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Stimulasi Molting dan Pertumbuhan Kepiting Bakau (Scylla sp.) Melalui Aplikasi Pakan Buatan Berbahan Dasar Limbah Pangan yang Diperkaya dengan Ekstrak Bayam

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 15, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Ekstrak bayam mengandung fitoekdisteroid yang dikenal sebagai stimulan molting pada kepiting.  Selain melalui injeksi,  aplikasi  ekstrak  bayam  melalui  pakan  buatan  juga  terbukti  mampu  mempercepat  molting  dan pertumbuhan kepiting bakau.  Kendala yang dihadapi pakan buatan yang digunakan masih mahal karena berbahan dasar ikan dengan kandungan protein yang tinggi,  sehingga perlu diformulasi pakan buatan khusus kepiting yang berkualitas, murah dan ramah lingkungan, serta disukai oleh kepiting.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengevaluasi pakan buatan berbahan dasar limbah pangan yang diperkaya ekstrak bayam yang dapat memberikan respon molting dan pertumbuhan terbaik pada kepiting, serta efisien di produksi dalam skala besar.  Empat pakan buatan dengan berbagai kadar protein (P) dan karbohidrat (K) digunakan pada penelitian ini, yaitu pakan A (46,84% P; 33,33% K), B (41,57% P; 38,29% K), C (35,62% P; 44,32% K), dan D (30,62% P; 49,13% K), sebagai kontrol pakan berbahan dasar non limbah. Selama penelitian, kepiting dipelihara secara individu dalam karamba yang di letakkan di tambak.   Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pakan D dengan kadar protein 30,62% dan karbohidrat 49,13%  serta diperkaya dengan ekstrak bayam (700 ng/g kepiting) memberikan hasil terbaik dalam menginduksi molting kepiting bakau.  Dapat disimpulkan, pakan buatan yang digunakan  sebaiknya mempunyai kadar nutrien yang seimbang dan merupakan campuran berbagai bahan baku pakan agar kandungan nutriennya saling melengkapi. Kata kunci : Ekstrak bayam, kepiting bakau, limbah pangan, molting, pakan buatan Spinach extracts contains phytoecdysteroid, a substance which is well known to stimulante molting in crabs. In addition through injection, artificial feed that contains spinach extract had been proven to accelerate molting and growth on mud crabs. The problem faced in utilizing the artificial feed is related to its expensive cost, since it’s mainly produced from fish based materials with a very high protein concentration. Thus, it is essential to formulate a special artificial feed for crabs which have a quality, inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and liked by the crabs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate artificial feed made from food waste enriched with spinach extracts, which can provide the best growth response and molting in crabs, as well as efficient to be produced in large scale. Four artificial diets with different protein levels (P) and carbohydrates (K) used in this study were feed A (P: 46,84%; K: 33,33%), B (P: 41,57%; K: 38,29%), C (P: 35,62%; K: 44,32%) and D (P: 30,62%; K: 49,13%), and as control is feed derived from non-waste materials. During the test, crab was culture individually in cages placed in ponds. The results showed that the feed D with 30,62% of protein and 49,13% of carbohydrates and enriched with spinach extract (700 ng/g crab), gives the best results in inducing molting of mud crabs. In conclusion, artificial feed should consist of a mixture of various raw materials, so that their nutrients can be balanced and complementary. Key words :  Spinach extract, mud crab, food waste, molting, artificial feed

Growth and molting of mud crab administered by different doses of vitomolt

Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 10, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

Vitomolt is a molting stimulant made from spinach (Amaranthus spp.) extracts.  The objective of this study was to optimize the dose of vitomolt injection on the growth and molting of mud crab (Scylla spp). The research was conducted in April to June 2010.  There were three doses of vitomolt tested, i.e. 9 mg/g crab, 15 mg/g, and 21 mg/g crab. The results showed that the dose of vitomolt injection had great influence on the growth and molting of mud crab.  Higher dose of vitomolt gave higher growth but its molting percentage was different.  Vitomolt dose of 15 mg/g crab was the optimal dose to induce molting of mud crab while the dose of 21 mg/g crab gave the highest growth which reached 53.6%.  However, in terms of productivity, dose of 15 mg/g crab gave the highest production of soft crab. Key words: dose, vitomolt, growth, molting, mud crab   ABSTRAK Vitomolt adalah stimulan molting yang terbuat dari ekstrak bayam (Amaranthus spp.).  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah optimalisasi dosis penyuntikan vitomolt terhadap pertumbuhan dan molting kepiting bakau (Scylla spp).  Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan April hingga Juni 2010.  Ada tiga dosis vitomolt yang diuji, yakni: 9 mg/g, 15 mg/g, dan 21 mg/g kepiting. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa penyuntikan vitomolt sangat berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan molting kepiting bakau. Semakin tinggi dosis vitomolt memberikan pertumbuhan yang semakin tinggi pula namun tidak demikian terhadap persentase molting. Dosis vitomolt 15 mg/g kepiting adalah dosis optimal menginduksi molting kepiting bakau, sedangkan dosis 21 mg/g kepiting memberikan pertumbuhan tertinggi hingga 53,6%. Bila ditinjau dari produktivitas, dosis 15 mg/g kepiting memberikan produksi kepiting lunak tertinggi. Kata kunci: dosis, vitomolt, pertumbuhan, molting, kepiting bakau

Effectiveness of artificial diet enriched by spinach extract on molting stimulation to produce soft shell crab

Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 10, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

Artificial feed is an alternative media applications spinach extract (EB) that is known to contain molting stimulant. However, utilization of the artificial feed is related to its expensive cost, with a very high protein concentration since its mainly produced from fish based materials, so need to be studied artificial feed formulation with substitution of vegetable material in stimulating molting and growth of mud crabs. Four formula artificial feed enriched EB (700 ng/g crab) used in this study were feed A (fish, crab shells, and cassava), feed B (fish, silage, shell crab, and cassava), feed C (fish, silage, shell crab, soy flour, and cassava), and feed D (fish, silage, shell crab, soy flour, corn starch, and pollard), trash fish and feed A without EB as control. During the test, mud crab intermolt phase was culture individually in crab box placed in pond. The results showed that the percentage of molting and weight growth in their respective in the feed A (44% and 41.96%); feed B (56% and 31.57%); feed C (74% and 23.20%); feed D (50% and 39.15%); trash feed control (24% and 50.66%); and feed A without EB (28% and 35.11%). An opposite phenomenon, where the feed C with the highest percentage of molting but with the lowest growth rate, the opposite occurs in the control of trash feed. This is apparently the effect of spinach extract as a stimulant molting, where performance can be optimized with a complete and balance nutrient composition. This prediction is supported by the analysis of protein content of crabs tested at the highest feed C treatment compared with the control feed. Key words: spinach extract, soft shell crab, molting, artificial feed, growth   ABSTRAK Pakan buatan merupakan alternatif media aplikasi ekstrak bayam (EB) yang diketahui mengandung stimulan molting.  Namun demikian, pakan buatan yang digunakan masih mahal dengan kandungan protein yang tinggi, karena berbahan dasar ikan, sehingga perlu dikaji formulasi pakan buatan dengan subtitusi berbagai bahan nabati  dalam menstimulasi molting dan pertumbuhan kepiting bakau.  Empat formula pakan buatan yang diperkaya EB (700 ng/g kepiting) digunakan pada penelitan ini, yaitu Pakan A (ikan, cangkang kepiting, dan ubi), Pakan B (ikan, silase, cangkang kepiting, dan ubi), Pakan C (ikan, silase, cangkang kepiting, tepung kedelai, dan ubi), dan Pakan D (ikan, silase, cangkang kepiting, tepung kedelai, tepung jagung, dan pollard). Pakan rucah dan pakan A tanpa EB digunakan sebagai kontrol.  Selama penelitian, kepiting bakau fase intermolt dipelihara secara individu dalam crab box yang diletakkan di tambak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan persentase molting dan pertumbuhan bobot masing-masing pada Pakan A (44% dan 41,96%); Pakan B (56% dan 31,57%); Pakan C (74% dan 23,20%); Pakan D (50% dan 39,15%); kontrol pakan rucah (24% dan 50,66%); dan  pakan A tanpa EB (28% dan 35,11%).  Terjadi anomali, yaitu Pakan C dengan persentase molting tertinggi, tetapi dengan tingkat pertumbuhan terendah, namun terjadi sebaliknya pada kontrol pakan rucah. Hal ini diduga efek dari ekstrak bayam sebagai stimulan molting, dimana kinerjanya dapat dioptimumkan dengan komposisi nutrien lengkap dan seimbang.  Pendugaan ini didukung hasil analisis kadar protein kepiting uji pada perlakuan Pakan C tertinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Kata kunci: Ekstrak bayam, kepiting cangkang lunak, molting, pakan buatan, pertumbuhan

ANALISIS KANDUNGAN KALSIUM (Ca) DAN BESI (Fe) PADA KEPITING BAKAU (Scylla olivacea) CANGKANG KERAS DAN CANGKANG LUNAK DENGAN METODE SPEKTROFOTOMETRI SERAPAN ATOM

MAJALAH FARMASI DAN FARMAKOLOGI Vol 17, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Hasanuddin

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Abstract

Telah dilakukan penelitian analisis kandungan kalsium dan besi pada kepiting bakau (Scylla olivacea) cangkang keras dan cangkang lunak secara spektrofotometri serapan atom. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan cara destruksi kering pada kepiting bakau, hasil destruksi dilarutkan dengan asam. Dari kedua sampel yang di uji keduanya mengandung kalsium dan besi. Analisis kimia menggunakan metode spektrofotometrik serapan atom pada panjang gelombang 422,7 nm untuk analisis kalsium dan panjang gelombang 248,3 nm untuk analisis besi. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh yaitu kandungan kalsium kepiting bakau (Scylla olivacea) untuk cangkang keras 10,75 gram/100 gram, untuk cangkang lunak 29,14 gram/100gram. Sedangkan untuk kandungan besi pada kepiting bakau cangkang keras 1,875 gram/100 gram, dan cangkang lunak 2,15 gram/100 gram.

Quality of Blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Larvae from Domesticated Broodstock

Aquacultura Indonesiana Vol 16, No 1 (2015): Volume 16 Issue 1 Year 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI)

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Abstract

Blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) is the important world fishery resource, but the crab larval rearing faces high mortality problem. The aim of the research was to compare survival and growth rate of larvae resulted from wild and domesticated broodstock blue swimming crab. Domesticated and wild broodstock were used to produce larvae. Domesticated broodstock was selected from repeated reared crab until third generation. Selection of the broodstock mainly based on the survival and growth rate. The wild broodstock was collected from Makassar Strait Sea. Larvae from the two sources of broodstock were reared in the conical tanks with density of 50 zoeas per liter. After reaching megalopa phase, then, the larvae were transfered into concrete tank completed with shelter and it were reared until crab phase. Crab phase was reared for 18 days, then these seed were released into the brackishwater pond for further domestication step. Larva from zoea to crab were fed with rotifer, artemia, fresh small shrimp and diet. The result showed that domesticated broodstock produced higher survival rate (P<0.05) larvae, faster larval stage changes (P<0.01) and uniform larval growth compared to the larvae from wild broodstock. It is clearly shown, the use of domesticated broodstock of blue swimming crab produced better larva quality and quantity than the wild broodstoock crab.Keywords : blue swimming crab, larvae, domestication, broodstock selection, faster growth

Frekuensi Pemberian Pakan Buatan Berbasis Limbah Untuk Produksi Kepiting Bakau Cangkang Lunak

TORANI : Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 24, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : TORANI : Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Abstract

Feed eficiency is largely determined by its availability in suficient quantities and on timefeeding, s o it is necessary to study the frequency of feeding for the best production of soft shell crab. Four feeding frequency (1 time per day, 1 time per 2 days, 1 time per 3 days, and 1 time per 4 days) tested in this study. Feed with nutrient composition of 30.86% protein, 7.2% fat, nitrogen free extract (NFE) 48.89%, crude fiber 5.7% enriched with vitomolt 0.1041 5 mg/g of feed to the standard dose and 0.4166 mg vitomolt/g feed to high doses; or equal to 700 ng vitomolt/g  crab. Test crabsof Scylla  sp. reared in  crabs box and placed in  the pond. The results showed  the frequency of feeding 1 time per 2 days resulted in the highest percentage of molting (66.67%) and the lowest percentage of moulting was found at 1 per 4 times a day of feeding (36.67%). Growth param eters such as weight and carapace width, and feed eficiency did not difer among all treatments. Thus, feeding in the soft shell crab for the maximum production can be done with a frequency of 1 time per 2 days .

Effectiveness of Addition Papain Enzyme in Artificial Diet on the Metamorphosis Rate and Glycogen Content of Mangrove Crab Larvae (Scylla olivacea)

TORANI: Journal of Fisheries and Marine Science Vol 1, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Marine Science and Fisheries Faculty, Hasanuddin University

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Abstract

In the rearing of fish larvae, artificial feed can be given when digestive enzymes have been produced. To improve the ability of fish larvae to utilize artificial feeds can be done with the addition of exogenous enzyme into the artificial feeds. The aim of this study was to determine the dose of papain enzyme and the correct predigest artificial feeding stadium on metamorphosis rate and glycogen content of mangrove larvae (Scylla olivacea). The experimental design used was a factorial pattern with a complete randomized baseline design, the first factor being the dose of papain enzyme (0%, 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5%), while the second factor was the predigest artificial feeding stage (zoea 2 and 3).  The results showed that the difference of dose of papain enzyme and predigest artificial feeding stages had significant effect (p <0.05) on the metamorphosis rate of  7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16 and 17 day larvae, but the interaction between them was not significant (p>0,05). The rate of metamorphosis at doses of enzyme papain was 0% and 1.5% longer and significantly different (p <0.05) compared to 3% and 4.5% doses. The rate of metamorphosis at doses of 3.0% and 4.5% was not significantly different (p> 0.05). The content of glycogen larvae in dose of enzyme papain 4,5% not different than dose 1,5% and 3,0% but higher and significantly different than dose 0%. Glycogen content at dose 0%, 1,5% and 3,0%. was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Based on the results of these studies to hydrolyze feed proteins can be used papain enzyme with a dose of 4.5%.Keywords: papain enzyme, metamorphosis rate, mangrove crab larvae (Scylla olivacea), glycogen content

THE EFFECTS OF WEANING TIME ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MUD CRAB (Scylla olivacea)THE EFFECTS OF WEANING TIME ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MUD CRAB (Scylla olivacea)

Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 2 (2018): (December, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Abstract

Live foods such as rotifers and Artemia are commonly used as foods in larval rearing of mud crab (S. olivacea). However, the continuous availability and nutritional consistency of live foods are difficult to control. Thus, the development of artificial diets to partially or fully replaced live foods is needed to overcome the limitations of live foods. The purpose of this research was to determine the best stage at which mud crab larvae can be weaned from live foods to artificial diets. The research experiment consisted of: treatment-1, the larvae were fed with live foods from zoea-1 to megalopa stages as the control treatment; treatment-2, the larvae were fed with artificial diet from zoea-2 to megalopa stages; and treatment-3, the larvae were fed with artificial diet from zoea-3 to megalopa stages. In treatment-4, artificial diet was given from zoea-4 to megalopa stages. The growth and survival rate of larvae in treatment-1, 3, and 4 were not significantly different (P>0.05) but significantly different with treatment-2. Based on the present results, this study suggests that artificial diet can be given to mud crab larvae (S. olivacea) from the third zoea stage.

Effectivity of mulberry leaf extract on stimulating ekdisteroid hemolimph content and molting of mud crab (Scylla olivacea)

TORANI: Journal of Fisheries and Marine Science Vol 2, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Marine Science and Fisheries Faculty, Hasanuddin University

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Abstract

This study aims to study the performance of phytoecdisteroids from mulberry leaves in molting stimulating of mangrove crabs. The research was carried out at the Research and Development Center for Aquaculture at the Faculty of Marine Sciences and Fisheries at Hasanuddin University, located in Bojo Village, Mallusetasi District, Barru Regency, South Sulawesi Province. Mangrove crabs (Scylla olivacea) weighing 45-55 g and carapace widths 60-65 mm were used as test animals. There were five doses of mulberry leaf extract applied through feed, namely: A) 1.1 mg / g feed, B) 1.9 mg / g feed, C) 2.7 mg / g feed, D) 3.5 mg / g feed. Crabs were kept individually in plastic boxes that are floated above the surface of the pond. During rearing, crabs are fed 3% dry fish per day which has been enriched with mulberry leaf extract. The parameters observed were ecdysteroid compounds contained in mulberry leaf extract, ecdysteroid content in hemolymph before and after application of mulberry leaf extract, and molting percentage. Identification of the ekdisteroid compounds contained in mulberry leaf extract was carried out using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Measurement of the content of ecdysteroids in crab hemolymh was carried out using Ultra Fast Liquid Chromatography (UFLC).  The results showed that the 3.5 mg dose of mulberry leaf extract / g feed gave the highest increase in ecdysteroid hemolymph, which was approximately 1760 ekdisteroid per mL hemolimph, while the dose of 1.1 mg / g feed only provided an increase of 100 ng ekdisteroid per mL hemolymph. The higher the dose of mulberry leaf extract in the feed, the higher the increase in the concentration of hemolymph ecdysteroids, but the high concentration of ecdystoid in the hemolymph does not guarantee molting.  The optimal dose of mulberry leaf extract in the feed stimulating molting was 2.4 mg / g of feed.Keywords: mulberry, phytoecdysteroid, molting, crab, aquaculture

Pemanfaatan tepung testis sapi sebagai hormon alami pada penjantanan ikan cupang, Betta splendens Regan, 1910 [Cow’s testicles flour as the natural hormone masculinization of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens Regan, 1910]

Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia Vol 16, No 1 (2016): Februari 2016
Publisher : Masyarakat Iktiologi Indonesia (MII )

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Abstract

Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens male is a lovely color ornamental fish with unique shape fins that make it highly demand by the ornamental fish lovers. This study aims to perform sex reversal with masculinization fish production. The study was carried out in two stages i.e.: stage 1 by soaking the 4 days old fish larvae into a solution of cow testicles flour with different doses, stage 2 with different soaking time. Testicular dose tested consists of five levels i.e.: 0 mg L', 20 mg L-1, 40 mg L-1, 60 mg L-1, and 80 mg L-1. Time immersions tested were: 0 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, 48 hours and 60 hours. The measured parameter was the percentage of male fish produced. The results showed the highest per-centtage of male fish obtained at a dose of 60 mg L-1 and a 24-hour soaking time with a percentage value respectively 88.5% and 87.5%. The study provided information that masculinization technology in a solution of cow testicles applicable for fish larvae. This technology is easy to do so that farmers can use cow's testicles flour for masculinization for their fish production. AbstrakIkan Cupang, Betta splendens jantan merupakan ikan hias yang memiliki keindahan warna tubuh serta keunikan bentuk sirip sehingga sangat diminati oleh pecinta ikan hias. Penelitian ini bertujuan melakukan pembalikan kelamin dengan menjantankan ikan cupang yang diproduksi. Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahap yaitu: tahap pertama dengan meren-dam larva ikan cupang berumur empat hari ke dalam larutan tepung testis sapi dengan dosis berbeda, dan tahap ke dua dengan lama perendaman berbeda. Dosis testis yang diuji terdiri atas lima tingkatan yaitu 0 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 40 mgL-1 60 mg L-1, dan 80 mg L-1. Lama perendaman yang diuji adalah: 0 jam, 24 jam, 36 jam, 48 jam, dan 60 jam. Parameter yang diukur adalah persentase ikan jantan yang dihasilkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase ikan berke-lamin jantan tertinggi diperoleh pada dosis 60 mg L-1 dan lama waktu perendaman 24 jam dengan nilai persentasi ber-turut-turut 88,5% dan 87,5%. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan informasi bahwa teknologi penjantanan melalui perendaman dalam larutan testis sapi dapat dilakukan pada larva ikan cupang. Teknologi ini mudah dilakukan sehingga pembudidaya dapat menggunakan tepung testis sapi untuk menjantankan ikan cupang produksinya.