Articles

The Sape Strait Cephalopod Resource and Its Response to Climate Variability Ghofar, Abdul
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 11, No 2 (2006): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Dari tujuh jenis cephalopoda yang terdapat di Selat Sape, setiap tahunnya empat jenis cumi-cumi mendominasi (90%) tangkapan cephalopoda. Perikanan cumi-cumi dideskripsikan, terutama berkaitan dengan terjadinya fluktuasi tangkapan yang besar karena efek-ganda dari kegiatan penangkapan dan variabilitas iklim. Dua jenis alat tangkap utama, Bagan-Prahu dan Jala-Oras distandarisasi sebelum dipakai dalam analisis tangkapan-upaya penangkapan, sedangkan variabilitas iklim diwakili dengan indeks osilasi selatan (SOI). Suatu model dikonstruksidengan cara menginkorporasikan nilai rata-rata tahunan SOI, upaya penangkapan dan tangkapan cumi-cumi. Model ini dapat dipergunakan dalam memperkirakan tangkapan cumi-cumi. Penggunaannya untuk memprediksi dan mengelola perikanan cumi-cumi memerlukan dilakukannya secara teratur (bulanan) monitoring tangkapan, tingkat upaya penangkapan dan SOI. Implikasi hasil kajian ini untuk riset dan pengelolaan dibahas dalam tulisan ini.Kata kunci: cephalopoda, cumi-cumi, variabilitas iklim, ENSO, indeks osilasi selatanOf seven cephalopod species occurring in the Sape Strait, four species of squid constitute 90% of the annual cephalopod catches. The squid fishery is described, with emphasis on its fluctuating catches due to thecombined effects of fishing and climate variability. Two most important fishing gears, ‘Bagan Prahu’ (boat raft net) and ‘Jala Oras’ (light lured payang) were used and standardized in catch and fishing effort analysis. The southern oscillation index (SOI) was used to represent the climate variability component. A model was then developed by means of incorporating the SOI, fishing effort and squid catch. Average annual values of these three components were used to construct the model. The model can be a useful tool for predicting the squid catches. Its use for forecasting and managing the fishery requires regular monitoring the catch, fishing effort and the SOI, preferably monthly. Research and management implication of this finding is discussed.Key words: cephalopod, squid, climate variability, ENSO, southern oscillation index
Perendaman pada Waktu dan Sumber Air yang Berbeda Terhadap Mortalitas dan Penempelan Balanus spp. Azizah, Ria; Ghofar, Abdul
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 11, No 1 (2006): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui mortalitas teritip (Balanus spp.) pada kolektor kayu yang mendapat waktu perendaman yang berbeda dan efek perendaman kayu dalam air tawar terhadap penempelan dan pelepasan teritip (Balanus spp.). Teritip (Balanus spp.) yang dipakai dalam penelitian berasal dari perairan Tambak Lorok di sekitar muara sungai Banjir Kanal Timur. Secara garis besar penelitian terbagi 2 : (1) Pengamatan di lapangan untuk pengumpulan teritip dan (2) Percobaan (indoor) untuk penglepasan teritip dan pengujian kekuatan kayu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lama perendaman teritip dalam air tawar berpengaruh nyata terhadap mortalitas teritip. Penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa perendaman kolektor kayu dalam air sungai selama 4 minggu sebelum dipasang sebagai kolektor dapat menurunkan penempelan larva sampai 10–20%. Hal ini dapat memberikan implikasi positif dalam pemeliharaan perahu nelayan. Kayu-kayu yang sebelumnya direndam dalam air tawar tidak ditempeli teritip sampai hari ke-8, sedangkan pada kayu yang sebelumnya tidak direndam, sudah ditempeli teritip pada hari ke-2. Teritip yang sudah mati lebih mudah lepas  cangkangnya pada permukaan kayu yang  sebelum dipasang sebagai kolektor direndam dahulu dalam air sungai (56 %), dibanding pada kayu yang tidak direndam (1,6 %). Hasil pengujian material menunjukkan bahwa kekuatan kayu sebelum dan sesudah perendaman air tawar relatif konstan. Kata kunci : perendaman, Balanus spp., mortalitas, penempelan An experiment was conducted with aims to investigate mortality of the barnacle exposed to different time regimes in freshwater dan to  investigate the preventive effects of freshwater-dipping in wooden-plates upon the attachment of cyprids/larvae of the acorn-bernacles Balanus spp. The bernacles were collective from the coastal site of  Tambak Lorok in the vicinity of the river mouth Banjir Kanal Timur. The experiments was divided into 2 parts : filed observation and material collection at Tambak Lorok, and indoor experiment. It was shown that dipping of the wooden plates in river for weeks prior to collector setting may reduce the attachment of cyprid larvae by 10–20%. This result might have positive implication in the maintenance of wooden fishing boots. The wooden materials (dipped in river water prior to usage) may not be attached by cyprids until day-8, compared to day-2 in untreated materials. It was also evident that exposure time in freshwater, both in river water and well-water have highly significant effect upon the mortality of barnacle. The removal of the dead barnacle shells occurred in much greater numbers on the wooden plates dipped in river water prior to setting up as larval collector (56 %), than in untreated materials (1,6 %). The result of material tests showed that the strenght of the wooden materials remained relatively constant prior and after freshwater exposure.Key words: dipping, Balanus spp., attachment, mortality
Marine Fisheries Management Plan in Indonesia a Case Study of the Bali Strait Fishery Ghofar, Abdul
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 10, No 4 (2005): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Pengelolaan perikanan laut di Selat Bali mencakup wilayah berairan seluas 2,500km2 Selat Bali terutama dipengaruhi oleh perairan dari Samodera Hindia, dan hampir tidak ada pengaruh dari laut Flores dan laut Bali. Perikanan di Selat Bali bersifat perikanan tunggal (purse seine) dan mempunyai target yang jelas (ikan lemuru) serta menerapkan teknologi yang relatif telah maju. Meskipun begitu, secara alamiah perikanan Selat Bali melibatkan 2 propinsi Bali dan Jawa Timur, dan meliputi 4 kabupaten, sehingga administrasi maupun pendekatan-pendekatan yang dilakukan cukup kompleks. Perencanaan dan pengelolaan perikanan di Selat Bali sampai dewasa ini lebih menitikberatkan pada usaha-bersama para pemangku kepentingan. Sementara hal itu secara formal dapat diterima, perkembangan dalam perikanan terakhir membuktikan perlunya keterlibatan secara riil masyarakat pesisir/nelayan dalam proses perencanaan dan pengelolaan sejak awal. Selain itu diperlukan pengkajian sumberdaya perikanan secara partisipatif, dimana metode standard pengkajian ilmiah dimudahkan sedemikian sehingga masyarakat nelayan dapat menganalisis dan mempraktekkan sendiri pada sumberdaya,ekosistem dan kehidupan mereka. Hanya dengan cara demikian dapat diharapkan timbulnya rasa kepemilikan mereka atas sumberdaya dan ekosistem pendukungnya. Hal ini akan memacu kesadaran akan keberlanjutan sumberdaya, yang pada gilirannya akan menentukan nasib usaha perikanan, pendapatan dan kehidupan mereka.Kata kunci: Rencana Pengelolaan Perikanan, proses partisipatif, kepemilikan, berkelanjutan, perikananbertanggungjawabThe marine fisheries management of the Bali Strait covers an area of about 2,500km2. The Bali Strait is primarily influenced by the relatively deeper Indian Ocean - than the Flores and Bali seas. The Bali Strait fishery is mono-typed (purse seine), clearly targeted (lemuru, Oil Sardine), and technologically advanced. However, the nature of the presence of two provinces for the Bali Strait (and including 4 districts) brings about a rather complicated administration procedures and approach. It can be remarked that the present management putmore weight on the collaborative effort among all stakeholders. While it is formally acceptable, recent development in the fishery clearly suggests an increasing need of the involvement of fishing communities inplanning and management processes, at its earliest stage. This is particularly vital to be applied in the Bali Strait. In addition there is an urgent need to apply participatory research in the fishery, so that standardscientific fisheries research methodology should be lowered-down one level in order that the fishers can understand and perform simple analysis of their own natural resources, ecosystem and livelihood. Only withthese two actions can the fishers be expected to have the ownership and to “help themselves” toward sustainability of marine resources and securing their fishery, improving their welfare and livelihood.Key words: Fisheries Management Plan, participatory process, ownership, sustainability, responsible fisheries
Co-existence in Small-pelagic Fish Resources of The South Coast of East Java, Straits of Bali, Alas and Sape - Indonesia Ghofar, Abdul
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 10, No 3 (2005): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Perikanan pelagik kecil dari empat ekosistem di Indonesia diperbandingkan, meliputi perairan pantai di sebelah selatan Jawa Timur, Selat Bali, Selat Alas dan Selat Sape. Pengkajian dimaksudkan untuk menentukan adatidaknya, dan kalau ada –bagaimana sifatnya, interaksi antar jenis-jenis ikan utama, dan antar ke empat perairan tersebut, sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan dalam mempertimbangkan pengembangan riset dan pengelolaan sumberdaya hayati laut pada masa-masa mendatang. Pengkajian ini menggunakan data tangkapan ikan dengan rentang-waktu 28 tahun, mulai 1976 sampai 2003, yang dikumpulkan dari pusat-pusat pendaratan ikan dan Dinas-dinas Kelautan dan Perikanan tingkat I dan Tingkat II di wilayah studi. Hasil pengkajian menunjukkan dengan jelas adanya ko-eksistensi antar sumberdaya ikan pelagis kecil di ke empat wilayah perairan. Interaksi kelompok jenis antar ke empat ekosistem, serta implikasinya terhadap riset kelautan dan perikanan dibahas pula dalam tulisan ini.Kata kunci: ikan pelagik kecil, indeks osilasi selatan, aliran-deras Indonesia, upwellingSmall pelagic fisheries of four ecosystems in Indonesia are compared, covering the south coast of East Java, Bali Strait, Alas Strait and Sape Strait, to explore potential interactions between major species, and ofdifferent localities, of small pelagic components caught, which may then be taken into fisheries research and management considerations. A 28-years catch data time series used for analysis were taken from major fishing harbours, landing places and fisheries offices, and go back as far as 1976-2003. There is a clear co-existence in the overall small pelagic resources within the areas studied. Interactions of the species group between ecosystems and their substantial implication in marine and fisheries research are also discussed in this paper.Key words: small pelagics, southern oscillation index, Indonesian through-flow, upwelling
ENSO Effects on The Alas Strait Squid Resource and Fishery Ghofar, Abdul
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 10, No 2 (2005): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Tulisan ini mendeskripsikan perikanan cumi-cumi di Selat Alas, khususnya berkaitan dengan fluktuasi tangkapan yang terjadi karena pengaruh aktivitas penangkapan dan variabilitas iklim. Cumi-cumi ditangkap dengan jalaoras (sejenis payang dengan lampu sebagai alat bantu mengumpulkan  cumi-cumi); tangkapan dan alat tangkap inilah yang dipakai dalam analisis. 90% tangkapan cephalopoda berupa cumi-cumi yang terdiri dari 5 spesies.Indeks osilasi selatan (SOI) dipakai sebagai parameter yang mewakili variabilitas iklim. Satu set data 44 tahun (1960-2003), mengenai SOI, upaya penangkapan dan tangkapan cumi-cumi dianalisis. Diperoleh korelasi yang sangat kuat (p>0.001) antara ketiga komponen. Dengan memasukkan ketiga komponen tersebut, suatu model perikanan cumi-cumi untuk Selat Alas dikembangkan. Untuk mengkonstruksi model tersebut dipergunakan nilairata-rata tahunan untuk SOI dan upaya penangkapan. Model yang dihasilkan dapat dipergunakan untuk memprediksi tangkapan cumi-cumi. Meskipun demikian penggunaannya untuk peramalan dan pengelolaan perikanan haruslah hati-hati. Penggunaan model secara efektif mensyaratkan dilakukannya monitoring terhadapketiga komponen diatas setiap bulan. Disarankan cara-cara meningkatkan pengelolaan perikanan cumi-cumi, khususnya sehubungan dengan riset, perencanaan dan pengelolaan, semuanya secara partisipatif, sebagai upaya untuk meningkatkan rasa-memiliki masyarakat terhadap sumberdaya perikanan cumi-cumi.Kata kunci: cumi-cumi, variabilitas iklim, ENSO, indeks osilasi selatan The Alas Strait squid fishery is described, with emphasis on its fluctuating catches due to the combined effects of fishing and climate variability. The fishery almost exclusively employs ‘jala oras’ (light-lured payangtype fishing gears), which was used in catch and fishing effort analysis. Five squid species constitute 95% of the cumulative annual cephalopod catches. The southern oscillation index (SOI) was used to represent the climate variability component. A 44-year data set, starting from 1960 to 2003, comprising the SOI, fishing effort and squid catches was used in the analysis. There is a very strong correlation (p>0.001) between the three components. A model for the Alas Strait squid fishery was therefore developed by means of incorporating these three components. Average annual values of SOI and fishing effort were used to construct the model.The model can be a useful tool for predicting the squid catches. However, it should be carefully used forforecasting and managing the fishery. In order to effectively used the model, monitoring the catch, fishing effort and the SOI should be carried out, preferably monthly. A suggestion for improving the fishery management is outlined, involving participatory fishery research, planning and management,. in an attempt to enhance the ownership of the fishery.Key words: squid, climate variability, ENSO, southern oscillation index
Anoda Pb dan Gel Elektrolit Untuk Propulsi Kapal Selam Saputra, Hens; Rosjidi, Mochamad; Ghofar, Abdul; Tandirerung, Murbantan; Ismail, Mochammad; Islam Nurwantoro, Dorit Bayu
Majalah Ilmiah Pengkajian Industri Vol 11, No 2 (2017): Majalah Ilmiah Pengkajian Industri
Publisher : BPPT

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29122/mipi.v11i2.946

Abstract

Battery is the most important component in the sub marine energy system. Up to now, majority of the sub marine are still using lead acid battery as the power source or propulsion, due to more safe in application as very high capacity of single cell (i.e. 10.000 – 15.000 Ah). The drawbacks of aqueous based battery, which utilize liquid electrolyte, are because of having produced the hydrogen gas during charging process, in which it caused the electrolyte solution to become  dry and reduced the performance of battery. In addition that the hydrogen gas generated in the sub marine was dangerous. Therefore, the aim of  this research is how to reduce or eliminate of those drawbacks by modifying kind of the liquid electrolyte by using gel electrolyte. The gel electrolyte was synthesized to reduce the evaporation of electrolyte and to avoid the leaking when submarine maneuver.  The gel electrolyte  was made by using inorganic nanoporous MCM-41. It was synthesized by hydrothermal method, using Tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS) as silica sources, Cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as organic template and H2SO4 as catalyst. The MCM-41 lead acid battery gave a result of  OCV ca. 2,1 V.
THE BIOLOGY OF SPINELESS CUTTLEFISH Sepiella inermis d’Orbigny IN THE NORT COASTAL WATER OF JAVA Ghofar, Abdul
JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 1, No 3 (1998): Volume 1, Number 3, Year 1998
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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A study was carried out to investigate the length-weight relationship, reproductive aspect, growth, and the relationship between beaks and body size of the spineless cuttlefish, Sepiella inermis d’Orbigny in the north coastal water of Java. The length-weight relationship varies relation to sexes; the slopes (b) are 2.147 for male and 2.436 for female, implying that the female attains a larger size at the same length. The fecundity of the species ranges from 145 to 225 eggs (taken by means of direct egg counting from individual having mantle length of 73-92 mm). The length at first maturity was estimate to be smaller in the male (73.24 mm) than in the female (91.63 mm). A growth model of the species is derived, based upon the data cuttlebone striations and mantle length. The life span of the species is estimated to be around 1 year, with a maximum mantle length of about 140 mm. The species grows rapidly, with curvature parameter of 2.413 yr1, and a hypothetical age t0 of -0.01 yr1. Lower hood length of the beaks show a strong, positive linear and exponential relationships respectively with mantle length and total body weight. Their potential use for biomass estimation, and for tropho-dynamic studies in the coastal water are indicated.
INDONESIAN SEAS CEPHALOPODS : A COLLECTION OF FISHERIES LABORATORIES DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY Ghofar, Abdul
JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 2, No 2 (1999): Volume 2, Number 2, Year 1999
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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A Study was conducted to describe the cephalopod fauna their regional distribution in the Indonesian seas. From specimen collection carried out since 1985 throughout the region, fourty four species were identified. The collection represents 11 loliginid squid, 3 sepiolids, 5 ommastrephids, 13 sepiids, 7 octopods, 2 argonautids,        2 nautiloids and 1 spirulid. Eleven identified species (or 25% of total) are evident to show a wide range of regional distribution, i.e. Loligo edulis, L. chinensis, L.duvauceli, L.sumatrensis, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Abralia spaercki, Sepia latimanus, S.aculeata, S. pharaonis and Sepiella inermis,    
CEPHALOPOD RESOURCES OF THE SOTH SULAWESI SEAS Ghofar, Abdul
JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 1, No 2 (1998): Volume 1, Number 2, Year 1998
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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A study was conducted in South Sulawesi including Takaboberate Islands and adjacent areas from October 1994 to March 1995 to describe the cephalopod fauna in the area and to assess the status of their utilization. Six major observations and specimen collection were carried out around Pulau-pulau Selayar, Rajuni, Tinanja, Taka Lamungan, Tarupa and landing places in Ujung Pandang and Pare-pare. Most observations were made by means of snorkeling. Identification of specimens were carried out upon fresh specimens, which were then preserved in 4% formalin for 1-2 day depending on their size, prior to transporting for further laboratory observations and deposition. Fifteen species of cephalopods, representing 4 species of the family Loliginidae, 1 species of Enoploteuthidae, 7 species of Sepiidae, 1 species of Octopodidae, and 2 species of Nautilidae were identified. During the survey, spawns of 2 species of family Sepiidae were also collected, however there were no strong evidence of the occurrence of spawning ground for the species in the area, at least during the period of survey. The MSY for squid was estimated to be 1.840 ton per year, corresponding to an optimum effort of 4.800 bagam-prahu. Further increase intensity is possible, although a cautious management required, including continuous monitoring of the fishery and squid biology.
THE BEAK AND MORPHOMETRY OF THE BIGFIN REEF SQUID Sepioteuthis lessoniana LESSON IN EASTERN INDONESIAN SEAS Ghofar, Abdul
JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 1, No 1 (1997): Volume 1, Number 1, Year 1997
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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The study aims to investigating the morphometric and beaks relationships in the Bigfin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson 1830. It is shown that fin length and tentacle length linearly correlates with dorsal mantle length. Unlike fin-mantle relation which exhibits no sexual differences, tentacle tends to develop relatively more rapidly in female when mantle attains 70 mm. It is also evident that dorsal mantle length linearly correlates with lower hood length, with slope (b) and intercept (a) of 30.3 and 4.57, respectively. Logarithmic relationship is found between total body weight and lower hood length, with corresponding values of 2.84 and 0.611. Their application for coastal cephalopod biomass estimation from beaks is discussed.
Co-Authors - Djuwito ., Nawawi ., Poniman Abubakar, Usman Achsin, M Adi Hidayat Pradana Agus Firmansyah Akbar, Ma'ruf Akhmad Affandi, Akhmad Ana Pratiwi, Ana Anhar Solichin ASHARI - Bambang Purnomosidhi Bambang Subroto Bram Setyadji, Bram Budi Nugraha, Budi Churun Ain Damar Nusawicaksono Kurniawan, Damar Nusawicaksono Daryumi Daryumi, Daryumi Desty Wahyuni Ginting Dian Wijayanto Djuwito Djuwito Duto Nugroho, Duto Dwi Rinda Sulistiowati Eko Ganis Sukoharsono Erika Kurniawati, Erika Erwin Saraswati Fajrur Rohman, Fajrur Firtasari Simanullang, Firtasari Galuh Kirana Anindhita Harmasnida Rachma, Harmasnida Henny Liestiana, Henny Hens Saputra Herin Mawarti HUda, Hakim Miftahul Ika Rianita Azizah, Ika Rianita Ikhwan, Ahmad Nur Imam Subekti Islam Nurwantoro, Dorit Bayu Ismail, Mochammad Koeshenderajana, Sonny Krisliyana Mia Anggarini, Krisliyana Mia Laily Fitriani Lidya Dewintha Laksmi Maretha Tristi Hapsari Max Rudolf Muskananfola Merantika Puspaningdiah Mira Mira Misbahuddin Azzuhri Mohamad Salah R. Ashour, Mohamad Salah R. Mokhamad Imam Subeqi, Mokhamad Imam Muhamad Sutri Wardani Muhammad Azhar Muhammad Zulfikar Nopiyanti, Dian Norma Afiati Nurkholis Nurkholis Pramita, I Putu Bayu Pujiono Wahyu Purnomo Ria Azizah Rian Kisworo Rizky Oktarina Nur Dewanti Rosjidi, Mochamad Sabrina Dwi Prihartini, Sabrina Dwi Sahala Hutabarat Sani Adela, Sani Saputra, Hendra Yuniarno Septiana, Eki Sheila Almaida, Sheila Sheila Puspa Arrum, Sheila Puspa Sholehudin, Fahmi Siti Rudiyanti Skar Puji Astuti, Skar Puji Sri Redjeki Suradi Wijaya Saputra Sutrisno T Tandirerung, Murbantan Taufani, Wiwiet Teguh Umi Muawanah Vajriyanti, Eva Valentina Pristya Ningrum, Valentina Pristya Wandayu, Rika Candra Wididatie, Wiwiek Yani, Athi Linda Zuzy Anna