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Protein digestibility and ammonia excretion in catfish Clarias gariepinus culture Gunadi, Bambang; Harris, Enang; Supriyono, Eddy; Sukenda, .; Budiardi, Tatag
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2013): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : ISSA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT A series of experiments was performed to analyze protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, and also heterothropic bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics in the catfish Clarias gariepinus culture. In the digestibility experiment, catfish with an individual initial size of 43.67±0.83 g were stocked into 120 L conical fiberglass tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed on with commercial diet supplemented with Cr2O3 indicator at a concentration of 1%. In the ammonia excretion experiment, catfish with an individual size of 111.6±9.5 and 40.6±3.4 g, respectively,  were placed into a 10 L chamber filled with 8 L of water. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) in the chambers were monitored every hour for six consecutive hours. In the bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics experiment, catfish were stocked in the 25 m2 concrete tanks which was divided into two compartments (catfish 10 m2, and heterotrof compartments 15 m2). Catfish with individual size of 42,5±0 g were stocked into the tanks at a density of 100 fish per tank. Water was recirculated from catfish compartments to heterotrophic compartments. Fish were fed with floating feed. Molasses as carbon source for heterotrophic bacteria was applied daily. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. The results showed that the protein digestibility was 61.97±7.24%. Larger fish (size of 111.6 g) excreted ammonia at a rate of 0.008±0.003 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour, which was lower than that of the smaller catfish (size of 40.6 g), i.e. 0.012±0.004 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour. Keywords: protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, catfish  ABSTRAK Serangkaian penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menganalisis ketercernaan pakan dan protein, ekskresi amonia, serta dinamika bakteri dan fitoplankton pada budidaya ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus). Pada penelitian ketercernaan pakan, ikan lele berukuran 43,67±0,83 g/ekor dipelihara dalam bak fiberglas berbentuk corong berukuran 120 L dengan kepadatan 20 ekor/bak. Ikan diberi pakan berupa pelet yang diberi indikator Cr2O3 sebanyak 1%. Pada penelitian ekskresi amonia, ikan lele berukuran 111,6±9,5 dan 40,6±3,4 g/ekor yang telah diberi makan sampai kenyang dimasukkan ke dalam stoples berisi 8 L air. Kadar amonia total (total ammonia nitrogen, TAN) di dalam stoples diukur setiap jam selama enam jam. Pada penelitian dinamika bakteri dan fitoplankton, ikan lele dipelihara pada bak beton berukuran 25 m2 yang disekat menjadi dua bagian yaitu bagian ikan lele (10 m2) dan bagian heterotrof (15 m2). Ikan lele dengan bobot awal 42,5 g/ekor ditebar ke dalam bak dengan kepadatan 100 ekor/bak. Air mengalir secara resirkulasi dari bagian ikan lele ke bagian heterotrofik dengan bantuan pompa. Pakan yang diberikan berupa pelet apung komersial. Molase ditambahkan setiap hari sebagai sumber karbon untuk pertumbuhan bakteri heterotrofik. Penelitian dilaksanakan selama enam minggu. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa ketercernaan protein dari pakan yang diuji adalah 61,97±7,24%. Ikan lele berukuran besar (111,6 g/ekor) menghasilkan amonia sebanyak 0,008±0,003 mg TAN/g ikan/jam, lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan ikan yang berukuran lebih kecil (40,6 g/ekor), yaitu 0,012±0,004 mg TAN/g ikan/jam.  Kata kunci: ketercernaan protein, ekskresi amonia, ikan lele
Pendugaan Mutu Genetik Induk Ikan Patin Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus) dari Beberapa Sentra Produksi Benih Berdasarkan Keragaan Anakannya Ariyanto, Didik; Gunadi, Bambang; Sularto, Sularto
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 9, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.63

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to estimate the genetic quality of siamese catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) from various seed production centres.The broodstocks genetic quality were estimated based on their progeny performances.The result showed that the population growth rates, individually average weight, FCR, survival rate and productivity of seeds from Central Java (Ungaran), West Java (Sukamandi and Sukabumi) and Jakarta were 6.89, 6.08, 5.61 and 5.37 g/day; 47.08, 39.64, 36.80 and 35.51 g/individually fish; 0.82, 0.87, 0.94 and 1.00; 76.80, 86.77, 86.43 and 85.66%; 366.99, 343.95, 318.02 and 304.21 kg/10.000 fishes/8 weeks, respectively.
OPTIMASI PEMBERIAN PAKAN BUATAN PADA PENDEDERAN IKAN PATIN (Pangasionodon hypohpthalmus) DI KOLAM YANG DIPUPUK Tahapari, Evi; Ariyanto, Didik; Gunadi, Bambang
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 10, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.8927

Abstract

This research aimed to know the optimum formulated feeding patin (Pangasionodon hypohpthalmus) in the fingerling rearing in the fertilized pond. The fish seed were stocked in the fifteen cages of 3x2x1.25 m that were installed in the 50 m2 pond. Each cage was stocked with 600 fish with an average initial weight of 0.37 g and average body length of 2-3 cm. The treatments applied in this research were (A) without formulated feed, (B) 5% of biomass of formulated feed, (C) 10% of biomass of formulated feed, (D) 15% of biomass of formulated feed and (E) 20% of biomass of formulated feed. The protein level of the formulated feed was around 40%. The observations focused on the survival rates of fish, feed conversion ratios, body weight and length. The results showed that there were significant differences among fish treatments on the survival rates, feed conversion, weight and length growth (P<0,05). The survival rates of fish of the treatment A, B, C, D and E were 78.10%, 84.39%, 83.78%, 90.83% and 90.33%, respectively. The feed conversion of the feed given treatments i.e. B, C, D and E were 0.35, 0.62, 0.89 and 1.15, respectively. The weight growth during observation period (6 weeks) were 5.63 g, 15.29 g, 23.37 g, 39.17 g and 42.13 g for the treatments A, B, C, D and E, respectively, while the length increment for those treatments were 4.63 cm, 7.81 cm, 8.91 cm 1.5 cm and 11.05 cm, respectively. The water quality parameters were in the suitable range for fish growth.
OPTIMASI PADAT PENEBARAN LARVA IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasius hypophthalmus) PADA PEMELIHARAAN SISTEM INTENSIF Ariyanto, Didik; Tahapari, Evi; Gunadi, Bambang
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 10, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.8882

Abstract

The goal of this activity was to improve the productivity of Siamese catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) backyard hatchery. The research was conducted to identify the optimum density of larvae in the intensive rearing system. Two days post hatching larvae of P. hypophthalmus reared in 18 fiberglass containers size 40x30x30 cm3. The treatment used was 50, 100 and 150 fishes/litre in 6 replicates. A water recirculation system was used in this study and a hi-blower aeration system for oxigen supplay was added in it. The result showed that the density of larvae was not significant difference (P<0,05) for the survival rate at day-30, i.e. 21.34%; 19.78% and 19.71% for 50, 100 and 150 fishes/litre density of larvae, respectively. But the density of larvae was significant difference (P>0,05) for body weight at day-30, i.e. 0.47; 0.34 and 0.25 g/fishes for 50, 100 and 150 fishes/l, respectively.
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL Gunadi, Bambang; Dharma, Lukas; Khasani, Ikhsan; Yosmaniar, Yosmaniar; Setijaningsih, Lies
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 1, No 2 (2006): (December 2006)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (359.338 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.1.2.2006.153-158

Abstract

One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc.) pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province). This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish) in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus), separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat) was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.
CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIO AND NITROGENOUS WASTE ACCUMULATION IN THE INTENSIVE CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) CULTURE Gunadi, Bambang; Harris, Enang; Supriyono, Eddy; Sukenda, Sukenda; Budiardi, Tatag
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 6, No 1 (2011): (June 2011)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (110.145 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.6.1.2011.19-29

Abstract

This experiment was carried out to determine the optimum C/N ratio for heterotrophic bacteria (biofloc) growth in order to control nitrogenous waste accumulation in the catfish (Clarias gariepinus) culture. Twenty fish with an initial individual size of about 50 g were stocked in fiberglass tanks which were filled with 200 L of water. Fish were fed with commercial floating fish feed with a protein level of 31%-33% (manufacturer label). The daily feeding rate was 2.5% of the fish biomass. The inoculation of commercial Bacillus sp. isolates was applied in the first day of the experiment after fish stocking in order to obtain a bacterial density in water of 106 cfu/L. Molases was suplemented daily to the tanks to adjust C/N ratio in water. Four C/N ratios, i.e. 0, 7, 14, and 21, were applied as treatments in this experiment. The results showed that molasses suplementation up to C/N ratio 14 to 21 were able to support the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and to inhibit the accumulation of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and nitrite in water therefore increase water quality for better growth of cultured catfish.
EVALUASI RESPONS PERTUMBUHAN DAN NILAI HERITABILITAS IKAN NILA MERAH F-2 HASIL SELEKSI FAMILI PADA TAMBAK BERSALINITAS TINGGI Robisalmi, Adam; Setyawan, Priadi; Gunadi, Bambang
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 10, No 3 (2015): (September 2015)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (301.816 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.10.3.2015.313-323

Abstract

Dalam rangka peningkatan produksi ikan nila, maka dilakukan kegiatan pembentukan ikan nila toleran salinitas tinggi strain nila merah yang tumbuh cepat di perairan payau. Kegiatan perbaikan genetik pada ikan nila merah ini dilakukan melalui jalur seleksi famili. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pertumbuhan bobot dan mengetahui heritabilitas nyata ikan nila merah F-2 di tambak. Pembenihan dilakukan di air tawar menggunakan metode pemijahan secara fullsib dengan perbandingan induk jantan dan betina1:1. Jumlah famili yang dipelihara sampai pembesaran di tambak adalah 16 famili. Sebelum penebaran di tambak, benih ikan nila merah diaklimatisasi dengan air laut sebanyak 5 salinitas 25 ppt. Kegiatan uji respons seleksi dilakukan di tambak bersalinitas 25-45 ppt selama tiga bulan. Selama pembesaran populasi jantan dan betina dipelihara secara terpisah. Parameter yang diamati adalah: pertumbuhan, nilai heritabilitas nyata, dan respons seleksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi F-2 ikan nila merah seleksi mempunyai pertumbuhan yang lebih tinggi dibanding populasi F-2 kontrol. Nilai pertumbuhan bobot mutlak populasi jantan sebesar 100,37±7,43 g dengan laju pertumbuhan spesifik 1,44% bobot/hari dan pertumbuhan bobot mutlak populasi betina 80,85±3,62 g dengan pertumbuhan spesifik 1,5% bobot/hari. Nilai selisih bobot seleksi dengan kontrol pada populasi jantan 19,23 g dan betina 17,57 g. Nilai heritabilitas nyata yang diperoleh populasi F-2 ikan nila merah jantan dan betina sebesar 0,34 dan 0,41 dengan respons seleksi 18,10% dan 21,70%.
KAJIAN ASPEK FISIKA, KIMIA, DAN BIOLOGI PERAIRAN SITU RAWABEBEK, KARAWANG, DALAM RANGKA PENGELOLAAN PERIKANAN BERBASIS BUDI DAYA Gunadi, Bambang; Wardoyo, Supriyono Eko
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 1, No 1 (2006): (April 2006)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1472.108 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.1.1.2006.115-129

Abstract

Penelitian tentang aspek-aspek fisika, kimia, dan biologi perairan bekas galian pasir telah dilakukan di Situ Rawabebek Kabupaten Karawang. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan data dasar bagi penyusunan model pengelolaan perikanan di perairan bekas galian pasir berdasarkan prinsip perikanan berbasis budi daya (culture-based fisheries, CBF). Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa fluktuasi air di Situ Rawabebek mencapai hingga 1,90 m dan sangat dipengaruhi oleh ketinggian air Sungai Citarum. Nilai semua parameter kualitas air berada dalam kisaran yang layak untuk mendukung kehidupan ikan sementara kadar logam berat berada dalam ambang aman untuk kehidupan organisme akuatik termasuk ikan dan kesehatan manusia. Indeks keragaman plankton (Indeks Shanon-Wiener) pada setiap stasiun dan musim pengamatan berkisar antara 3,95—4,52 yang berarti bahwa komunitas plankton di Situ Rawabebek stabil dan perairannya dalam kondisi belum tercemar. Jenis ikan yang teramati untuk mengetahui pola reproduksinya di Situ Rawabebek antara lain lalawak (Puntius bramoides), paray (Rasbora argyrotaenia), dan seren (Cyclocheilichthys apogon) dengan tingkat Indeks Kematangan Gonad (IKG) masing-masing 3,43%; 12,82%; dan 3,95%. Dari analisis terhadap kondisi fisika, kimia, dan biologinya disimpulkan bahwa perairan bekas galian pasir Situ Rawabebek cukup layak untuk pengembangan perikanan berbasis budi daya.A study on the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the abandoned sand mining reservoir was conducted in Rawabebek Reservoir (Karawang Regency, West Java). This study aimed to develop a model of fisheries management in the reservoir based on the culture based fisheries (CBF) system. The study showed that the fluctuation of water level in the Rawabebek Reservoir was monitored up to 1.90 m and highly influenced by the water level of Citarum River. The average value of all water quality parameters and heavy metals were in the suitable range for aquatic organism, fish and human health. The diversity index of plankton (Shanon-Wiener Index) at each station and sampling time observed, were ranged between 3.95 to 4.52 implied that the plankton community in the Rawabebek Reservoir was in the stable condition with no water pollution. Three fish species were observed for reproduction pattern in the Rawabebek Reservoir namely lalawak (Puntius bramoides), paray (Rasbora argyrotaenia), and seren (Cyclocheilichthys apogon) with the Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) were 3.43%, 12.82%, and 3.95%, respectively. Due to those physical, chemical and biological aspects, it was concluded that Rawabebek Reservoir was suitable for culture based fisheries (CBF) management system.
PERBAIKAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN TOLERANSI SALINITAS IKAN NILA SRIKANDI (Oreochromis aureus x O. niloticus) MELALUI HIBRIDISASI DAN BACK-CROSS DENGAN O. aureus F-1 DI KARAMBA JARING APUNG LAUT Setyawan, Priadi; Robisalmi, Adam; Gunadi, Bambang
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 10, No 4 (2015): (Desember 2015)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (205.039 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.10.4.2015.471-479

Abstract

Ikan nila Srikandi merupakan hasil persilangan antara ikan nila hitam (Oreochromis niloticus) dan ikan nila biru (O. aureus) yang dapat tumbuh baik pada salinitas 10-30 g/L. Kendala yang sering dihadapi dalam pengembangan budidaya di tambak adalah mortalitas tinggi akibat tingginya fluktuasi salinitas air tambak. Perairan laut mempunyai fluktuasi salinitas yang rendah sehingga dapat dijadikan solusi. Namun demikian, salinitas di atas 30 g/L menyebabkan penurunan laju pertumbuhan dan sintasan ikan. Persilangan antara ikan nila biru F-1 (AuF1) hasil seleksi famili dengan ikan nila hitam Nirwana 2 (Nw2) atau nila Srikandi (Sr) diharapkan dapat meningkatkan toleransi salinitas dan pertumbuhan ikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pertumbuhan dan toleransi salinitas ikan nila hibrida hasil persilangan dengan AuF1 di karamba jaring apung (KJA) laut di Kabupaten Brebes. Penelitian eksperimental dengan tiga ulangan dilakukan pada lima populasi hasil kombinasi perkawinan Nw2 x AuF1, Sr x AuF1, Nw x Au (Nirwana x Aureus atau Srikandi), Nw2 x Nw2 dan AuF1 x AuF1. Benih berukuran 3-5 cm diaklimatisasi hingga salinitas laut. Pemeliharaan dilakukan pada jaring 3 m x 5 m x 2 m dengan padat tebar 10 ekor/m3 selama tiga bulan. Pemberian pakan komersial berprotein 30% dilakukan dua kali sehari sebanyak 3%-5% biomassa. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan rerata bobot akhir pada seluruh populasi berkisar antara 126,9-182,7 g dengan rerata sintasan 14,67%-70,13%. Ikan nila biru F-1 dapat meningkatkan karakter sintasan 33,54% pada hasil hibridisasi Nw2xAuF1 dan 35,27% pada persilangan backcross (Sr x AuF1) dibandingkan dengan ikan nila Srikandi, sedangkan pada karakter bobot badan meningkat sebesar 4,34% pada populasi hibrida dan 11,68% pada populasi backcross. Populasi Nw2 x AuF1 dan Sr x AuF1 menghasilkan biomassa panen yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan ikan nila Srikandi sehingga dapat dijadikan kandidat untuk budidaya ikan nila di KJA laut.
PEMACUAN PERTUMBUHAN IKAN NILA (oreochromis niloticus) MELALUI PENERAPAN SISTEM BIOFILTER DAN AERASI DI KOLAM TADAH HUJAN Gunadi, Bambang; Setijaningsih, Lies; umar, Chairulwan
Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia Vol 4, No 1 (1998): (Vol.4 No.1 1998)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15578/jppi.4.1.1998.80-87

Abstract

Kualitas air kolam tadah hujan yang cepat memburuk mengakibatkan penurunan lajupertumbuhan ikan yang dipelihara. Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut, penelitian pemacuanpertumbuhan ikan nila di kolam tadah hujan telah dilakeanakan di Balai Penelitian Perikanan Air Tawar, Sukamandi.