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Red Guava Leaf Harvesting Impact on Flavonoid Optimation in Different Growth Phases AZIZ, SANDRA ARIFIN; GHULAMAHDI, MUNIF
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 18, No 2 (2011): June 2011
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Harvesting process is a critical time to identify the quality of raw material for traditional medicine. The time and harvesting techniques, drying process after harvesting, and processing to make the simplicia, are the crucial role to make the good quality of the natural product. On the other hand, there is a lack of general understanding and appreciation about the processes involved in governing shoot and tree growth and development, i.e. red guava.  The research objective was to evaluate the influence of leaf harvesting and growth phases on red guava for flavonoid production as antioxidant. Randomized factorial block design in time were laid out with two factors and followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. The treatments were the amount of leaf  harvested on tertiary branches (0, 25, 50, and 100%) and growth phases of the plant (vegetative and generative). Leaf harvesting 25% on tertiary branches significantly increased the leaf number (766.3 tree-1) and the number of new quarternary branches, decreasing leaf area index (LAI) and leaf dry weight at the end of the experiment (22 weeks of observation/WO).  The highest leaf dry weight (156.94 g tree-1) and LAI (0.47) was found in harvesting 25% tertiary branches.  Harvesting 100% leaf on tertiary branches in vegetative phase significantly produced the lowest flavonoid production (7.82 g tree-1). The result suggested that flavonoid production from red guava leaves should be done by harvesting 50% leaf on tertiary branches in generative phase can be used to produce the highest flavonoid (89.90 g tree-1).
Pengaruh Konsentrasi Besi dalam Larutan Hara terhadap Gejala Keracunan Besi dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman Padi Noor, Aidi; Lubis, Iskandar; Ghulamahdi, Munif; Chozin, Muhammad Achmad; Anwar, Khairil; Wirnas, Desta
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 2 (2012): JURNAL AGONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Iron (Fe) toxicity is a major constraint in rice production that decreases yield due to high level of soluble Fe. The aims of this experiement were to study the effect of particular Fe concentrations in nutrient solution on rice growth, and to determine Fe concentration in nutrient solution that caused light, moderate, and severe Fe toxiciy symptom. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, Bogor Agricultural University from May to July 2010. A randomized block design with two factors and three replications were used in this study. The first factor was Fe concentration in the medium solution (2, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600 ppm Fe), and second factor was rice genotypes (IR64, Margasari). The results showed the higher Fe concentration in the solution resulted in higher scores of iron toxicity symptoms, higher Fe levels in the plant, and caused stunted growth of rice plants. Levels of Fe in a solution of ≥ 200 ppm Fe inhibited plant growth. Iron toxicity symptom in Margasari was lower than the IR64 varieties, especially at concentrations of 200 and 400 ppm. According to the regression equation Y = 0.022X+ 1849, Fe concentration in the solution which caused light Fe toxicity symptom (score ≤ 3) was ≤ 52 ppm Fe, moderate (score = 5) was 143 ppm Fe, heavy (score = 7) was 234 ppm Fe, and severe (score ≥ 9) was ≥ 325 ppm Fe. Keywords: iron toxicity symptoms, iron concentration, rice
Pengaruh Alelopati Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) terhadap Perkecambahan Benih Jagung, Tomat dan Padi Gogo Raden, Ince; Purwoko, Bambang S.; Santosa, Edi; Hariyadi, ,; Ghulamahdi, Munif
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 36, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

  The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of extract of leaves, seed and root of physic nut on the germination of corn, tomato, and upland rice. Research was conducted by using Complete Randomized Block Design with two factors, i.e., plant organ (leaves, seed and root) and species (corn, tomato and upland rice). The results showed that extract of 36 g dried organ/200 ml water (0.18 g/ml water) affected seed germination of corn, tomato, and upland rice. Extract of leaves tended to reduce percentage of corn seed germination (55.30% vs 70.68%), and extract of root to reduce germination of tomato and upland rice, 52.70% and 68.67%, compared to control 76% and 84%, respectively.   Key words:  Plant organ extract, physic nut, germination  
Karakteristik Daun Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) dan Hubungannya dengan Fotosintesis Raden, Ince; Purwoko, Bambang S.; Hariyadi, ,; Ghulamahdi, Munif; Santosa, Edi
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 36, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The objective of this research was to study the morphology and physiology of jatropha leaves and its relation to photosynthesis. Research was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with single factor,  i.e., leaf ages at the canopy with ten replications. The results showed that jatropha had phyllotaxy 5/13 with  angular divergence 1380. In early growing leaf enlarged sharply and then constant after 9 week, remaining green for 14 weeks.  Chlorophyll a, b, and total achieved maximum at 9 week, i.e., 0.45 g/cm2, 0.19 g/cm2, and 0.62 g/cm2, respectively. Photosynthesic rate was maximum at 6 week, i.e., 8.99 µmol/m2/s, while number of  stomata was maximum at 9 week (289.47 mm2). This finding implies that leaf number 11 to 13 or age 6 week after emergence could be used as reference for photosynthetic evaluation.   Key words:  Jatropha curcas L., leaf arrangement, photosynthetic, reference leaf
The Effects of Cutting Heights and Intervals of Defoliation on Productivity and Nutrient Content of Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick Anis, Selvie Diana; Chozin, Muhamad Ahmad; Hardjosoewignyo, Soedarmaji; Ghulamahdi, Munif; Sudrajat, ,
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 3 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The productivity of forage is strongly  influenced  by cutting height  and  interval of defoliation.   Experiment was conducted at the Research Institute for Industrial Plants and Other Palm (BALITKA) Manado since June 2008 until April 2009.  The objective of the experiment was to find out the effects of intensity and intervals of defoliation on dry weight production and the quality of nutrients.  The experiment was arranged in factorial RCBD. The intensity of defoliation was based  on  cutting  height,  i.e.  5, 10, 15 cm,  whereas the intervals of defoliation were 30, 45, 60 day and 456.54 Degree Days (DD). The data of dry weight production, leaf stem ratio, nutrient quality were collected. The results showed that there were  significant effects of  treatments on  all  parameters. Productivity of  B. humidicola  in terms  of high dry weight yield, high leaf  stem  ratio and crude protein,  low  crude fiber and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content were found in the interaction of intensity 10 cm with the interval of defoliation  among  the  vegetative development  stage of 30 and 45 days, as well as the interval of defoliation  based  on  heat unit accumulation of  456.54 DD.   The research implies  that a cutting height at 10 cm  and  interval of  defoliation  as mentioned  above  is ideal for B. humidicola.  Utilization of growing degree days (GDD) to determine the appropriate time for defoliation is considerable under this experiment.   Keywords: B.  humidicola, defoliation, forage, nutrient,  productivity      
Pengaruh Tinggi Pangkasan Batang Utama dan Jumlah Cabang Primer yang Dipelihara terhadap Produksi Minyak Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) Raden, Ince; Purwoko, Bambang S.; Hariyadi, ,; Ghulamahdi, Munif; Santosa, Edi
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 37, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The objective of this research was to study shoot architecture in relation to growth, increase production and seed oil content through various stem pruning and number of primary branches. This research was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with single factor. It consisted of ten treatments, i.e., K=kontrol, T20= height of stem pruning at 20 cm from soil and without control on number of primary branches, T20-2=height of stem pruning at 20 cm from soil and two primary branches, T20-3= height of stem pruning at 20 cm and three primary branches, T30= height of stem pruning at 30 cm and without control on number of primary branches, T30-2= height of stem pruning at 30 cm and two primary branches, T30-3=height of stem pruning 30 cm and three primary branches, T40=height of stem pruning at 40 cm and without control on number of  primary branches, T40-2=height of stem pruning at 40 cm and two primary branches, and T40-3=height of stem pruning 40 cm and three primary branches. The results showed that stem pruning increased number of primary branches. The highest seed oil content and seed production was achieved T40 and T30-3 treatments i.e., 323.81 g/plant or 0.810 ton/ha and 320.61 g/plant or 0.802 ton/ha with seed oil yield 244.56 kg/ha and 276.61 kg/ha, respectively.   Key words : Jatropha curcas L., seed oil content, pruning, primary branches
Pengaruh Cekaman Kekeringan dan Umur Panen Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Kandungan Xanthorrhizol Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza roxb.) Khaerana, ,; Ghulamahdi, Munif; Purwakusumah, Edi Djauhari
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 36, No 3 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The research was conducted from November 2005 until May 2006 to determine growth and production of the Curcuma xanthorrhiza based on agronomical, physiological variables, and bioactive (xanthorrhizol) content.  The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with two factors and three replications.  The first factor consisted of 4 level of drought stress i.e: 100% field capacity (FC) (as control), 50% FC started at 2 weeks before harvesting (wbh),  50% FC started at 4 wbh,  and 50% FC started at 6 wbh.  The second factor comprised of 2 harvest times i.e. 5 months and 7 months.  The result showed that drought stress decreased plant growth and productivity, but increased accumulation of proline.  The harvesting time significantly increased the agronomic character, but did not significantly increase proline content.  The older samples contained more xanthorrhizol than the younger samples.   Key words: Curcuma xanthorrhiza, drought stress, harvesting time, plant growth,  xanthorrhizol.
The Effect of Phosphorus Fertilization and Variety on The Growth and Production of Soybean (Glycine m a (L.) Merr) Under Saturated Soil Culture Ghulamahdi, Munif; Rumawas, Fred; Wiroatmodjo, Joedojono; Koswara, Jajah
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 14, No 1 (1991): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Abstract

The objective of this expaiment was to study the effect of phosphorus fertilization on the growth and production of Americana and Lokon under saturated soil culture. The experiment was conducted at the Cikarawang Experimental Station, IPB, on a Latosol, from November 1988 until April 1989. Soybean yield did not respond to the phosphorus application, and maybe due to improved soil P availability under saturated condition. Leaf P concentrations at 9 weeks were sufficient (0.303 to 0.357%) for all levels of treatment. Active nodule growth was longer under saturated soil culture than conventional irrigation. Maximum active nodule growth under conventional culture was reached at 6 weeks, but under saturated soil culture was still increasing between 6 to 9 weeks from 0.175 to 0.342 g/plant for Americana and from 0.162 to 0.260 g/plant for Lokon. Increase of active nodule dry weight was followed by increase of leaf N concentration between 6 to 9 weeks from 3.366 to 3.674% for Americana, and from 3.382 to 3.695% for Lokon. Americana was more tolerant than Lokon to saturated soil culture. Number of Tied pods, 100- sads weight, and seed dry weight/plot of Americana were bigger than Lokon.
Studi Serapan Hara N, P, K dan Potensi Hasil Lima Varietas Padi Sawah (Oryza sativa L.) pada Pemupukan Anorganik dan Organik Sugiyanta, ,; Rumawas, Fred; Chozin, M. A.; Mugnisyah, Wahju Qamara; Ghulamahdi, Munif
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 36, No 3 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The objective of the research was to study the nutrition uptake (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium,) and the grain production of five rice varieties representing modern, new plant type and local varieties under application of inorganic, organic and combined inorganic-organic fertilization. Five rice varieties were Way Apoburu and IR-64 (modern varieties), Midun and Sarinah (local varieties from Sukabumi and Garut, respectively), and Fatmawati (new plant type variety).  Five fertilizer treatments were (1) full recommendation dosage of inorganic fertilizer (250 kg urea/ha, 100 kg SP-36/ha, and 100 kg KCl/ha), (2) ¼ recommendation dose of inorganic fertilizer + rice straw, (3) ½ recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer + rice straw, (4) rice straw, and (5) green manure from Crotalaria juncea biomass. The results showed that there was no specific response of rice varieties to the fertilization treatments, even though there was specific nutrient uptake pattern and yield of each variety, and there was significant effect of fertilizer treatment to nutrient uptake and rice yield. Nutrient uptake and grain yield indicated that nutrient imobilisation occurred at 1stseason, however the availability of N, P, K nutrients increased at 2nd and 3rdseason on rice straw and green manure treatments. Rice straw application caused lower nutrient uptake and grain yield than full dosage inorganic fertilizer at 1st season but both were not significantly different at 2nd and 3rdseason.  Application of rice straw with  ½ dosage of inorganic fertilizers was not significantly different from full dosage of inorganic fertilizers in nutrient uptake and grain yield. Modern varieties showed higher level of N absorption than that of new  type variety although it was not significantly different with that of local varieties, whereas the P and K uptake of modern varieties was lower than that of local and new plant type varieties. The modern varieties also showed higher level of dry grain per hill than that of local and new plant type varieties. However yield per ha of all varieties tended to be similar.   Key words: uptake, efficiency, mineral nutrition, variety, lowland rice
Aktivitas Nitrogenase, Serapan Hara dan Pertumbuhan Dua Varietas Kedelai pada Kondisi Jenuh Air dan Kering Ghulamahdi, Munif; Aziz, Sandra Arifin; Melati, Maya; Dewi, Nurwita; Rais, Sri Astuti
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 34, No 1 (2006): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The objective of this experiment was to study nitrogenase activity, nutrient uptake, and growth of two soybean varieties under saturated and dry soil conditions. The experiment was conducted in the plastic house at IPB Experimental Station, Babakan Sawah, Bogor, from August to November 2001. The experiment used the complete randomized design with four replications. The first factor was variety, consisted of Wilis and Bromo. The second factor was water condition, consisted of continuous saturated, saturated-dry, and dry conditions. Wilis and Bromo were not significantly different in nitrogenase activity; P and K uptake; nodule, stalk, leaf, pod, and seed dry weight. Wilis and Bromo were significantly different in root dry weight and leaf N uptake at 3 weeks after planting. Root dry weight and leaf N uptake of Wilis was lower than those of Bromo.The levels of nitrogenase activity, nutrient uptake, and plant weight under different water conditions were in the following order, from low to high, dry, saturated-dry, continuous. Under continuous saturated condition, nitrogenase activity, N uptake, P uptake, K uptake, nodule, root, stalk, leaf, and pod dry weight were 6800 %, 265 %, 320 %, 288 %, 1386 %, 362 %, 289 %, 265 %, 329 % of those under dry condition, respectively at 9 weeks after planting.    Key words:  Soybean, saturated culture, dry culture, nitrogenase activity, nutrient uptake