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Economic Assessment of Fattening Beef Cattle Through The Rice Straw Utilization Priyanti, Atien; Kostaman, T; Haryanto, B; Diwyanto, K
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 11, No 1 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (330.903 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v11i1.759

Abstract

Based on the agricultural production, Indonesia has very high potential to increase rice production through the implementation of adapted and liable technology. The role of non-rice sub sector is also needed to harmonize management in various aspects, in which one of them is livestock sub sector. This management could be done through the development of livestock farming using the rice straw as one of the potential animal feed. The objective of the study was to get a conceptual integrated systems of rice production based on livestock (cattle) development. The estimation of bio-economic for rice straw fermented utilization as animal feed has been done through observation of the cattle biological parameter. An economic approach that has been used in the study was the partial budget analysis including the feed cost per gain (FC/g) and gross margin analysis. The results of the study has shown that FC/g of the cattle from Boyolali and Sumba Ongole (SO) were the most efficient in using the feed compared to the other four cattle. Those were Rp.4600,- and Rp.4995,- per head per day for cattle from Boyolali and SO, respectively. The two types of cattle also reached the gross margin estimation, however SO cattle was slightly less than that of the cattle from Boyolali (Rp.2854,- vs Rp.2897,- ) per head per day. The differences were very much depending on the growth rate of each type of the cattle.   Key words: Feed cost per gain, gross margin estimation, rice straw, beef cattle farming
In vitro embryo production through modification of time and gonadotropin hormone during oocytes maturation Triwulaninngsih, Endang; Toelihere, M.R; Rutledge, J.J; Yusuf, T.L; Purwantara, B; Diwyanto, K
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 6, No 3 (2001): SEPTEMBER 2001
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (221.222 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i3.238

Abstract

This research has been conducted at the laboratory of in vitro fertilization of the University of Wisconsin, USA. These embryos can be used for improving genetic value of Indonesian cattle. There is transportation constraint in importing oocytes from USA. It takes more than 24 hours to bring it to Indonesia. In fact, oocytes maturation and ready to be fertilized normally requires only 24 hours in 5% CO2 incubator at 38.5°C. Therefore, this research is needed to study the effect of gonadotropin hormone and time for oocyte maturity and ready to be fertilized at a period more than 24 hours. If this problem could be solved then the importation of oocytes could be cheaper and easier than importation of life animals or embryos. Ovaries were collected from slaughterhouse in Wisconsin. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium in 5% CO2 incubator and at 30°C enriched with FSH 10 μl/ml, oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml and 10 % FCS as control of gonadotropin hormone treatment (A); with FSH 10 μl/ml (B); with oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml (C) and without gonadotropin hormone (D) for 24 hours, 30 hours and 36 hours as time of maturation treatment I, II and III respectively. The oocytes were fertilized in vitro with motile sperm selection by Percoll gradient and incubation between sperm and oocytes in fertilization media (TALP) for 20 hours. All zygotes were cultured in modification of KSOM medium up to blastocyst and were fed serum 5 μl/50 μl medium on day 6. Data were analyzed by SAS program. Percentage of cleavage between time of maturation were significant (p<0.01); between gonadotropin hormone treatment A vs B and A vs C and B vs C and B vs D and between A vs D were significant (p<0.01), but between treatment C vs D were not significant (p>0.05). Percentage of blastocyst between time of maturation were not significant (p>0.05), but between gonadotropin hormone treatment A vs B and A vs C and B vs D and C vs D were significant (p<0.01), but between treatment A vs D and B vs C were not significant (p>0.05). Percentage of cleavage, morula, blastocyst, expanded blastocyst and unertilized  ova on this study are 66.73%, 22.43%, 40.33%, 0.81% and 32.51 for 24 hours incubation (I); 61.55%, 25.69%, 32.69%,  0.54% and 27.61% for 30 hours incubation (II); 72.43%, 32.06%, 37.97%, 0.0% and 25.31% for 36 hours incubation (III) respectively. According to this study, in vitro production of embryo could be conducted at 30°C and incubation on maturation media for more than 24 hours.   Key words: Oocytes, cleavage, embryos, blastocyst
Reorganization of Breeding Institutions to Develop Breeding Stock of Indonesian Holstein Talib, C; Anggraeni, A; Diwyanto, K
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 11, No 2 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (144.089 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v11i2.751

Abstract

Development of dairy cattle production through breeding system improvement is not well arranged for guaranteeing a successful to increase capability of Indonesian milk industries. Some constraints that inhibit the programs are only a short-term program available to improve cattle production ie., improvement of rearing and feeding management; a small number of finance available; no appropriate joint-action between breeding institutions; and the operational of recording program and progeny test are very limited. Other factors that also directly or indirectly influence the development of dairy cattle production are only a small number of animal unite is kept by farmer, limited land area per family, no access for banking supported, and relatively small upland area available in comparison to milk requirement in Indonesia. Improvement of breeding program by way of artificial insemination (AI) is good conducted but the problem is the bulls for producing AI’s semen are not tested under Indonesian condition. Therefore, proven bulls that tested in Indonesia has to be priority together with identification for highly producing cows. All activities can be well organized if the recording program recorded by farmer or some one else and all breeding institutions can rearrange their programs to produce a better mechanism for supporting Indonesian milk industries.   Key words: Institution, breeding, Indonesian Holstein
Performances of the first and second generation composite breed resulting from crossing between local Sumatra sheep and hair sheep ., Subandriyo; Setiadi, Bambang; Rangkuti, M; Diwyanto, K
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 2 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (53.569 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i2.98

Abstract

Improving sheep productivity can be conducted by genetic improvement and improving environmental factors. Genetic improvement usually can be done by selection and creating composite or synthetic breed by crossbreeding. Composite breed created by crossbreeding between different breeds and followed by selection. The study of crossing between Sumatra sheep with fat-tail sheep from East Java, St . Croix hair sheep (US) and Barbados Blackbelly hair sheep has been carried out since 1986, and show that the crossbred are better in term of production and reproduction . In 1996/1997, the first generation (F1) of composite breed (KOM) has been created by crossing between Barbados Cross (BC) rams and St . Croix Cross (HC) ewes or reciprocally. The second generation (F2) of composite breed has been created by inter-se mating . However, F1-KOM and F2-KOM  vary in their performances, therefore selection should be conducted. The results showed that birth weight and weaning weight of crossing between BC rams and HC ewes tended to be heavier than those of reciprocal crossing between HC rams and BC ewes, but the differences were not significant (P>0 .05) . Birth weight and weaning weight of crossing between BC rams with HC ewes and reciprocal cross were 2.48 _+ 0.70 kg (n=791), 12 .50 _+ 3 .26 kg (n=640) and 2.37 _+ 0.62 kg (n=147), 12 .29 _+ 3.30kg (n=122), respectively . Meanwhile, observations of inter-se mating of Fl-KOM showed that the weight at the first mating was 26 .7 _+ 3.82 kg (n=80), age of dam at the first lambing was 15 .7 _+ 1 .73 months (n=83), weight at post-partum was 29 .86 _+ 3 .30 kg, and litter size at the first parity was 1 .43 _+ 0.59 (n=83) . The mean of age at the first mating of KOM was around 10 .7 months. Mean of mating weight at the second parity was 28 .29 +_ 3 .51 kg (n=11), age of dam at the  second lambing was 20.6 _+ 1 .99 month (n=11), post-partum weight was 26 .92 _+ 4.03 kg (n=11) and litter size was 1 .64 _+ 0.81 (n=11) . Weaning weight of Fl-KOM, F2-KOM, BC, HC and St. Croix (H) after adjusted by season, sex, age of dam and type of birth were significantly different among Fl-KOM with F2-KOM, BC, HC, and H. However, there were no significantly different among F2-KOM with BC and HC. The results of the study indicated that for improving selection respons, the corrections or adjustments of environmentally induced superiority (sex, type of birth and age of dam at lambing) for every genotype and certain generation should be conducted, in order to increase the rate of genetic improvement.   Key words : Composite breed, first generation, second generation
In vitro embryo production through modification of time and gonadotropin hormone during oocytes maturation Triwulaninngsih, Endang; Toelihere, M.R; Rutledge, J.J; Yusuf, T.L; Purwantara, B; Diwyanto, K
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 6, No 3 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (221.222 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i3.238

Abstract

This research has been conducted at the laboratory of in vitro fertilization of the University of Wisconsin, USA. These embryos can be used for improving genetic value of Indonesian cattle. There is transportation constraint in importing oocytes from USA. It takes more than 24 hours to bring it to Indonesia. In fact, oocytes maturation and ready to be fertilized normally requires only 24 hours in 5% CO2 incubator at 38.5°C. Therefore, this research is needed to study the effect of gonadotropin hormone and time for oocyte maturity and ready to be fertilized at a period more than 24 hours. If this problem could be solved then the importation of oocytes could be cheaper and easier than importation of life animals or embryos. Ovaries were collected from slaughterhouse in Wisconsin. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium in 5% CO2 incubator and at 30°C enriched with FSH 10 μl/ml, oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml and 10 % FCS as control of gonadotropin hormone treatment (A); with FSH 10 μl/ml (B); with oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml (C) and without gonadotropin hormone (D) for 24 hours, 30 hours and 36 hours as time of maturation treatment I, II and III respectively. The oocytes were fertilized in vitro with motile sperm selection by Percoll gradient and incubation between sperm and oocytes in fertilization media (TALP) for 20 hours. All zygotes were cultured in modification of KSOM medium up to blastocyst and were fed serum 5 μl/50 μl medium on day 6. Data were analyzed by SAS program. Percentage of cleavage between time of maturation were significant (p<0.01); between gonadotropin hormone treatment A vs B and A vs C and B vs C and B vs D and between A vs D were significant (p<0.01), but between treatment C vs D were not significant (p>0.05). Percentage of blastocyst between time of maturation were not significant (p>0.05), but between gonadotropin hormone treatment A vs B and A vs C and B vs D and C vs D were significant (p<0.01), but between treatment A vs D and B vs C were not significant (p>0.05). Percentage of cleavage, morula, blastocyst, expanded blastocyst and unertilized  ova on this study are 66.73%, 22.43%, 40.33%, 0.81% and 32.51 for 24 hours incubation (I); 61.55%, 25.69%, 32.69%,  0.54% and 27.61% for 30 hours incubation (II); 72.43%, 32.06%, 37.97%, 0.0% and 25.31% for 36 hours incubation (III) respectively. According to this study, in vitro production of embryo could be conducted at 30°C and incubation on maturation media for more than 24 hours.   Key words: Oocytes, cleavage, embryos, blastocyst
Using CR1aa versus KSOM as the culture medium for in vitro embryo production of cattle Triwulaninngsih, Endang; Toelihere, M.R; Rutledge, J.J; Yusuf, T.L; Purwantara, B; Diwyanto, K
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 7, No 1 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (237.936 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i1.272

Abstract

This research has been conducted at the laboratory of in vitro fertilization in the Department of Animal Science University of Wisconsin, USA. These embryos can be used for improving genetic value of Indonesian cattle. Oocytes were matured in TCM- 199 medium (in 5% CO2 incubator and at 390C) enriched with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 10 μl/ml, oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml and 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS). The oocytes were fertilized in vitro with motile sperm and incubation between sperm and oocytes in fertilization medium Tyroide Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) for 20 hours. All zygotes were cultured in CR1aa (n=1549) medium versus modification of protein-free pottasium simplex optimized medium (KSOM) (n=675) up to blastocyst stage and were fed FCS 5 μl/50 μl medium on day 6, as treatment A and B respectively. Data were analyzed by completely randomized design with SAS program. Percentages of cleavage, morula, blastocyst, expanded blastocyst, unfertilized and degenerated ova in this study were 91.4% vs 75.6 %; 75.6% vs 58.9%; 61.5% vs 38.5%; 31.2% vs 5.1%, 8.6% vs 24.4%, 15.7% vs 8% which were significantly different (P<0.01) for treatment CR1aa and KSOM respectively. Based on this study, CR1aa medium is better culture medium than KSOM for efficient in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos.   Key words: Oocytes, in vitro fertilization, embryo, blastocyst, culture medium
The use of blood protein polymorphism to estimate genetic distance among populations of Indonesian native sheep, St. Croix and Merino Suparyanto, Agus; Purwadaria, T; ., Subandriyo; Haryati, T; Diwyanto, K
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 7, No 1 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (174.982 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i1.274

Abstract

The genetic distance among populations of Indonesia native sheep (Ciamis, Garut, Sumatera and Garahan), St. Croix and Merino were estimated to investigate the genetic relationship among those breeds. Blood protein polymorphism of transferin (Tf), post-transferin (PTf), albumin (Alb), post-albumin (PAlb) were detected from blood plasma, while haemoglobine (Hb) was detected from erythrocyte using Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). Results of PAGE showed that Tf was controlled by 6 alleles, while Alb by 4 alleles, PTf by 3 Alleles and PAlb and Hb by 2 alleles. Value of breeding coefficient within individual subpopulations (FIS) for Tf (-0,0014), Alb (-0,0046) and Hb (0,0256) were not significantly different by noel. These results show that data of gene frequency are still following Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and inbreeding inside the sub population did not occur. The closest distance among the native breeds is the subpopulations of Ciamis and Garut due to neighboring area and similar traits of Thin Tail Sheep. The genetic distance of both population to Sumatera Thin Tail Sheep and Garahan Fat Tail are quite far. In addition to that results all Indonesian native breed were distinctly different from St. Croix and Merino.   Key words: Indonesian native sheep, St. Croix, Merino, blood protein polymorphism, genetic distance  
Economic Assessment of Fattening Beef Cattle Through The Rice Straw Utilization Priyanti, Atien; Kostaman, T; Haryanto, B; Diwyanto, K
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 11, No 1 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (330.903 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v11i1.759

Abstract

Based on the agricultural production, Indonesia has very high potential to increase rice production through the implementation of adapted and liable technology. The role of non-rice sub sector is also needed to harmonize management in various aspects, in which one of them is livestock sub sector. This management could be done through the development of livestock farming using the rice straw as one of the potential animal feed. The objective of the study was to get a conceptual integrated systems of rice production based on livestock (cattle) development. The estimation of bio-economic for rice straw fermented utilization as animal feed has been done through observation of the cattle biological parameter. An economic approach that has been used in the study was the partial budget analysis including the feed cost per gain (FC/g) and gross margin analysis. The results of the study has shown that FC/g of the cattle from Boyolali and Sumba Ongole (SO) were the most efficient in using the feed compared to the other four cattle. Those were Rp.4600,- and Rp.4995,- per head per day for cattle from Boyolali and SO, respectively. The two types of cattle also reached the gross margin estimation, however SO cattle was slightly less than that of the cattle from Boyolali (Rp.2854,- vs Rp.2897,- ) per head per day. The differences were very much depending on the growth rate of each type of the cattle.   Key words: Feed cost per gain, gross margin estimation, rice straw, beef cattle farming
Performances of the first and second generation composite breed resulting from crossing between local Sumatra sheep and hair sheep. ., Subandriyo; Setiadi, Bambang; Rangkuti, M; Diwyanto, K; Doloksaribu, M; Batubara, Leo P; Romjali, Endang; Eliaser, Simo; Handiwirawan, Eko
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 2 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i2.99

Abstract

Improving sheep productivity can be conducted by genetic improvement and improving environmental factors. Genetic improvement usually can be done by selection and creating composite or synthetic breed by crossbreeding. Composite breed created by crossbreeding between different breeds and followed by selection. The study of crossing between Sumatra sheep with fat-tail sheep from East Java, St . Croix hair sheep (US) and Barbados Blackbelly hair sheep has been carried out since 1986, and show that the crossbred are better in term of production and reproduction . In 1996/1997, the first generation (F1) of composite breed (KOM) has been created by crossing between Barbados Cross (BC) rams and St . Croix Cross (HC) ewes or reciprocally. The second generation (F2) of composite breed has been created by inter-se mating . However, F1-KOM and F2-KOM  vary in their performances, therefore selection should be conducted. The results showed that birth weight and weaning weight of crossing between BC rams and HC ewes tended to be heavier than those of reciprocal crossing between HC rams and BC ewes, but the differences were not significant (P>0 .05) . Birth weight and weaning weight of crossing between BC rams with HC ewes and reciprocal cross were 2.48 _+ 0.70 kg (n=791), 12 .50 _+ 3 .26 kg (n=640) and 2.37 _+ 0.62 kg (n=147), 12 .29 _+ 3.30kg (n=122), respectively . Meanwhile, observations of inter-se mating of Fl-KOM showed that the weight at the first mating was 26 .7 _+ 3.82 kg (n=80), age of dam at the first lambing was 15 .7 _+ 1 .73 months (n=83), weight at post-partum was 29 .86 _+ 3 .30 kg, and litter size at the first parity was 1 .43 _+ 0.59 (n=83) . The mean of age at the first mating of KOM was around 10 .7 months. Mean of mating weight at the second parity was 28 .29 +_ 3 .51 kg (n=11), age of dam at the  second lambing was 20.6 _+ 1 .99 month (n=11), post-partum weight was 26 .92 _+ 4.03 kg (n=11) and litter size was 1 .64 _+ 0.81 (n=11) . Weaning weight of Fl-KOM, F2-KOM, BC, HC and St. Croix (H) after adjusted by season, sex, age of dam and type of birth were significantly different among Fl-KOM with F2-KOM, BC, HC, and H. However, there were no significantly different among F2-KOM with BC and HC. The results of the study indicated that for improving selection respons, the corrections or adjustments of environmentally induced superiority (sex, type of birth and age of dam at lambing) for every genotype and certain generation should be conducted, in order to increase the rate of genetic improvement.   Key words : Composite breed, first generation, second generation
Performances of the first and second generation composite breed resulting from crossing between local Sumatra sheep and hair sheep. ., Subandriyo; Setiadi, Bambang; Rangkuti, M; Diwyanto, K; Doloksaribu, M; Batubara, Leo P; Romjali, Endang; Eliaser, Simo; Handiwirawan, Eko
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 3, No 2 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i2.99

Abstract

Improving sheep productivity can be conducted by genetic improvement and improving environmental factors. Genetic improvement usually can be done by selection and creating composite or synthetic breed by crossbreeding. Composite breed created by crossbreeding between different breeds and followed by selection. The study of crossing between Sumatra sheep with fat-tail sheep from East Java, St . Croix hair sheep (US) and Barbados Blackbelly hair sheep has been carried out since 1986, and show that the crossbred are better in term of production and reproduction . In 1996/1997, the first generation (F1) of composite breed (KOM) has been created by crossing between Barbados Cross (BC) rams and St . Croix Cross (HC) ewes or reciprocally. The second generation (F2) of composite breed has been created by inter-se mating . However, F1-KOM and F2-KOM  vary in their performances, therefore selection should be conducted. The results showed that birth weight and weaning weight of crossing between BC rams and HC ewes tended to be heavier than those of reciprocal crossing between HC rams and BC ewes, but the differences were not significant (P>0 .05) . Birth weight and weaning weight of crossing between BC rams with HC ewes and reciprocal cross were 2.48 _+ 0.70 kg (n=791), 12 .50 _+ 3 .26 kg (n=640) and 2.37 _+ 0.62 kg (n=147), 12 .29 _+ 3.30kg (n=122), respectively . Meanwhile, observations of inter-se mating of Fl-KOM showed that the weight at the first mating was 26 .7 _+ 3.82 kg (n=80), age of dam at the first lambing was 15 .7 _+ 1 .73 months (n=83), weight at post-partum was 29 .86 _+ 3 .30 kg, and litter size at the first parity was 1 .43 _+ 0.59 (n=83) . The mean of age at the first mating of KOM was around 10 .7 months. Mean of mating weight at the second parity was 28 .29 +_ 3 .51 kg (n=11), age of dam at the  second lambing was 20.6 _+ 1 .99 month (n=11), post-partum weight was 26 .92 _+ 4.03 kg (n=11) and litter size was 1 .64 _+ 0.81 (n=11) . Weaning weight of Fl-KOM, F2-KOM, BC, HC and St. Croix (H) after adjusted by season, sex, age of dam and type of birth were significantly different among Fl-KOM with F2-KOM, BC, HC, and H. However, there were no significantly different among F2-KOM with BC and HC. The results of the study indicated that for improving selection respons, the corrections or adjustments of environmentally induced superiority (sex, type of birth and age of dam at lambing) for every genotype and certain generation should be conducted, in order to increase the rate of genetic improvement.   Key words : Composite breed, first generation, second generation