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Journal : ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences

Stimulasi Molting dan Pertumbuhan Kepiting Bakau (Scylla sp.) Melalui Aplikasi Pakan Buatan Berbahan Dasar Limbah Pangan yang Diperkaya dengan Ekstrak Bayam Aslamyah, Siti; Fujaya, Yushinta
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 15, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Ekstrak bayam mengandung fitoekdisteroid yang dikenal sebagai stimulan molting pada kepiting.  Selain melalui injeksi,  aplikasi  ekstrak  bayam  melalui  pakan  buatan  juga  terbukti  mampu  mempercepat  molting  dan pertumbuhan kepiting bakau.  Kendala yang dihadapi pakan buatan yang digunakan masih mahal karena berbahan dasar ikan dengan kandungan protein yang tinggi,  sehingga perlu diformulasi pakan buatan khusus kepiting yang berkualitas, murah dan ramah lingkungan, serta disukai oleh kepiting.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengevaluasi pakan buatan berbahan dasar limbah pangan yang diperkaya ekstrak bayam yang dapat memberikan respon molting dan pertumbuhan terbaik pada kepiting, serta efisien di produksi dalam skala besar.  Empat pakan buatan dengan berbagai kadar protein (P) dan karbohidrat (K) digunakan pada penelitian ini, yaitu pakan A (46,84% P; 33,33% K), B (41,57% P; 38,29% K), C (35,62% P; 44,32% K), dan D (30,62% P; 49,13% K), sebagai kontrol pakan berbahan dasar non limbah. Selama penelitian, kepiting dipelihara secara individu dalam karamba yang di letakkan di tambak.   Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pakan D dengan kadar protein 30,62% dan karbohidrat 49,13%  serta diperkaya dengan ekstrak bayam (700 ng/g kepiting) memberikan hasil terbaik dalam menginduksi molting kepiting bakau.  Dapat disimpulkan, pakan buatan yang digunakan  sebaiknya mempunyai kadar nutrien yang seimbang dan merupakan campuran berbagai bahan baku pakan agar kandungan nutriennya saling melengkapi. Kata kunci : Ekstrak bayam, kepiting bakau, limbah pangan, molting, pakan buatan Spinach extracts contains phytoecdysteroid, a substance which is well known to stimulante molting in crabs. In addition through injection, artificial feed that contains spinach extract had been proven to accelerate molting and growth on mud crabs. The problem faced in utilizing the artificial feed is related to its expensive cost, since it’s mainly produced from fish based materials with a very high protein concentration. Thus, it is essential to formulate a special artificial feed for crabs which have a quality, inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and liked by the crabs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate artificial feed made from food waste enriched with spinach extracts, which can provide the best growth response and molting in crabs, as well as efficient to be produced in large scale. Four artificial diets with different protein levels (P) and carbohydrates (K) used in this study were feed A (P: 46,84%; K: 33,33%), B (P: 41,57%; K: 38,29%), C (P: 35,62%; K: 44,32%) and D (P: 30,62%; K: 49,13%), and as control is feed derived from non-waste materials. During the test, crab was culture individually in cages placed in ponds. The results showed that the feed D with 30,62% of protein and 49,13% of carbohydrates and enriched with spinach extract (700 ng/g crab), gives the best results in inducing molting of mud crabs. In conclusion, artificial feed should consist of a mixture of various raw materials, so that their nutrients can be balanced and complementary. Key words :  Spinach extract, mud crab, food waste, molting, artificial feed