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INTERVENSI PERILAKU DAN LINGKUNGAN DALAM PENCEGAHAN KEJADIAN PENYAKIT MALARIA DI INDONESIA TAHUN 2012 Etrawati, Fenny
Buletin Spirakel Edisi 2012
Publisher : Buletin Spirakel

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Abstract

Abstract Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that live and breed in human red blood cells. The disease is naturally transmitted by the bite of female Anopheles mosquito. This infection caused anemia and decreased productivity on the patient and even caused a death. Currently, there are 18.6 mlllion cases of malaria per year. Based on the concept of Blum, behaviour and environment is a factor that is dominant in influencing a persons health status. This study aims to analyze the role of behavioral and environmental interventions in tackling the incidence of malaria. This research is based on a literature study and theoretical related studies. Morbidity of Malaria listed on the indicator of Annual Parasite Incidence (API) 2009 that 1,85 per 1000 people. To decrease number of morbidity was needed such programme to controlI the vector of Malaria effectively and efficiently there are through behavioral and environmental interventions. The implementation of Healthy Ufe Style (PHBS) and environmental management to decrease breeding places of malaria vector had to be done continuedly and need community participation to reach the high est healthy status of Indonesian.Keywords : behavioral, environmental, malaria Abstrak Malaria adalah penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh parasit Plasmodium yang hidup dan berkembang biak dalam sel darah merah manusia. Penyakit ini secara alami ditularkan oleh gigitan nyamuk Anopheles betina. Infeksi ini dapat menyebabkan anemia dan penurunan produktivitas pada penderitanya bahkan menyebabkan kematian. Saat ini tercatat 18,6 juta kasus malaria per tahun. Berdasarkan konsep Blum, perilaku dan lingkungan merupakan faktor yang cukup dominan dalam mempengaruhi status kesehatan seseorang. Studi literatur ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis peran intervensi perilaku dan lingkungan dalam menanggulangi kejadian malaria. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian studi literatur yang didasarkan pada teori dan penelitian terdahulu. Angka kesakitan malaria yang tercatat dalam Indikator Annual Parasite Incidence (API) tahun 2009 yakni 1,85 per 1000 penduduk. Guna menurunkan angka kesakitan tersebut diperlukan upaya penanggulangan vektor malaria yang efektif dan efisien diantaranya melalui intervensi perilaku dan lingkungan. Penerapan Pola Hidup Bersih dan Sehat (PHBS) serta penyehatan lingkungan guna menghilangkan tempat perindukan vektor malaria harus dilakukan secara berkesinambungan dan melibatkan partisipasi masyarakat agar tercipta derajat kesehatan masyarakat lndonesia yang setingi-tingginya.Kata kunci: perilaku, lingkungan dan malaria
Studi Intervensi Klaster Kawasan Tanpa Rokok pada Tingkat Rumah Tangga Najmah, Najmah; Etrawati, Fenny; Yeni, Yeni; Utama, Feranita
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 9 No. 4 Mei 2015
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (153.227 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v9i4.752

Abstract

AbstrakPerilaku merokok memberikan dampak negatif, baik bagi perokok aktifmaupun pasif, ditinjau dari sudut pandang kesehatan maupun ekonomi.Regulasi mengenai Kawasan Tanpa Rokok (KTR) yang telah diterbitkanbelum ada yang mengatur mengenai penerapan KTR di tingkat rumah tangga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi perubahan perilaku melalui intervensi terpadu KTR pada tingkat rumah tangga. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Juli - September 2014 menggunakan desain cluster trial pada empat desa di Kabupaten Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan. Selanjutnya, 200 sampel kepala keluarga dipilih melalui metode cluster random sampling. Intervensi yang dilakukan meliputi konseling terpadu, pemberian permen pengganti rokok, dan tabungan sehat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proporsi responden yang merokok setiap hari dalam sebulan terakhir dan komitmen untuk tidak akan merokok di masa yang akan datang mencapai 71,6% dan 62% pada kelompok intervensi serta 91% dan 38% pada kelompok non-intervensi. Intervensi ini berpeluang 46% mengurangi perilaku merokok responden (RP = 0,46) setelah dikontrol oleh variabel pendidikan (RP = 0,152) dan sikap (RP = 0,216) dengan nilai p < 0,0001. Intervensi terpadu ini terbukti berhasil mengubah perilaku merokok pada kawasan rumah tangga sehingga diperlukan partisipasi masyarakat dan dinas kesehatan setempat untuk menindaklanjuti penerapan intervensi ini dalam jangka panjang.AbstractSmoking behavior has negative impacts, both for active and passive smokers, as reviewed from health and economic perspectives. Regulation concerning non-smoking area issued has not yet arranged implementation of non-smoking area at household level. This study aimed to identify any behavior change through integrated intervention of non-smoking area athousehold level. This study was conducted on July - September 2014 usingcluster trial design in four villages at Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra.Then 200 household head samples were selected through cluster randomsampling method. The intervention included integrated counseling, distribution of candy as substitute for cigarette, and healthy saving. Results of study showed that proportion of respondents who smoked every day in a recent month and had a commitment not to smoke in the future reached 71.6% and 62% in the intervention group, then 91% and 38% in the non-intervention group respectively. This intervension had opportunity worth 46% reducing the smoking behavior of the respondents (RP= 0.46) after controlled by the variable of education (RP = 0.152) and attitude (RP = 0.216) with p value < 0.0001. This integrated intervention was profoundly successful changing smoking behavior at household level. So that, public participation and health agency need to follow up the implementation of this intervention in a long term.
PARITAS DAN PERAN SERTA SUAMI DALAM PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN TERHADAP PENGGUNAAN METODE KONTRASEPSI Yeni, Yeni; Mutahar, Rini; Etrawati, Fenny; Utama, Feranita
Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia Vol 13, No 4: DESEMBER 2017
Publisher : Faculty Of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.30597/mkmi.v13i4.3158

Abstract

Data Riskesdas tahun 2013 menunjukkan prevalensi penggunaan KB yang meningkat dari 55,8% pada tahun 2010 menjadi 59,7% pada tahun 2013. Penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa hanya 8,4% pria menggunakan kontrasepsi atau terlibat secara langsung dalam penggunaan pelayanan keluarga berencana terutama kondom pria. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh paritas dan peran serta suami dalam pengambilan keputusan terhadap penggunaan metode kontrasepsi. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah desain cross sectional. Sampel penelitian ini adalah wanita menikah usia 15-45 tahun sebanyak 216 orang. Kriteria inklusi sampel adalah wanita dengan status menikah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan sebanyak 79,2% responden menggunakan kontrasepsi, 91,7% responden memiliki suami yang mendukung kontrasepsi dan 72,7% responden memiliki jumlah anak 2 sampai 4 orang. Ada pengaruh yang signifikan antara peran serta suami (PR:4,570;95%CI:1,647-12,682) dan paritas (multipara (PR:0,218;95%CI:0,060-0,790), primipara (PR:0,518;95%CI:0,132-2,028)) terhadap penggunaan kontrasepsi. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa peran serta suami merupakan faktor risiko perilaku penggunaan metode kontrasepsi sedangkan paritas merupakan faktor protektif dari perilaku penggunaan metode kontrasepsi. Penelitian ini menunjukkan pentingnya mendorong para ibu rumah tangga untuk mengajak pasangan ikut serta dalam setiap pengambilan keputusan mengenai penggunaan metode kontrasepsi dengan meningkatkan cakupan partisipasi suami secara langsung dalam menggunakan metode kontrasepsi.
Psychosocial Determinants of Risky Sexual Behavior among Senior High School Students in Merauke District Etrawati, Fenny; Martha, Evi; Damayanti, Rita
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 11, Issue 3, February 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1224.828 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v11i3.1163

Abstract

Adolescents aged 10-24 years old are susceptible group to premarital sex, drugs abuse, and HIV/AIDS infection. Papua is the largest contributor to AIDS/HIV number in Indonesia. To overcome such problem, Rutgers WPF formed Dunia Remajaku Seru!(DAKU!), an intervention program towards adolescent reproductive health at senior high school level. This study aimed to determine psychosocial determinants of risky sexual behavior among senior high school students in Merauke District through cross-sectional approach. Samples were 1,364 second grade students that got DAKU!Program and matching process was conducted on schools that did not get DAKU!Program. Data analysis included univariate analysis, bivariate (chi square test) and multivariate (logistic regression test). Results showed that variables significantly related to adolescent risky sexual behavior were peer group with negative behavior, self-efficacy, parents’control, exposure to DAKU!Program and sex. Meanwhile, based on multivariate analysis, peer group with negative behavior (RP = 4.7 CI = 2.8 - 7.7) was the most dominant factor influencing risky sexual behavior.AbstrakRemaja usia 10-24 tahun merupakan kelompok yang rentan terhadap perilaku seksual pranikah, penyalahgunaan narkoba dan infeksi HIV/AIDS. Papua merupakan penyumbang angka HIV/AIDS terbesar di Indonesia. Untuk menanggulangi permasalahan tersebut Rutgers WPF membentuk suatu program intervensi kesehatan reproduksi remaja di tingkat sekolah menengah atas (SMA) yakni program Dunia Remajaku Seru! (DAKU!). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui determinan psikososial perilaku seksual berisiko pada siswa SMA di Kabupaten Merauke dengan menggunakan pendekatan potong lintang. Sampel berjumlah 1.364 siswa SMA kelas dua yang mendapatkan program DAKU!dan dilakukan proses pencocokan pada sekolah yang tidak mendapat program DAKU!. Analisis data meliputi analisis univariat, bivariat (uji kai kuadrat) dan multivariat (uji regresi logistik). Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa variabel yang signifikan berhubungan dengan perilaku seksual berisiko remaja adalah kelompok teman sebaya dengan perilaku negatif, efikasi diri, kontrol orangtua, keterpaparan dengan program DAKU!dan jenis kelamin. Sedangkan berdasarkan hasil analisis multivariat, kelompok teman sebaya dengan perilaku negatif merupakan faktor yang paling dominan memengaruhi perilaku seksual berisiko.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHARACTERISTIC OF HOST WITH INCIDENCE OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AT CLINIC DOTS RSUD DR. IBNU SUTOWO BATURAJA Etrawati, Fenny; Ainy, Asmaripa; Misnaniarti, Misnaniarti
Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Vol 2, No 3 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Background : Pulmonary Tuberculosis caused of Mycobakterium tuberculosis which one of major cause of death in the world. Globally, Indonesia being the third place of the greatest cases with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Based on the concept of epidemiology triangle, host is one of factor that caused Pulmonary Tuberculosis. This research  have goals to identify the relationship between characteristic of  host with incidence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Method :This study is a descriptive analytic research design based on a cross-sectional approach. The population of research was 44 people, so that the sample is all part of the population. Bivariat results of this analysis will be presented in cross tabulation. Result : From the results of research known that there was a signifivicant between sex  (p-value = 0,030; RP = 5,833), formal education (p-value = 0,041; RP =  4,5), job (p-value = 0,034; RP = 6,9) and nutrition (p-value = 0,016 ; RP = 5,9) with incidence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. There is no relationship between age (p-value = 1,000; RP = 1,2), status of marriage (p-value = 0,360; RP = 0,5), income (p-value = 1,000; RP = 1,1) and complication desease (p-value = 0,582; RP = 1,9) with incidence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Conclusion: It is recommended for patient to repair risk factor which can controlled such as nutrition status by consumption nutrited food to keep system of immunology. Keywords : characteristic of host, pulmonary tuberculosis 
PREDICTION MODEL OF PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF PUBLIC SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN PALEMBANG Mona, Lisa; Sitorus, Rico Januar; Etrawati, Fenny
Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Vol 8, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Sriwijaya

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Abstract

Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual accompanied by pain in common experienced in the past three years since the beginning of menstruation and no particular disease caused it and becoming important thing of  absenteeism for female students in school. This study aimed to determine factors associated with primary dysmenorrhea in female students of public senior high school in Palembang Methods: This study used a cross-sectional study design with the all population of female students the public senior high school in Palembang and amount of samples 146 students from SMA Negeri 6 and SMA Negeri 14 Palembang. The data analysis include univariate, bivariate analysis by using chi square test, and multivariate by using multiple logistic regression predictive model. Results: Based on multivariate analysis was obtained the most dominant variable associated with primary dysmenorrhea in female students of public senior high school in Palembang was stress with value ORAdjusted 9.033 (95% CI: 2.452-33.280) was controlled by more variables consists of family history of dysmenorrhea, bedtime, duration of menstruation ,time of waking, hours of sleeping, menstrual cycle, Body Mass Index (BMI), age, cigarette smoke exposure, meal skipping, sport, and age of menarche. Conclusion: Stress can be reduced by avoiding sources of stress (stressors) and adequate rest. The school is expected to collaborate with health professional to provide information such as promotive and preventive efforts especially primary dysmenorrhea, so it can be applied by students in daily life.Keywords: Primary dysmenorrhea, female students, senior high school DOI: https://doi.org/10.26553/jikm.2017.8.1.10-18
Studi Intervensi Klaster Kawasan Tanpa Rokok pada Tingkat Rumah Tangga Najmah, Najmah; Etrawati, Fenny; Yeni, Yeni; Utama, Feranita
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 9 No. 4 Mei 2015
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (153.227 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v9i4.752

Abstract

AbstrakPerilaku merokok memberikan dampak negatif, baik bagi perokok aktif maupun pasif, ditinjau dari sudut pandang kesehatan maupun ekonomi. Regulasi mengenai Kawasan Tanpa Rokok (KTR) yang telah diterbitkan belum ada yang mengatur mengenai penerapan KTR di tingkat rumah tangga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi perubahan perilaku melalui intervensi terpadu KTR pada tingkat rumah tangga. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Juli - September 2014 menggunakan desain cluster trial pada empat desa di Kabupaten Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan. Selanjutnya, 200 sampel kepala keluarga dipilih melalui metode cluster random sampling. Intervensi yang dilakukan meliputi konseling terpadu, pemberian permen pengganti rokok, dan tabungan sehat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proporsi responden yang merokok setiap hari dalam sebulan terakhir dan komitmen untuk tidak akan merokok di masa yang akan datang mencapai 71,6% dan 62% pada kelompok intervensi serta 91% dan 38% pada kelompok non-intervensi. Intervensi ini berpeluang 46% mengurangi perilaku merokok responden (RP = 0,46) setelah dikontrol oleh variabel pendidikan (RP = 0,152) dan sikap (RP = 0,216) dengan nilai p < 0,0001. Intervensi terpadu ini terbukti berhasil mengubah perilaku merokok pada kawasan rumah tangga sehingga diperlukan partisipasi masyarakat dan dinas kesehatan setempat untuk menindaklanjuti penerapan intervensi ini dalam jangka panjang.AbstractSmoking behavior has negative impacts, both for active and passive smokers, as reviewed from health and economic perspectives. Regulation concerning non-smoking area issued has not yet arranged implementation of non-smoking area at household level. This study aimed to identify any behavior change through integrated intervention of non-smoking area at household level. This study was conducted on July - September 2014 using cluster trial design in four villages at Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra. Then 200 household head samples were selected through cluster random sampling method. The intervention included integrated counseling, distribution of candy as substitute for cigarette, and healthy saving. Results of study showed that proportion of respondents who smoked every day in a recent month and had a commitment not to smoke in the future reached 71.6% and 62% in the intervention group, then 91% and 38% in the non-intervention group respectively. This intervension had opportunity worth 46% reducing the smoking behavior of the respondents (RP= 0.46) after controlled by the variable of education (RP = 0.152) and attitude (RP = 0.216) with p value < 0.0001. This integrated intervention was profoundly successful changing smoking behavior at household level. So that, public participation and health agency need to follow up the implementation of this intervention in a long term.
Determinant of Parents Role in Adolescent Premarital Sex Behavior: An Applicative Model Fajar, Nur Alam; Etrawati, Fenny; Lionita, Widya
Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia Vol 15, No 2: JUNI 2019
Publisher : Faculty Of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.30597/mkmi.v15i2.5944

Abstract

Premarital sex behavior had become a serious issue. Preliminary studies show 12 of 30 teenagers who religious, well-educated, and has good family background, were already experienced sexual intercourse. The objective of this study is explaining parents’ role through their knowledge, attitude, perception, facilities given to children, and behavior. This research was conducted at 2017, and using a cross-sectional design. Quantitative data were obtained by 526 population study and interviewing 150 students’ parent from six high schools in Palembang which are selected using multistage random sampling. Multivariate data analysis is processed by Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Test in statistical application program named Partial Least Square (PLS). This research found that fifty percent of respondent have good knowledge and supportive attitude towards preventive action of premarital sex behavior. There are 62.7% having good perception about the importance of parents’ role. However, 41.3% just perform negatively on preventive sexual behavior in early ages. They usually provide some facilities such as money, motorbike or car, handphone, laptop, and internet at home that can be used to access pornography content. Model analysis proved that knowledge, attitude, perception, and facilities influence 29 percent of adolescent premarital sex behavior caused by improper parenting role
Persepsi Risiko Penumpang Pesawat Terbang Lestari, Mona; Rahmawaty, Annisa; Etrawati, Fenny; Cahyani, Nova Apriza; Kasih, Shinta Dwi; Rabiah, Masayu Gemala; Ardiansyah, Reza
Jurnal Kesehatan Edisi Khusus No 1, Februari 2019
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/jurnal kesehatan.v0i1.7560

Abstract

Faktor manusia merupakan penyebab terbesar terjadinya kecelakaan pesawat. Melakukan tindakan tidak aman/unsafe act merupakan salah satu tindakan yang terbentuk dari persepsi risiko.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh gambaran persepsi risiko penumpang pesawat berdasarkan usia, jenis kelamin, dan jenis maskapai yang dipilih. Desain penelitian Cross-Sectional dengan 164 penumpang pesawat di bandara Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II sebagai sampel. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan simple random sampling. Hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwasebanyak 53,3% penumpang yang berusia remaja (14-25 tahun) memiliki persepsi risiko yang kurang baik terhadap keselamatan transportasi udara. Selain itu, terdapat 48.7% penumpang yang memiliki persepsi risiko kurang baik berjenis kelamin laki-laki dan 48,5% penumpang yang tidak bergantung pada brand/jenis maskapai tertentu memiliki persepsi risiko kurang baik. Dari penelitian ini dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa mayoritas penumpang yang memiliki persepsi risiko keselamatan kurang baik berusia remaja (14-25 tahun), berjenis kelamin laki-laki, dan tidak bergantung pada brand tertentu.
PENGETAHUAN SERTA PERSEPSI TERHADAP KESEHATAN REPRODUKSI DAN KONTRASEPSI DI KABUPATEN OGAN ILIR 2019 Yeni, Yeni; Etrawati, Fenny; Utama, Feranita
Proceeding Seminar Nasional Keperawatan Vol 5, No 1 (2019): Proceeding Seminar Nasional Keperawatan 2019
Publisher : Proceeding Seminar Nasional Keperawatan

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Abstract

AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran pengetahuan dan persepsi mengenai kesehatanreproduksi dan kontrasepsi pada wanita usia subur di Ogan Ilir. Penelitian ini dilakukan menggunakanpendekatan analitik kuantitatif. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah desain penelitian crosssectional. Besar sampel yang digunakan adalah 185 orang wanita usia subur yang berstatus menikah dantinggal bersama pasangan. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis univariat dan bivariatmenggunakan uji korelasi Spearman. Hasil penelitian ini, mayoritas responden mengetahui jikapenggunaan kontrasepsi dapat mencegah kehamilan (82,7%), penggunaan kontrasepsi tidakmempengaruhi hubungan seksual (86,5%), dan penggunaan kontrasepsi tidak menyebabkan nyeri sertapendarahan (85,9%), mayoritas responden tidak mengetahui 2 (dua) jenis metode kontrasepsi (96,8%),responden tidak mengetahui jenis-jenis metode kontrasepsi hormonal (97,3%), dan responden tidakmengetahui jenis-jenis kontrasepsi non hormonal (97,3%), mayoritas responden setuju bahwapemeriksaan kehamilan setidaknya dilakukan 3 kali (82,7%) dan hampir seperempat dari respondenmenyatakan tidak setuju bahwa jarak kehamilan yang kurang dari 2 tahun berisiko bagi ibu dan janin(21,1%). Ada korelasi yang positif antara pengetahuan dan persepsi mengenai kesehatan reproduksi dankontrasepsi. Pentingnya meningkatkan pengetahuan terutama pada wanita usia subur yang khawatir akanefek samping metode kontrasepsi serta mengaktifkan edukasi mengenai kontrasepsi di pelayanan KIApada Puskesmas.Kata kunci: Pengetahuan, persepsi, kesehatan reproduksi, kontrasepsiAbstractThis study aims to know the description of knowledge and perceptions about reproductive health andcontraception in women of childbearing age at Ogan Ilir. This study was conducted using a quantitativeanalytical approach. The research design used was a cross sectional research design. The sample sizeused was 185 fertile women who were married and living with a partner. Analysis of the data used isunivariate and bivariate analysis using the Spearman correlation test. The majority of respondents knowthat contraceptive use can prevent pregnancy (82.7%), contraceptive use does not affect sexual relations(86.5%), and contraceptive use does not cause pain or bleeding (85.9%), the majority of respondents donot know 2 ( two) types of contraceptive methods (96.8%), respondents did not know the types ofhormonal contraceptive methods (97.3%), and respondents did not know the types of non hormonalcontraception (97.3%), the majority of respondents agreed that the examination pregnancy was done atleast 3 times (82.7%) and almost a quarter of respondents stated that they did not agree that pregnancyintervals of less than 2 years were risky for the mother and fetus (21.1%). There is a positive correlationbetween knowledge and perception about reproductive health and contraception. The importance ofincreasing knowledge, especially in women of childbearing age who are worried about the side effects ofcontraceptive methods and activating education about contraception in KIA services at Puskesmas.Keywords: Keywords: knowledge, perception, reproductive health, contraception