Simon P Ginting
Unknown Affiliation

Published : 45 Documents
Articles

Enhancing the Feed Capacity of Horticulture Agro-Ecosystem Through Technology for Goat Production Ginting, Simon P
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 21, No 3 (2011): SEPTEMBER 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (206.775 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v21i3.975

Abstract

The availability of feed and their efficiency of use throughout the year represent the most important constraint affecting the productivity of animals in any agro-ecosystems. Beside being the largest contributor to the total production cost, logistically feeds need to be available on a daily basis across the animal’s life time. In order to be competitive, goat production system must be directed toward the optimum utilization of inconventional feedstuffs such as crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. The horticulture crops provide various crop-residues and by products from the processing of its main products. These biomass are potential feedstuffs that could be used to support the production of goats. The processing of passion fruits (Passiflora edulis) yield by products such as fruit shells and seeds. These products are good energy and protein sources for growing goats. Oriental radish (Raphanus sativus) by-products composed by damaged root parts and culls have high digestible energy and low ether extract content, but have very high moisture content. The pineapple by-products composed by the peel and bagasse of the fruit could be used as energy source for goats. Other horticulture by-products or residues such as citrus pulp, abandoned citrus fruit, forages from Ipomea batatas are of great potential as feeds for goat production. Preserving technology like ensiling could be implemented in utilising those biomass categorized as wet by-products such as pineapple and oriental radish by-products. The technology of complete feed is an effective means in utilizing some of those products with relatively low palatability or to increase its inclusion level in diets. Introducing shade-tolerant forage species as intercrops such as Stenotaphrum secundatum,  Brachiaria humidicola and Arachis pintoi in the citrus plantation should increase feed capacity of the area. The multi-purpose trees such as Indigofera sp. and Calliandra calothyrsus both are adaptable to the high altitude area are valuable feeds due to their high nutritional quality. Generation of technology that could maximize the utilization of those biomass as feeds for goat production is necessary. Some technologies that are relevant to that purposes including: 1) ensiling with appropriate inoculants that create optimal fermentation to preserve the product and to prolong the aerobic stability of the silages; 2) ensiling with appropiate absorbants for maximum effluent retention, intake and preference of the silage; 3) the utilization of fibrolytic bacteria; 4) utilization of fibrolytic enzymes in complete feed; and 5) supplementation strategy to optimize the rumen function for maximum utilization of basal diets. Because most of the feedstuffs mentioned above relatively vary in their nutritional quality and quantity, it is suggested that feed budget system, which is based on the availability of feed rather than the feeding standard system which is based on the animal’s nutrient requirement is a more relevant feeding system for goat production. Key words: Feeds, horticultures, technology, goats
Research Strategy in Nutrition and Feeding Systems for Meat Goat Production Ginting, Simon P; Batubara, Leo P
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 13, No 1 (2003): MARCH 2003
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (134.878 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v13i1.791

Abstract

The capability of ruminant animals, including goats to transform the non-food materials into high quality animal proteins for human consumption through a complex digestive and metabolic system put these animals into a unique position in the food- chain system. However, this comparative advantage is not without cost, since when compared to mono-gastric animals, the ruminant is less efficient in producing every unit of protein or energy from each unit of feed they consumed. Therefore, research programme or technology that aims to improve the efficiency of utilization of the various non-food materials by goats should be the priority. Basically, the research programmes in goat feeding and nutrition should be oriented into the real needs of the potential beneficiaries or users. In accordance to this, it is a pre-requisite to identify and to understand the structure and the characteristics of goat production systems that existed. Most of goat production system in Indonesia is typically small scale operation (92%), which operates in a low input system. It is common that under this type of production system, the flow products such as manure or/and kids  are the main goals. Consequently, the stability of feed supply throught the year to at least maintain the existing population become more important than the quality of feeds that fulfill the standard requirement for nutrients. The research programme for this group of goat production should be oriented to (1) developing production system that guarantees the supply  of  feed  throught  the  year;  (2)  maximizing the  potential  benefit  of  the  “compensatory growth”  phenomenon; (3) minimising the effects of anti nutritional factors contained in various forages. Under the commercial production type that operates in a high input system, the final products such as meat is the main goal. Under this production system the rate of productivity of (growth rate, reproduction rate, feed conversion) of individual animas become very important. The research program for this commercial operation should be oriented into (1) developing of various formulae based on non-conventional feeds; (2) optimising rumen function to support maximum fermentative digestion; (3) optimising the protein/energy ratio in the rumen; (4) stimulating the production of glucogenic volatile fatty acid production in the rumen; (5) manipulating the microbial population in the rumen (defaunation); and (6) stimulating the development and colonization of microbial for fiber fermentation.   Key words: Goats, feeding system
Boerka Goat: A Meat Type Goat of Boer X Kacang Crossbred Ginting, Simon P; Mahmilia, Fera
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 18, No 3 (2008): SEPTEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (321.787 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v18i3.896

Abstract

The world goat population has for three main types, namely meat goats, dairy goats and fiber goats. In Indonesia, goat meat is produced mainly the Kacang goat, a small-size type with low growth rate, but prolific. The development of new goat breed with  larger  mature  weight  and  greater  growth  rate  is important  to  promote  and  increase  the  goat  meat production  and consumption as well. The acceleration of meat goat production in Indonesia need to be stimulated due to the large potential of the international market. The healthy goat meat due to its higher polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio compared to those of beef or lambs should be more promoted to encourage the consumption rate. The Boerka goat which has been developed by mating the male Boer goat to Kacang does has good characteristics of meat goat type. The average birth weight, weaning weight, weight at 6, 9, 12, 18 months old, and mature weight of Boerka goats are greater 33 – 48% compared to those of Kacang goat. The average pre-weaning (0 – 90 days) and post-weaning growth rate (3 – 12 months) of Boerka in average are 39 and 46%, respectively higher than those of Kacang goats. Under intensive management system, the kidding interval is 233 days, equal to that of Kacang goat. Carcass characteristics such as carcass weight and length are greater in Boerka compared to Kacang goat. The pH and protein content of carcass are comparable, while the fat content is lower in Boerka carcass. It is important to design proper schemes for the dissemination of this Boerka goats to stakeholders. These schemes should be able to provide the Boerka goats in a sustainable pattern, so that the production, supply and quality of this crossbred goat could be maintained continuously. Several alternative schemes based on the nucleus-based breeding principles are proposed and discussed.   Key words: Goat, meat type, crossbreeding, development
Effects of supplement and anthelmintic treatments on parasite establishment and performance of lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus Ginting, Simon P
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 3, No 2 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (749.695 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i2.104

Abstract

The effect of feeding supplement and anthelmintic treatments on the establishment of parasites and the performances of lambs was studied in 24 St . Croix x Local Sumatra Crosses infected with Haemonchus contortus larvae (L3) . The study consisted of a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement involving two levels of supplement (1 .6% and 0.5% body weight ) and two levels of larval infection (0 and 3,000 L3 initial dose followed by a 1,000 L3-weekly dose) .The supplement x infection interaction was significant (P< 0.0001) on the egg counts and total serum proteins, but not on the PCV values (P>0.10) . The interaction was resulted from the shift in the magnitude of difference between supplement or between infection level and not by the shift in the rank between treatments . The 1 .6% body weight (BW) group had lower (P<0.0001) mean egg count than the 0.5% BW group (1,588 vs. 7,880) . Consistently, the blood PCV value and total serum proteins of lambs receiving 1 .6% BW supplement were higher (P<0.0001) than the 0.5% BW supplement group (28 .3 vs . 23 .8 and 5 .2 vs . 4.6, respectively) . Infection resulted in decreased feed and nitrogen (N) intake, but had no effect on fecal-N (P>0.0001). N-excretion (fecal-N + Urine-N) was not altered (P>0.10) by Haemonchus infection, but N-retention decreased in infected lambs due to a reduction in N intake . The effect of supplement and Haemonchus infection was significant (P<0.0001) on daily gain . Lambs on the 1 .6% BW supplement group grew faster than on the 0.5% BW supplement group whether they were infected or not . Infected lamb receiving 0.5% BW supplement lost weight during the experiment . It is concluded that an approach that combines the use of anthelmintics and supplement could ameliorate the influence of gastro-intestinal parasites on the performances of lambs, and reduces the intensity of using anthelmintics in controlling the parasites .   Key words : Supplement, anthelmintics, Haemonchus contortus, lambs
Development of Goat - Palm Oil Integrated Production System : An Assessment Based on Feed Availability and Nutrient Requirements Ginting, Simon P
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 16, No 2 (2006): JUNE 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (964.223 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v16i2.859

Abstract

The integration of goats and palm oil plantation is prospective agricultural production systems that exploit the complement relationship among various components in the system . The main components are the oil palm trees, vegetation underneath the trees, processing plant of palm oil bunch, and the goat . The estimation of carrying capacity of the plantation system is based on the quantitative analysis on nutrient supply from various feed resources in the plantation system and nutrient requirements for goat production . The goat demographic parameters, such as, prolificacy, fertility and fecundity are used to estimate the goat population size, dynamics and structures . The development of production model could be based on a certain production target, such as the number of animals sold or the amount of income (demand driven approach), or based on the availability of certain resources such as feed supply (supply driven approach) . Using the demand driven approach, and considering 6000 heads of oneyear old goats to fill the Malaysian market as the production target, it is calculated that a population size of 3,636 does and 810 ha of palm oil plantation are required to meet this production target . In a typically medium-size oil palm plantation system (500 ha of oil palm plantation) with one unit of small-scale palm oil bunch processing plant ( l ton/hour), the potency to supply metabolisable energy from various feed resources in the system is 2,778,800 Mcal/year, equivalent to a carrying capacity of 5,155 Goat Units/year . This system could carry 2,951 does and 295 bucks to produce 1,116 heads of one-year old goats annually . A medium-size oil palm plantation without processing plant unit, is potential in supplying metabolisable energy of 1,983,300 Mcal/year, equivalent to a carrying capacity of 3,680 Goat Units/year . In order to fill the export market to Malaysia, a number of 10 units of medium sized plantation with small scale plant processing or a number of 17 units medium scale plantation without processing unit are required . Using similar approach, the potential of either large-scale or small-scale plantation system to produce goat in an integrated-production system could be estimated . Key words : Integration, palm oil plantation, carrying capacity, goat
The Prospect of Using Complete Feed in Goat Production: A Review on its Utility and Physical Form and Animal Responses Ginting, Simon P
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 19, No 2 (2009): JUNE 2009
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (175.83 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v19i2.923

Abstract

Complete feed is a strategic feeding system that has been widely adopted by the dairy cattle industry, but it has been rarely practised in goat enterprises. The prospect of using complete feed for goat production could be considered from two aspects, namely 1) its relevancy to the goat metabolic requirement, and 2) its potential as an effective means for maximal utilization of crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts as alternative feeds. Metabolically, the higher energy requirement and the lower gut capacity of goats due to its relatively smaller body size make this animal more adapted to feedstuffs with denser nutrient contents as typified by the complete feed. As complete feed is characteristically dry, it has potential to cause hypovolemia and induce later a lower feed consumption when fed to goats. But, this event occurs only during the initial meal and the condition returns to the normal state thereafter. Total saliva secretion tend to decrease by consuming dry feed which can cause parakeratosis, laminitis or acidosis. However, these metabolic disorder could be prevented by formulating complete feed with optimal roughage/concentrate ratio. Review from literatures showed that, when used in complete feed, the inclusion rate of several low palatability crop residues or agro-industrial ranged from 15 to 60%. The roughage/concentrate ratio was in the range of 0.25 to 3.0. Some physical characteristics are important for effective complete feed such as the particle size of roughage, the content of physically effective fibre and the form of the complete feed. Complete feed processed into pellet generally resulted in better performances. The ME and CP content of complete feed used ranged from 1800 to 2800 kcal/kg DM and from 15 to 20%, respectively. The rate of feed intake by goats receiving complete feed ranged from 2.0 to 4.9% BW, the ADG ranged from 40 to 145 g, FCR ranged from 5.2 to 13.0 and DM digestibility ranged from 62 to 81%. These parameters are all influenced by the age and physiological state and the genotype of the goat as well as the physical form and the roughage/concentrate ratio of the complete feed. The carcass quality, characteristics and fatty acid compositions of goat fed complete feed are comparatively similar to those fed conventional feed. It is concluded that complete feed for goat production should be considered as an alternative and effective feeding method to  maximize  the  utilization  of  local  feed  resources.  This  feeding  method  has  huge  potential  for  the  acceleration  of  the development of commercial goat entrepises  in the future in Indonesia.   Key words: Complete feed, goats, physical characteristics, nutritive quality
Continuous urea-molasses supplementation for Sumatra thin tail ewes grazing in rubber plantation : Reproductive performances. Ginting, Simon P; Batubara, L.P; Sanchez, M.D; Pond, K.R
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 4, No 3 (1999): SEPTEMBER 1999
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v4i3.155

Abstract

The reproductive responses of local Sumatra ewes on the continuous urea-molasses supplementation was studied in 116 ewes for 21 months. The animals were divided into two groups and randomly allocated to urea-molasses supplement and grazing in rubber plantation or grazing in rubber plantation only (control). Both groups were allowed to graze for 8 hours a day. The urea-molasses mixture contained 3% urea (kg/kg) and were fed to the supplemented ewes ad libitum. The number of lambs born from supplemented ewes were greater than control (166 vs 114 heads). This was associated with the higher (P<0.05) litter size and the shorter lambing interval of supplemented ewes compared to those of unsupplemented ewes (1.34 vs 1.24, and 216 vs 232 d, respectively). Birth weight were not different (P>0.10) between the treatments (1.79 vs 1.61 kg), but weaning weight of lambs born to the supplemented ewes were greater (P<0.05) than the unsupplemented ewes (8.90 vs 7.55 kg). The ewe’s weight after parturition and the weight of lambs weaned per year were also greater (P<0.05) in the supplemented group compared to the control (22.7 vs 20.6 kg and 20.2 vs 15.1 kg, respectively). It was concluded that urea-molasses mixture was a good feed supplement for ewes grazing in rubber plantation. The urea-molasses supplementation clearly had positive effects on ewe and lamb productivity.   Key words : Urea, molasses, ewes, reproductive performances
The nutritional quality of herbaceous legumes on goats: Intake, digestibility and nitrogen balances Ginting, Simon P; Tarigan, Andi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 10, No 4 (2005): DECEMBER 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (160.849 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v10i4.452

Abstract

The availability of forages is a critical factor that determine the sustainability of the animal-plantation production system. In this typical production system, cover crops could be an important sources of forages to support the animal production. The study is aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality (chemical compositions, intake, digestibility and N balances) of herbaceous legumes namely Arachis pintoi and Arachis glabrata having potential for used as alternative cover crops in plantation. Centerocema pubescens, a conventional cover crops used in plantation, was used as control. Twenty-one mature male goats (16-18 kg) were used in this experiment. The animals were put in individual metabolism cages, divided into three groups (7 animal per group) based on the body weight, and were randomly allocated into one of the three forages. The experiment was run in a Completely Randomized Design. The animals were allocated to an adaptation period for 14 days, followed by intake measurement for 5 days and fecal and urine collection for the next 7 days. During the fecal and urine collection forages were offered at 90% of the maximum intake. Chemical analyses showed that the DM and OM contents were relatively equal among the forages, but the crude protein content of C. pubescens (23.56%) are relatively higher than those of A. pintoi (16.94%) or of A. glabrata (15.19%) The fiber (NDF) content was also relatively higher in C. pubescens (59.37%) than in A. pintoi (16.94%) or A. glabrata (41.50%). The forage intake was highest (P<0.05) in goats fed C. pubescens (493 g/d), and were not different (P>0.05) between goats fed A. pintoi (466 g/d) or A. glabrata (453 g/d). A similar trend was seen when intake was expressed as % BW (3.80, 3.50 and 3.40, respectively) or as g/kg BW0.75 (42.4, 39.5 and 38.4, respectively). The digestion coeficient of DM (81.3%) or OM (83.5%) were highest (P<0.05) in A. pintoi and were not different (P>0.05) between A. glabrata (71.9 and 73.2%, respectively) and C. pubescens (73.7 and 74.2%, respectively). The trends were the same with the digestion coeficient of ADF and the energy. The ADF digestibility were 67.8, 55.9 and 54.5% in A. pintoi, A. glabrata and C. pubescens, respectively). The energy digestibility were 81.8, 67.5 and 69.4% in A. pintoi, A. glabrata and C. pubescens, respectively. The N balances were positive in goats fed these three forages, but the highest (P<0.05) N retention was observed in goats offered C. pubescens (17.7 g/d) as compared to those fed A. pintoi (9.4 g/d) or A. glabrata (7.7 g/d). The higher intake level in goats fed C. pubescens and its higher N content seemed to be the main reason for the highest N retention. It is concluded that based on these nutritive parameters, C. Pubescens has superior nutritive quality compared to A. pintoi and A. glabrata, while the A. pintoi seemed to be better than the A. glabrata.     Key Words: Legumes, Cover Crops, Nutritive Quality, Goats
Research Strategy in Nutrition and Feeding Systems for Meat Goat Production Ginting, Simon P; Batubara, Leo P
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 13, No 1 (2003)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (134.878 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v13i1.791

Abstract

The capability of ruminant animals, including goats to transform the non-food materials into high quality animal proteins for human consumption through a complex digestive and metabolic system put these animals into a unique position in the food- chain system. However, this comparative advantage is not without cost, since when compared to mono-gastric animals, the ruminant is less efficient in producing every unit of protein or energy from each unit of feed they consumed. Therefore, research programme or technology that aims to improve the efficiency of utilization of the various non-food materials by goats should be the priority. Basically, the research programmes in goat feeding and nutrition should be oriented into the real needs of the potential beneficiaries or users. In accordance to this, it is a pre-requisite to identify and to understand the structure and the characteristics of goat production systems that existed. Most of goat production system in Indonesia is typically small scale operation (92%), which operates in a low input system. It is common that under this type of production system, the flow products such as manure or/and kids  are the main goals. Consequently, the stability of feed supply throught the year to at least maintain the existing population become more important than the quality of feeds that fulfill the standard requirement for nutrients. The research programme for this group of goat production should be oriented to (1) developing production system that guarantees the supply  of  feed  throught  the  year;  (2)  maximizing the  potential  benefit  of  the  “compensatory growth”  phenomenon; (3) minimising the effects of anti nutritional factors contained in various forages. Under the commercial production type that operates in a high input system, the final products such as meat is the main goal. Under this production system the rate of productivity of (growth rate, reproduction rate, feed conversion) of individual animas become very important. The research program for this commercial operation should be oriented into (1) developing of various formulae based on non-conventional feeds; (2) optimising rumen function to support maximum fermentative digestion; (3) optimising the protein/energy ratio in the rumen; (4) stimulating the production of glucogenic volatile fatty acid production in the rumen; (5) manipulating the microbial population in the rumen (defaunation); and (6) stimulating the development and colonization of microbial for fiber fermentation.   Key words: Goats, feeding system
Effects of supplement and anthelmintic treatments on parasite establishment and performance of lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus Ginting, Simon P
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 2 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (749.695 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i2.104

Abstract

The effect of feeding supplement and anthelmintic treatments on the establishment of parasites and the performances of lambs was studied in 24 St . Croix x Local Sumatra Crosses infected with Haemonchus contortus larvae (L3) . The study consisted of a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement involving two levels of supplement (1 .6% and 0.5% body weight ) and two levels of larval infection (0 and 3,000 L3 initial dose followed by a 1,000 L3-weekly dose) .The supplement x infection interaction was significant (P< 0.0001) on the egg counts and total serum proteins, but not on the PCV values (P>0.10) . The interaction was resulted from the shift in the magnitude of difference between supplement or between infection level and not by the shift in the rank between treatments . The 1 .6% body weight (BW) group had lower (P<0.0001) mean egg count than the 0.5% BW group (1,588 vs. 7,880) . Consistently, the blood PCV value and total serum proteins of lambs receiving 1 .6% BW supplement were higher (P<0.0001) than the 0.5% BW supplement group (28 .3 vs . 23 .8 and 5 .2 vs . 4.6, respectively) . Infection resulted in decreased feed and nitrogen (N) intake, but had no effect on fecal-N (P>0.0001). N-excretion (fecal-N + Urine-N) was not altered (P>0.10) by Haemonchus infection, but N-retention decreased in infected lambs due to a reduction in N intake . The effect of supplement and Haemonchus infection was significant (P<0.0001) on daily gain . Lambs on the 1 .6% BW supplement group grew faster than on the 0.5% BW supplement group whether they were infected or not . Infected lamb receiving 0.5% BW supplement lost weight during the experiment . It is concluded that an approach that combines the use of anthelmintics and supplement could ameliorate the influence of gastro-intestinal parasites on the performances of lambs, and reduces the intensity of using anthelmintics in controlling the parasites .   Key words : Supplement, anthelmintics, Haemonchus contortus, lambs