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PULPING SODA PANAS TERBUKA BAMBU BETUNG DENGAN PRAPERLAKUAN FUNGI PELAPUK PUTIH (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS DAN TRAMETES VERSICOLOR) FATRIASARI, Widya; ERMAWAR, Riksfardini Annisa; FALAH, Faizatul; Yuli YANTO, Dede Heri; HERMIATI, Euis
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan Vol 2, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Departemen Hasil Hutan, IPB

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Abstract

This research was conducted to study the effects of pretreatment with white-rot fungi on pulp properties of betung bamboo. Inoculum stocks of white-rot fungi (25 ml) were injected into polybag contained barkless fresh bamboo chips of 1.6 cm in width. Each polybag contained 221.21-230.43 g oven dry weight of chips. Bamboo chips in the polybags were inoculated by P. ostreatus and T. versicolor. Both of them were then incubated for 30 and 45 days in an incubator. Bamboo chips were cooked in open hot soda process. The cooked bamboo chips were then fibrillated using beater hollander and stone refiner. Yield, kappa numbers (TAPPI 236 cm-85) and freeness (CSF) of the pulp were then analyzed. Pulp yield pretreated with P.ostreatus and incubated for 30 days was the highest (increased by control 22.31%), while that pretreated with T.versicolor was the lowest (decreased by control 22.20%). The increasing of incubation time had positive correlation with the reduction of kappa number. Statistic test (ANOVA) at 95% level of confidence show that fungi give significant effect on kappa number, freeness, and kappa number degradation. Besides that fungi, the interaction between fungi and incubation times give significant effect on the yield changes and pulp yield. T. versicolor had better activity in 45 days of incubation. Pulp freeness resulted              from this study were still lower than the desired value. Pretreatment of betung bamboo using T. versicolor with               45 days of incubation was considered better than the other treatments.   Keywords : Betung bamboo, biopulping, pulp yield, kappa number, degree of freeness
ANALISIS MORFOLOGI SERAT DAN SIFAT FISIS-KIMIA PADA ENAM JENIS BAMBU SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PULP DAN KERTAS FATRIASARI, Widya; HERMIATI, Euis
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan Vol 1, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Departemen Hasil Hutan, IPB

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Abstract

Six species of bamboos, that were andong bamboo (Gigantochloa verticillata), tali bamboo (Gigantochloa apus), hitam bamboo (Gigantochloa nigrocillata), ampel bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper), and kuning bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris), were analyzed for their fiber morphological as well as their physical-chemical properties. Results of these analysis would be used as a matter of consideration in choosing species of bamboos to be used as raw material for pulp and paper. Fiber morphological analyses include determination of fiber dimensions and followed by calculation of derivation of fiber dimensions.  Determination of fiber dimensions includes fiber length, fiber diameter, lumen diameter and cell wall thickness, while calculation of derivation fiber dimensions includes runkell ratio, felting power/slenderness), muhlsteph ratio, coefficient of rigidity and flexibility ratio. Physical analyses include moisture content and specific gravity, while chemical analyses include determination of extractive (ethanol-benzene), hot water solubles, cold water solubles, lignin, holocellulose, ash and silicate contents.  Results of this study showed that of the six species of bamboos studied, kuning bamboo had the most suitable properties as raw material for pulp and paper, followed by betung, tali, andong, hitam, and ampel bamboos.   Keywords : Bamboo, fiber morphology, physical-chemical properties, pulp, paper
FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper) BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER Fatriasari, Widya; Damayanti, Ratih; Anita, Sita Heris
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 10, No 2 (2013): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung) bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper) using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control). Fresh and barkless large (betung) bamboo chips of 2 years old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO); P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC); P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV); and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO).After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I) based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report) requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for 45 days produced the best fiber dimension and its derived value properties. The fungi hypae colonized on the surface area of  bamboo followed by mycelium penetration into substrate (bamboo-inner structure). The partial degradation caused by delignification indicatively attributed to the fungi activity was shown in the macroscopic images.
Digestibility of Betung Bamboo Fiber Following Fungal Pretreatment Fatriasari, Widya; Syafii, Wasrin; Jaya Wistara, Nyoman; Syamsu, Khaswar; Prasetya, Bambang
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v18i2.394

Abstract

This research evaluated the effect of fungal pretreatment of betung bamboo fibers and enzymatic- and microwave-assisted hydrolysis on the reducing sugar yield. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass was carried out with cellulase and 10 and 20 FPU/g of substrate in a shaking incubator at 50 °C and 150 rpm for 48 h. The sulfuric acid concentration used in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was 1.0, 2.5, and 5%, either with or without the addition of activated carbon. Microwave irradiation (330 Watt) was applied for 5–12.5 min. The yield of reducing sugar was better with the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, and the yield tended to increase with an increase in the irradiation time. Based on the dry weight of the initial biomass (bamboo), pretreatment with 5% inoculum loading resulted in a higher reducing sugar yield (17.06%) than with 10% inoculum loading (14.54%). At a 1% acid concentration, the formation of brown compounds decreased, followed by a reduction in the reducing sugar yield. The addition of activated carbon at a 1% acid concentration seemed to be of no benefit with respect to the yield in the microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment with the 5% inoculum loading for 12.5 min at 1% acid concentration resulted in the highest reducing sugar yield. Under these conditions, the yield was 6.3-fold that of the reducing sugar yield using 20 FPU/g of cellulase. The rate of bamboo hollocellulose hydrolysis reached 22.75% of the maximum theoretical reducing sugar reducing sugar of dry biomass.
The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) pretreated by fungal pretreatment Fatriasari, Widya; Syafii, Wasrin; J Wistara, Nyoman; Syamsu, Khaswar; Prasetya, Bambang
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 3, No 2 (2014): July 2014
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (41.984 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143

Abstract

The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g) was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained greater selectivity compared to that of the other treatments. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the fungus affected the decreasing of functional group quantities without changing the functional groups. The decrease in intensity at wave number of 1246 cm-1 (guaiacyl of lignin) was greater than that at wave number of 1328 cm-1 (deformation combination of syringyl and xylan) after fungal treatment. X-ray analysis showed the pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than the untreated ones which might be due to the cleavage of amorphous fractions of cellulose. The pretreated samples have more fragile than the untreated ones confirmed by SEM. Crystalline allomorph calculated by XRD analysis showed that fungus pretreatment for 30 days has transformed triclinic structure of cellulose to monoclinic structure.
The Kraft Pulp And Paper Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) Fatriasari, Widya; Supriyanto, Supriyanto; Iswanto, Apri Heri
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Vol 47, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : ITB Journal Publisher, LPPM ITB

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (286.53 KB) | DOI: 10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2015.47.2.4

Abstract

This study investigated the potency of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) bagasse as raw material for pulp and paper using kraft pulping. The effects of alkali and sulfidity loading on kraft pulp and paper properties were also investigated. The pulping condition of the kraft pulp consisted of three levels of alkali loading (17, 19 and 22%) and sulfidity loading (20, 22 and 24%). The maximum cooking temperature was 170°C for 4 h with a liquid to wood ratio of 10:1. Kraft pulping of this Numbu bagasse produced good pulp indicated by high screen yield and delignification selectivity with a low Kappa number (< 10). The unbleached pulp sheet produced a superior brightness level and a high burst index. The increase of active alkali loading tended to produce a negative effect on the pulp yield, Kappa number and paper sheet properties. Therefore, it is suggested to use a lower active alkaline concentration.
PEMANFAATAN LIGNIN HASIL ISOLASI DARI LINDI HITAM PROSES BIOPULPING BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper) SEBAGAI MEDIA SELEKTIF JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH Anita, Sita Heris; Yuli Yanto, Dede Heri; Fatriasari, Widya
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 29, No 4 (2011): JURNAL PENELITIAN HASIL HUTAN
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

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Abstract

Lindi hitam merupakan limbah industri pulp yang belum termanfaatkan dengan baik. Pemanfaatan lignin dari lindi hitam selama ini biasanya hanya digunakan sebagai perekat. Dalam bidang mikrobiologi lignin dari lindi hitam dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai media selektif untuk isolasi jamur pelapuk putih. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui manfaat lignin hasil isolasi proses biopulping sebagai media selektif untuk jamur pelapuk putih. Lignin dari lindi hitam hasil biopulping bambu, dengan proses pemasakan soda dan kraft, diisolasi dengan penambahan asam. Padatan lignin kemudian dimurnikan menggunakan larutan dioksan dan ditimbang berat serta dianalisa secara kualitatif menggunakan spektrofotometer. Lignin hasil isolasi ditambahkan pada media agar untuk uji selektifitas jamur pelapuk putih Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Trametes versicolor. Pretreatment bambu pada 30 hari inkubasi menghasilkan lignin yang lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan inkubasi selama 45 hari. Padatan lignin yang diperoleh dari hasil biopulping proses kraft juga lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan pada proses soda. Pengujian selektifitas jamur pada media alkali lignin menunjukkan bahwa fungi T. versicolor mensekresi enzim lebih cepat daripada P. chrysosporium.
PEMANFAATAN LIGNIN HASIL ISOLASI DARI LINDI HITAM PROSES BIOPULPING BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper) SEBAGAI MEDIA SELEKTIF JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH Anita, Sita Heris; Yuli Yanto, Dede Heri; Fatriasari, Widya
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 29, No 4 (2011): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2011.29.4.312-321

Abstract

Lindi hitam merupakan limbah industri pulp yang belum termanfaatkan dengan baik. Pemanfaatan lignin dari lindi hitam selama ini biasanya hanya digunakan sebagai perekat. Dalam bidang mikrobiologi lignin dari lindi hitam dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai media selektif untuk isolasi jamur pelapuk putih. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui manfaat lignin hasil isolasi proses biopulping sebagai media selektif untuk jamur pelapuk putih. Lignin dari lindi hitam hasil biopulping bambu, dengan proses pemasakan soda dan kraft, diisolasi dengan penambahan asam. Padatan lignin kemudian dimurnikan menggunakan larutan dioksan dan ditimbang berat serta dianalisa secara kualitatif menggunakan spektrofotometer. Lignin hasil isolasi ditambahkan pada media agar untuk uji selektifitas jamur pelapuk putih Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Trametes versicolor. Pretreatment bambu pada 30 hari inkubasi menghasilkan lignin yang lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan inkubasi selama 45 hari. Padatan lignin yang diperoleh dari hasil biopulping proses kraft juga lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan pada proses soda. Pengujian selektifitas jamur pada media alkali lignin menunjukkan bahwa fungi T. versicolor mensekresi enzim lebih cepat daripada P. chrysosporium.
Lignin and Cellulose Changes of Betung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) pretreated Microwave Heating Fatriasari, Widya; Syafii, Wasrin; Wistara, Nyoman; Syamsu, Khaswar; Prasetya, Bambang
International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology Vol 6, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1143.912 KB) | DOI: 10.18517/ijaseit.6.2.688

Abstract

This study highlighted the effect of microwave pretreatment on betung bamboo on the chemical structural and morphological changes. The hydrothermal condition was performed in varying power loading (330, 550, and 770 W) and microwave irradition time (5-12.5 min). FTIR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analysis were utilized to confirm the characteristic changes after pretreatment. The results showed that the severe pretreatment condition tended to increase the carbohydrate losses. From FTIR spectra, microwave pretreatment tended to decrease absorbancy of functional group bands. After microwave pretreatment for 12.5 min (770 W), the band around 1736 cm-1 (C=O in xylan) disappeared in the samples. The syringil propane unit was lower than that of guaiacyl lignin under microwave pretreatment. The disruption of the structure of the cell wall increased the accessibility of cellulase to lignocellulose. Except microwaving for 5 min (330 W), the microwave heating caused carbon and oxygen increasing compared to untreated samples. The increase in crystallinity index of pretreated bamboo suggested the selective degradation of amorphous components. 
THE PROPERTIES KRAFT PULP SENGON WOOD (Paraserianthes falcataria):Differences Of Cooking Liquor Concentration and Bleaching Sequence Fatriasari, Widya; Risanto, Lucky
Widyariset Vol 14, No 3 (2011): Widyariset
Publisher : LIPI-Press

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Abstract

The research was to investigate the difference effect of cooking liquor concentration and bleaching sequence on the properties Kraft pulp sengon wood (Paraserianthes falcataria). The Kraft pulp conditions were alkalinity (16 and 20%) and sulfi dity (20 and 25%). The maximum pulping temperature was 170°C for 4 hours, Liquor to wood ratio of 4:1 and 100 gram OD. Pulp bleaching sequences were P1 DEP2 and D1ED2P. Utilization of selected Kraft pulping was effective enough for dissolving lignin. The highest and the lowest lignin decreasing were 90% and 61% respectively. The increasing effect of alkali concentration was more dominant than its sulfi dity on the pulp delignifi cation selectivity. Generally, the optimum Kraft pulping conditions were alkalinity 20% and sulfi dity 25%. The sequence bleaching difference of the selected pulp tended on the decreasing of kappa number and pulp yield. The fi rst pulp bleaching method (P1EDP2) was relatively better than the second method (D1ED2P)