Putu Dyatmikawati
Dosen Pengajar Fakultas Hukum Universitas Dwijendra

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PEMBERDAYAAN EKONOMI KERAKYATAN BERBASIS MASYARAKAT ADAT DI KECAMATAN BEBANDEM KABUPATEN KARANGASEM, BALI Siti, Wayani; Windia, Wayan P.; Dyatmikawati, Putu
Jurnal Ngayah Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Jurnal Ngayah

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Abstract

Ringkasan Eksekutif Tujuan dari kegiatan IbW ini adalah pemberdayaan masyarakat dalam membangun kapasistas lokal seperti kesejahtraan masyarakat melalui pemanfaatn teknologi untuk pemanfaatan potensi lokal khususnya di Kecamatan Bebandem, Kabupaten karangasem. Kecamatan Bebandem terletak di bagian utara Kabupaten Karangasem berada pada ketinggian antara 225 – 975 m dpl dengan luas wilayah 61,80 km². Sebagian besar wilayahnya berupa perbukitan, dengan tebing-tebing curam dan menjadi hulu dari beberapa sungai yang mengalir di Kabupaten Karangasem. Geologi wilayah terbentuk dari endapan bahan vulkanik yang menjadi bahan galian C. data menunjukkan areal ini sebagian besar digunakan sebagai lahan kering (87,24%), 8,38% untuk lahan pertanian, dan sisanya (7,02%) untuk peruntukan lain. Sebagian besar mata pencaharian penduduk 73,54 % berasal dari sektor pertanian (pertanian lahan sawah, perkebunan, dan peternakan), kerajinan 19,33 %, perdagangan dan jasa 6,01 %, dan pertambangan 1,12 %. Dari angka tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa sektor pertanian merupakan bidang startegis sehingga perlu mendapatkan prioritas. Baru-Baru ini, komoditas yang paling dikembangkan di daerah ini adalah kakao dan salak. Komoditas ini menawarkan beberapa keuntungan, meliputi: harga yang relatif stabil dan tinggi, dengan mudah dijual pasar, dan mudah untuk ditangani, tidak memerlukan perawatan sulit dan perlakuan khusus. Sementara itu, di (dalam) sektor ternak, khususnya peternakan sapi sangat penting untuk mendukung ekonomi keluarga. Masalah yang paling krusial dijumpai di wilayah ini adalah masih tingginya angka kemiskinan. Pada tahun 2008 tercatat jumlah penduduk miskin di Kecamatan Bebandem berjumlah 5.996 KK dari total 41.835 KK di Kabupaten Karangasem. Kondisi ini menuntut adanya upaya menentukan strategi khusus dan langkah yang lebih serius dalam membangun perekonomian masyarakat. Startegi yang ditempuh adalah melalui pemberdayaan segenap potensi masyarakat secara sinergis, holistik dan berkelanjutan sehingga program yang dilakukan dapat berjalan secara efektif dan produktif. Strategi ini sejalan dengan strategi yang dibangun oleh pemerintah, seperti yang tertuang dalam rencana pengembangan Kabupaten Karangasem 2005-2010, prioritas pengembangan wilayah tersebut meliputi pengembangan Bebandem sebagai pusat pengembangan kakao dan sapi, rehabilitasi lahan bekas galian C untuk dikembangkan menjadi kawasan hutan, pemberdayaan ekonomi masyarakat khususnya industri rumah tangga, industri menengah dan koperasi, pengembangan lembaga keuangan tradisional (LPD), dan pengembangan pertanian yang mengikutsertakan partisipasi desa adat. Hal ini dimulai dengan rencana pengembangan yang efektif, wilayah ini perlu mendapat dukungan dari universitas, yang memiliki tujuan dan fungsi sebagai inisiator, motivator, fasilitator, innovator dan komunikator dalam pengembangan pariwisata secara lebih luas. Metode yang ditawarkan untuk mengatasi permasalahan wilayah diatas meliputi beberapa pendekatan, yaitu: (1) Model Partisipatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), (2) model Entrepreneurship Capacity Building (ECB), (3) model Teknologi Transfer (TT) dan (4) model Informasi Teknologi (IT). Kegiatan yang dilakukan, secara garis besar dapat dikelompokan menjadi 5, yaitu: (1) Budidaya tanaman kakao, penanggulangan penyakit gayas, dan tumpangsari kakao dengan HMT, (2) Pengolahan hasil pertanian local (labu siam dan umbi-umbian) bahan camilan khas masyarakat setempat, (3) Pengolahan limbah pertanian menjadi pakan sapi dan pengolahan limbah sapi menjadi pupuk permentasi, (4) Reahabilitasi lahan bekas galian C dengan tanaman kultura (tanaman keperluan ritual), dan (5) Penyusunan awig-awig tertulis berbasis pemberdayaan masyarakat Kata-kata kunci: pemberdayaan, ekonomi kerakyatan, masyarakat adat Executive Summary The purpose of IbW is to empower people in building local capacity as well as welfare of society through technology-based local exploitation potency, at Bebandem, Karangsem Regency in particular. Bebandem is located in the northern part of Karangasem regency, geographically located at an altitude between 225-975 m above sea level. The village occupied an area of 61.80 km². Most of the areas consist of hills, with steep cliffs and into the upstream of the several rivers that flow in Karangasem regency. Geologically, the regions are formed from sediment eruption of Mount Agung volcanic material that became the C minerals. Data showed that the land use in the district is primarily for dry land (87.24%), 8.38% of agricultural fields, and others (7.02%). Most people (73.54%) work in agriculture sector (agriculture paddy fields, plantations, and livestock), 19.33% produce various kinds of craft, trade and services 6.01%, and about 1.12% working in the mining. These figures indicate that the agricultural sector has a strategic role and need priority to be developed. Recently, the most developed commodity in the region is cocoa and salak (snake-skin fruit). These commodities offer many advantages, include: high and relatively stable prices, easily sold in the market, and the relatively easy to handle, does not require special and difficult treatment. Meanwhile, in the livestock sector, a cattle in particular, plays a fairly important as supporting the family economy. However, poverty is still considered as the most crucial problem in this region. In 2008, it is recorded that number of people living below poverty line is high, about 5996 households of total 41,835 families within Karangasem Regency. This condition requires a specific strategy and efforts to determine a more serious step in building the community´s economy. The strategy pursued in this program is through synergic, holistic and sustainable empowerment of all communities’ potential in order to ensure effective and productive program. This strategy is inline with the strategy set up by the government. As stated in the Karangasem Regency Development Plan 2005-2010, priority will be given in the following areas, include developing Bebandem as integrated cocoa and cattle development centers; rehabilitation of ex-mining land through the development of community forests C; economic empowerment of the people, especially small business / home industries, medium enterprises and cooperatives, traditional financial institutions (LPD), and agriculture in the broad sense to include the participation of desa adat (indigenous village). It is also stated that to make sure the effectiveness of this development plan, the region needs support from university/college, which aimed to function as initiator, motivator, facilitator, innovator and communicator in tourism development widely. Methods and approaches used in this community empowerment program, include (1) participatory rural appraisal (PRA) model; 2) entrepreneurship capacity building (ECB) model; 3) technology transfer (TT) model and (4) information model technology (IT). In general, the overall activities performed are: (1) cocoa cultivation, gayas disease prevention, and intercropping cocoa with HMT, (2) Processing of local agricultural produce (squash and jain) of typical local snacks, (3) Processing of agricultural waste into cattle feed and cattle waste into fertilizer fermentation, (4) Development of forest by planting ‘kultura’ (plantation used for ritual purposes), and (5) Draft of written awig awig (traditional rules and regulations) based community empowerment. Result showed that IbW activities got a very positive response from stakeholders - target communities, village heads, district and Local Government Unit (SKPD). There are number of reasons that drive these conditions include: (1) IbW program have brought significant benefits for the society, especially the transfer of applied science and technology to the public that fits the needs of the community, (2) Methods and community empowerment strategies undertaken in these activities, especially the assistances considered more effective compare with any community empowerment without assistance-ship, and (3) The involvement of various components within the team especially the PPL (communication and extension officer), head of village, and Babinsa, especially in creating a synergy between the respective components so that the empowerment run intensive and productive which resulted on the sustainability of the program conducted. Key words: empower, social welfare, local community
PERKAWINAN PADA GELAHANG DALAM MASYARAKAT HUKUM ADAT DI PROVINSI BALI DITINJAU DARI UNDANG-UNDANG NO. 1 TAHUN 1974 TENTANG PERKAWINAN Dyatmikawati, Putu
DIH Vol 7, No 14 (2011)
Publisher : DIH

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Abstract

Perkawinan bagi orang Bali-Hindu yang hidup dalam masyarakat hukum adat di Bali (dikenal dengan “desa adat” atau “desa pakraman”), relatif berbeda dengan perkawinan bagi masyarakat yang lainnya. Perbedaan ini terjadi sebagai konsekuensi sistem kekerabatan patrilenial atau purusadan kapurusa yang dianut. Sistem ini membawa konsekuensi adanya dua bentuk perkawinan, yaitu: (1) Perkawinan biasa (pihak wanita meninggalkan keluarganya dan masuk menjadi anggota keluarga suaminya); (2) Perkawinan nyentana atau nyeburin (pihak laki-laki yang meninggalkan keluarganya dan masuk menjadi anggota keluarga istrinya). Apabila calon pengantin tidak mungkin memilih bentuk perkawinan biasa dan bentuk perkawinan nyentana, maka akan dipilih bentuk perkawinan pada gelahang. Bentuk perkawinan ini masih menjadi pro dan kontra dalam masyarakat adat di Bali. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan kalian pada perkawinan Gelahang Masyarakat Hukum Adat di Provinsi Bali, Ditinjau dari Undang-Undang  No. 1 Tahun 1974 tentang Perkawinan.Kata kunci: Masyarakat Adat, Sistem Kekeluargaan, Perkawinan Pada Gelahang.
Kewajiban pada Perkawinan “Pada Gelahang” dalam Perspektif Hukum Adat Bali Dyatmikawati, Putu
Jurnal Kajian Bali (Journal of Bali Studies) Vol 5, No 2 (2015): BALI DIASPORA DAN KEARIFAN LOKAL
Publisher : Jurnal Kajian Bali (Journal of Bali Studies)

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Abstract

Pada Gelahang marriage is relatively a new form of marriage in traditional community (desa pakraman) in Bali. Commonly the recognized form of marriage is biasa (common) marriage (the wife left her house and joined her husband’s family) and nyentana marriage (the husband left his house and joined his wife’s family). This is the consequence of kapurusa kinship system (patrilineal) in traditional community in Bali. The form of Pada Gelahang marriage was chosen for those who could not hold biasa marriage and nyentana marriage, as each bride and groom was born as the only child in their family. Based on the results of the research, there were found that the numbers of couples who had held pada gelahang marriage were increasing year to year. Based on Balinese customary law, the couples of pada gelahang marriage conduct their responsibilities in two places (double), namely the responsibilities to the family and to her husband’s traditional village, as well the responsibilities to the family and to his wife’s traditional village.
FUCNTIONS OF CUSTOMARY LAW IN MANAGING WATER MANAGEMENT WITHIN FARMERS’ ORGANIZATION: Case of Subak Kedua, Denpasar City, Bali Province, Indonesia Dyatmikawati, Putu
Jurnal PIPSI (Jurnal Pendidikan IPS Indonesia) Vol 2, No 2 (2017): Volume 2 Number 2 September 2017
Publisher : STKIP Singkawang

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Abstract

Irrigation water management in Bali province, Indonesia has been well known due to the existence of traditional irrigation system, called subak. Subak is not only an institution in agriculture, but also as a part of Bali’s local wisdom. The philosophy of the subak system is Tri Hita Karana (three causes of happiness) which a basis for subak to manage irrigation and farming activities. The objective of this study is to describe the subak as organization and functions of customary law in sustaining the activities on farming and irrigation in subak system. The results of study point out that subak as an organization employs traditional management to members, particularly in irrigation and rice farming activities. In order to manage these activities, subak has established customary law based on the traditions happened in the community where subak is located and based on the Tri Hita Karana. Thus subak’s customary law is specific location in nature. Therefore, the  main contents of customary law concerning the parhyangan (relationship between farmers and God), pawongan (relationship among farmers) and and palemahan (relationship between farmers and environment). Applying Tri Hita Karana, subak ensures to achieve the harmony among the members and management board and make sustainable irrigation system.