Mochamad Hadi
Laboratorium Ekologi dan Biosistematik Jurusan Biologi Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Universitas Diponegoro
Articles
29
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KEANEKARAGAMAN DAN KELIMPAHAN JENIS BURUNG PADA TAMAN KOTA SEMARANG, JAWA TENGAH

Jurnal Akademika Biologi Vol. 5 No. 4 Oktober 2016
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Undip

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Abstract

The City Park is conceived as a space that contains the elements of nature and landscape which is caused by vegetation diversity, activity and artificial elements that are provided as a social and recreational facilities, as well as a breathing space in the city. The Semarang State Park is one of the green open area that are also used by birds. On the other hand the city park has a problem that threatens the existence of birds especially the uncontrolled development. The diversity of the species of birds can be used as indicators of environmental quality, because their life is influenced by the physical, chemical, and biological cchanges in the environment. The research objective was to determine the diversity and abundance of the bird species, determine the composition of the guild of bird species, and to determine the status of the scarcity of birds in the city garden of Semarang. The research was conducted in July-August 2016, where observation was carried out in six state parks in Semarang using the point count method. The analysis of the index used are the abundance of species, species diversity index, evenness index, similarity index, chi square test and hucthinson method.Where795 individuals of birds were observed, covering 27 species and 17 families. The diversity of bird species index categorized moderately were 2.19 to 2.33, except on Park Madukoro which had the lowest category. The birds were categorized evenly with the index 0.74-0.83, except in the Madukoro Wildlife where the categories were fairly even. The composition of the most abundant guild is a group of insectivorous which is 41%. There are 27 species of birds in all six State Parks in Semarang which however have the status of Least Concern by the IUCN. Based on Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999, there are four species of birds included into the category which are protected.Keywords:  State Parks, bird, diversity, abundance, composition guild

Struktur Komunitas Mikroartropoda Tanah di Lahan Penambangan Galian C Rowosari, Kecamatan Tembalang, Semarang

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Rowosari miningsite isthe ‘C’ type of excavation area in Semarang. Mining activities may affect environmental disturbance, including on soil fauna. This research aims to determine the community structure of soil microarthropods in Rowosari mining area. The research was conducted in August-September 2015. Soil samples were taken on diagonal plot of 5x5 m2 with a five-point sampling on two stations, namely Post Mining Area (PoMA) and Pre Mining Area (PeMA). The analysis used in the research are relative abundance index, Shannon-Weiner diversity index, evenness index, and Sorensen similarity index. The results shows that there are 360-660 individuals/m2 from 10 ordo and 24 taxa found in Rowosari Excavation Site. The highest relative abundance index is Carabidae (22,22) in PoMA station and Prostigmata (21,21) in PeMA station. The diversity both station belongs to medium category (2,43-2,45). The highest evenness index is 0,95. The similarity taxa of soil microarthropods in two stations are categorized as medium. Community structure of soil microathropods in Post Mining Area and Pre Mining Areawere no significant differences. Keywords: Community structure, Soil microarthropods, Miningexcavation C.

KERAGAMAN SERANGGA OPT DAN MUSUH ALAMI DI LAHAN KACANG HIJAU SEBELUM DAN PASCA PANEN

Jurnal Akademika Biologi Vol. 7 No.2 April 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Undip

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Abstract

Serangga dapat berperan sebagai OPT ataupun musuh alami di suatu ekosistem pertanian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis serangga OPT dan musuh alami dominan, keragaman serta pengaruh faktor fisik lingkungan terhadap keragaman serangga OPT dan musuh alami. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dua kali yaitu pada masa sebelum dan pasca panen. Setiap pengambilan sampel menggunakan dua metode, yaitu jaring ayun dan metode light trap. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jumlah individu dan jumlah jenis yang didapatkan sebelum panen lebih tinggi dibandingkan pasca panen. OPT yang dominan, yaitu famili Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Sciaridae, Pentatomidae, Cicadellidae, dan Pyralidae. Sedangkan musuh alami yang dominan yaitu famili Staphylinidae, Coccinelidae, Carabidae, Miridae, Aelothripidae, Tachinidae, Formicidae, Salticidae dan Thomisidae. Keragaman jenis OPT dan musuh alami termasuk dalam kategori sedang. Indeks kemerataan OPT sebelum dan pasca panen serta musuh alami sebelum panen termasuk dalam kategori merata sedangkan musuh alami pasca panen termasuk dalam kategori tidak merata. Indeks kesamaan antara kedua musim pengambilan sampel menunjukkan tingkat kesamaan yang bervariasi. Faktor fisik lingkungan kelembaban udara, suhu udara, kecepatan angin dan intensitas cahaya matahari berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas OPT maupun musuh alami di lahan penelitian.

UJI EFIKASI BEBERAPA ISOLAT BAKTERI ENTOMOPATOGEN TERHADAP KECOA (Orthoptera) Periplaneta americana (L.) DAN Blatella germanica (L.) DALAM SKALA LABORATORIUM

Jurnal Akademika Biologi Vol. 5 No. 2 April 2016
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Undip

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Abstract

Cockroaches are the insect vectors of disease that can cause adverse effects on human health. Control cockroaches excessive use of insecticides can lead to residues in the environment and resistance cockroach. Therefore it is necessary to control the use of alternatives such as by biological agents such as entomopathogenic bacteria. This research used two isolates of entomopathogenic bacteria isolated from Spodoptera litura were found dead, Bacillus thuringiensis IPBCC collection and sterile distilled water as a control. Tests conducted by the spray and bait method at a concentration of 108. The results showed that all isolates entomopathogenic bacteria used in this research can cause mortality of cockroaches. Morphological observation and Koch's postulates test showed that the mortality of cockroaches likely caused by bacterial isolates were granted. SP4 bacterial isolates using spray method provides the highest mortality was 26.67% of the P. americana and 80% against B. germanica. Isolates of B. thuringiensis using bait influence the highest mortality of 10% of the P. americana and 6.67% against B. germanica. LT-50 was the most effective method of treatment of bacterial isolates SP4 spray against B. germanica was 2 hours 30 minutes 46 seconds.Keywords: Biological control, entomopathogenic bacterial, efficacy test

Keragaman Serangga dan Perannya di Ekosistem Sawah (Insect Diversity and its Role in Wetland Ecosystems)

SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 20 Nomor 3 Tahun 2012
Publisher : SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

Ekosistem sawah merupakan faktor penting dalam pemenuhan kebutuhan pangan. Keanekaragaman hayati seperti jenis-jenis tanaman, hewan, dan mikroorganisme yang ada dan berinteraksi dalam suatu ekosistem sawah sangat menentukan tingkat produktivitas pertanian.  Serangga sebagai salah satu komponen ekosistem sawah memiliki peranan penting dalam jaring makanan yaitu sebagai herbivora, karnivora (predator dan parasitoid), dan detritivora. Di dalam ekosistem sawah terdapat berbagai macam jenis serangga yang hidup dan tinggal di ekosistem sawah tersebut. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji keanekaragaman serangga dan menganalisis peranan serangga yang ditemukan dalam ekosistem sawah. Penelitian dilakukan di lahan sawah di Kelurahan Pedalangan Kecamatan Tembalang Kota Semarang. Metoda penelitian menggunakan metoda perangkap sumuran (pit fall traps), perangkap lampu (light traps) dan perangkap nampan kuning (yellow tray traps). Hasil yang diperoleh nampak bahwa serangga yang didapatkan dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok berdasarkan peranannya yaitu serangga herbivor, serangga predator, serangga parasitoid dan serangga detritivor. Dari semua jenis serangga yang teridentifikasi maka 49.6% diantaranya adalah serangga herbivor, 46.1% merupakan serangga predator, 3.5% merupakan serangga parasitoid dan 0.6% adalah serangga detritivor. Keanekaragaman serangga yang ditemukan di lahan sawah adalah dengan perangkap sumuran diperoleh 23 spesies dalam 14 famili dalam 8 ordo, dengan perangkap lampu diperoleh 9 spesies dalam 7 famili dari 4 ordo, dengan perangkap nampan kuning diperoleh 8 spesies dalam 6 famili dan 3  ordo.   Kata kunci : keanekaragaman serangga, peranan serangga, ekosistem sawah.

Fauna Kalajengking (Arachnida : Scorpiones) Di Pemukiman Jatiluhur Jatingaleh Semarang [The scorpion fauna ( Arachnida : Scorpiones ) in Semarang Jatingaleh Jatiluhur Settlement]

SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 19 Nomor 4 Tahun 2011
Publisher : SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

Lingkungan urban merupakan habitat kompleks yang dikembangkan manusia dari lokasi alami atau lahan pertanian yang secara berangsur-angsur dan sepenuhnya telah mengubah kondisi alami menjadi kondisi tidak alami. Lingkungan urban dan sub-urban menyediakan habitat yang sesuai untuk sejumlah kecil fauna kalajengking. Kalajengking sebagai hewan pemangsa berperan dalam  menjaga keseimbangan ekosistem dan jaring makanan, namun demikian kontak dengan manusia menjadikan keberadaan kalajengking dalam lingkungan urban menjadi dilema tersendiri. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji keberadaan dan karekteristik habitat kalajengking di lingkungan urban di Jatiluhur, Jatingaleh, Semarang. Teknik pengamatan dilakukan dengan observasi secara langsung. Data pengamatan berupa karakteristik habiitat dijelaskan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian telah ditemukan dua spesies kalajengking yaitu Chaerilus variegatus dan Isometrus maculatus. Habitat kalajengking berupa pekarangan rumah, dengan mikrohabitat bebatuan, tumpukan genteng, sisa beton bangunan.   Kata kunci : kalajengking, Chaerilus, Isometrus.

PERTANIAN ORGANIK SUATU ALTERNATIF PENGELOLAAN EKOSISTEM SAWAH YANG SEHAT, ALAMI DAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

JURNAL ANATOMI FISIOLOGI Vol 22, No 1 (2014): Volume XXII, NOMOR 1, MARET 2014
Publisher : JURNAL ANATOMI FISIOLOGI

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Abstract

Rice crops are the main food crops in Indonesia. In efforts to increase rice productivity , there are still many obstacles such as pest nuisance problem . In an effort to control pests for rice crop , farmers initially apply conventional farming systems are dependent applications of synthetic pesticides and synthetic fertilizers are made from chemicals . From time to time, conventional farming systems has led to environmental problems such as environmental pollution , resistance to pests and natural enemies of pests involved killing . Another strategy to reduce the negative impacts is the application of organic rice farming system as an environmentally friendly alternative . Organic farming systems is done by eliminating the use of chemicals in fertilizers , pesticides and other means of cultivation . The goal is to reduce environmental burden and environmental menciptalan rice ecosystems healthy , natural and productive. In organic rice farming system does not use synthetic chemicals in fertilizers and pesticides application . Fertilizer used is bio-fertilizers (organic) made ​​from manure, compost , and green manure . Pesticide used is a mixture of botanical pesticide made ​​from various parts of the plant that could potentially exist in the surrounding environment . The use of organic fertilizers and pesticides do not cause disturbance to the ecosystem fields because the ingredients used are organic materials that are environmentally friendly. Use other means such as the use of seed cultivation (seeds), water use and weed management done without synthetic chemicals .

Fauna Kalajengking (Arachnida : Scorpiones) Di Pemukiman Jatiluhur Jatingaleh Semarang The scorpion fauna ( Arachnida : Scorpiones ) in Semarang Jatingaleh Jatiluhur Settlement

JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 19 Issue 4 Year 2011
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

Lingkungan urban merupakan habitat kompleks yang dikembangkan manusia dari lokasi alami atau lahan pertanian yang secara berangsur-angsur dan sepenuhnya telah mengubah kondisi alami menjadi kondisi tidak alami. Lingkungan urban dan sub-urban menyediakan habitat yang sesuai untuk sejumlah kecil fauna kalajengking. Kalajengking sebagai hewan pemangsa berperan dalam  menjaga keseimbangan ekosistem dan jaring makanan, namun demikian kontak dengan manusia menjadikan keberadaan kalajengking dalam lingkungan urban menjadi dilema tersendiri. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji keberadaan dan karekteristik habitat kalajengking di lingkungan urban di Jatiluhur, Jatingaleh, Semarang. Teknik pengamatan dilakukan dengan observasi secara langsung. Data pengamatan berupa karakteristik habiitat dijelaskan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian telah ditemukan dua spesies kalajengking yaitu Chaerilus variegatus dan Isometrus maculatus. Habitat kalajengking berupa pekarangan rumah, dengan mikrohabitat bebatuan, tumpukan genteng, sisa beton bangunan.  Kata kunci : kalajengking, Chaerilus, Isometrus.  Urban environment is a complex habitat that humans developed from natural or agricultural land locations that gradually and completely has changed the natural conditions into unnatural conditions . Urban environment and sub-urban provide suitable habitat for a small number of scorpion fauna . Scorpions as predators play a role in maintaining the balance of ecosystems and food webs , however, make the existence of human contact with scorpions in the urban environment into a dilemma . The study aims to assess the existence and characteristics of scorpion habitats in urban environments in Jatiluhur , Jatingaleh , Semarang . Engineering observations were made by direct observation . Observational data in the form of descriptive characteristics described habiitat . The results have been found in two species of scorpion that is Chaerilus variegatus and Isometrus maculatus . Keywords : scorpion , Chaerilus , Isometrus

Keragaman Serangga dan Perannya di Ekosistem Sawah (Insect Diversity and its Role in Wetland Ecosystems)

JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 20 Issue 3 Year 2012
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

Ekosistem sawah merupakan faktor penting dalam pemenuhan kebutuhan pangan. Keanekaragaman hayati seperti jenis-jenis tanaman, hewan, dan mikroorganisme yang ada dan berinteraksi dalam suatu ekosistem sawah sangat menentukan tingkat produktivitas pertanian.  Serangga sebagai salah satu komponen ekosistem sawah memiliki peranan penting dalam jaring makanan yaitu sebagai herbivora, karnivora (predator dan parasitoid), dan detritivora. Di dalam ekosistem sawah terdapat berbagai macam jenis serangga yang hidup dan tinggal di ekosistem sawah tersebut. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji keanekaragaman serangga dan menganalisis peranan serangga yang ditemukan dalam ekosistem sawah. Penelitian dilakukan di lahan sawah di Kelurahan Pedalangan Kecamatan Tembalang Kota Semarang. Metoda penelitian menggunakan metoda perangkap sumuran (pit fall traps), perangkap lampu (light traps) dan perangkap nampan kuning (yellow tray traps). Hasil yang diperoleh nampak bahwa serangga yang didapatkan dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok berdasarkan peranannya yaitu serangga herbivor, serangga predator, serangga parasitoid dan serangga detritivor. Dari semua jenis serangga yang teridentifikasi maka 49.6% diantaranya adalah serangga herbivor, 46.1% merupakan serangga predator, 3.5% merupakan serangga parasitoid dan 0.6% adalah serangga detritivor. Keanekaragaman serangga yang ditemukan di lahan sawah adalah dengan perangkap sumuran diperoleh 23 spesies dalam 14 famili dalam 8 ordo, dengan perangkap lampu diperoleh 9 spesies dalam 7 famili dari 4 ordo, dengan perangkap nampan kuning diperoleh 8 spesies dalam 6 famili dan 3  ordo. Kata kunci : keanekaragaman serangga, peranan serangga, ekosistem sawah. Rice ecosystems is an important factor in meeting food needs . Biodiversity such as the types of plants , animals , and microorganisms that exist and interact in a rice field ecosystem will determine the level of agricultural productivity . Insects as one component of rice ecosystems have an important role in the food web that is as herbivores , carnivores ( predators and parasitoids ) , and detritivora . In the rice field ecosystem there are many types of insects that live and work in the rice field ecosystem . The study aims to assess the diversity of insects and analyze the role of insects found in the rice ecosystem . The study was conducted in paddy fields in the village of Semarang District Tembalang puppetry . Research method using trap method pitting ( pit fall traps), light traps ( light traps ) and traps yellow tray ( tray yellow traps) . The results obtained it appears that the insects were divided into 4 groups based on the role that herbivor insects, insect predators , parasitoids and insect insect detritivor . Of all the types of insects identified 49.6 % of them are herbivor insect, an insect predator 46.1 % , 3.5 % is 0.6 % and the parasitoid insects are insects detritivor . Diversity of insects found in the fields is to trap the wells acquired 23 species in 14 families in 8 orders, with light traps obtained 9 species in 7 families of 4 orders, with yellow tray traps obtained 8 species in 6 families and 3 orders . Keywords : insect diversity, the role of insects, rice ecosystems.

Struktur Komunitas Mikroartropoda Tanah Di Hutan Wisata Gonoharjo Kecamatan Limbangan Kabupaten Kendal

Bioma Vol. 15, No.1, Tahun 2013
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

The study on community structure of soil microarthropod in Gonoharjo Tourism Forest has been done. The objective of this research are to compare community structure of soil microartropod and to know the effect of abiotic environmental factors on abundance of soil microarthropod in Tourism Forest of Gonoharjo. This research was conducted using transect method in four sampling locations i.e., coffe vegetation, pine vegetation, mixed vegetation in hot spring water area, and mixed vegetation of riverside area. Soil sampling were used soil corer, and then the sample were extracted using barlese-tullgren. The finding shows 4 Sub Orders and 22 Families from 10 Orders. Acari was the most dominant group in each observed locations. The most diverse was found in mixed vegetation on hot spring water area, while the least one was found in coffe vegetation. Then, the highest evenness index was found in mixed vegetation on riverside area, while the lowest evenness was found in coffe vegetation. Moreover , the richest soil microarthropods found in mixed vegetation on hot spring water area and the lowest richness was found in mixed vegetation on riverside area. Statistically, abiotic environmental factors that have big impact on soil microarthropod abundance were soil organic matter, soil pH, and soil moisture. .   Keywords : community structure, soil microarthropod, Acari, Tourism Forest of Gonoharjo