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Hubungan Produksi IFN- dan IL-4 dengan Pengobatan Strategi DOTS fase intensif pada Penderita Tuberkulosis Paru Indreswari, Sri Andarini; Hadisaputro, Suharyo; Soesatyo, Marsetyawan HNE; Dharmawan, Yudhy
PROSIDING SEMINAR NASIONAL Vol 1, No 1 (2008): CONTINUING MEDICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION (CMHE) | Peran Biomolekuler dalam Pen
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang

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Abstract

Latar Belakang: Tuberkulosis paru masih menjadi masalah utama di seluruh dunia, terutama di Negara sedang berkembang. Di Indonesia hasil pengobatan dan konversi belum optimal. Banyak penyebab kekurang berhasilan pengobatan ini belum diketahui, khususnya yang berkaitan dengan faktor imunologi. Penelitian ini bertujuan menjelaskan hubungan produksi IFN- dan IL-4 dengan kesembuhan klinis, dalam hal ini terjadinya konversi BTA pasca 2 bulan pengobatan dengan strategi DOTS.Metoda: Rancangan penelitian adalah nested case control, pada penderita baru tuberkulosis paru dengan pemeriksaan sputum BTA positip yang mendapat pengobatan strategi DOTS selama 2 bulan. Kasus adalah penderita yang tidak mengalami konversi pasca 2 bulan pengobatan (BTA tetap positip), sedangkan kontrol adalah penderita yang mengalami konversi pasca 2 bulan pengobatan (BTA menjadi negatip). BTA sebagai hasil pemeriksaan Ziehl Neelsen yang diteruskan dengan tes Niasin. Produksi IFN-dan IL-4 di dalam serum diperiksa dengan metode ELISA. Untuk uji beda rata-rata produksi sitokin antara kasus dan kontrol dilakukan analisis dengan T- test.Hasil: Jumlah sampel 73, diperoleh dari 158 penderita baru berobat jalan yang diikuti selama 2 bulan, terdiri dari 34 kasus (14 diperiksa sitokin) dan 39 kontrol (21 diperiksa sitokin). Penelitian dilakukan di BP4, 12 Puskesmas dan RSUD Kota Semarang. Produksi rata-rata IFN- di dalam serum pasca 2 bulan pengobatan berbeda secara signifikan antara kasus dan kontrol dengan stimulasi PPD 0,5 ug/mL dan PPD 5 ug/mL. Tidak terdapat perbedaan antara kasus dan kontrol pada produksi rata-rata IL-4 dengan semua stimulasi dan tanpa stimulasi.Simpulan: Perbedaan secara signifikan antara kasus dan kontrol pasca 2 bulan pengobatan dalam produksi sitokin (IFN-) bersifat spesifik (hanya dengan stimulasi antigen). Produksi IL-4 tidak terdeteksi kecuali dengan stimulasi PHA, tidak terdapat perbedaan secara signifikan antara kasus dan kontrol.Kata kunci: Tuberkulosis, Interferon-, Interleukin-4, DOTS
HUBUNGAN KARAKTERISTIK TERHADAP PENGETAHUAN DAN SIKAP KADER KESEHATAN TENTANG PENTINGNYA DATA DI BUKU KIA Dharmawan, Yudhy
Pena Jurnal Ilmu Pengetahuan Dan Teknologi Vol 28, No 1 (2015): PENA Maret 2015
Publisher : Pena Jurnal Ilmu Pengetahuan Dan Teknologi

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Abstract

Infant Mortality in Indonesia still high . It is could have been avoided with good management of MCH services. To achieve good management activities, it is necessary availability data from surveillance activities in the community. The data is sourced in the MCH handbook. Cadre very important role in the completeness and validity of data captured  in the MCH handbook. Knowledge and attitudes cadres determine the data recording in the MCH handbook. Therefore it is important to know what are the factors that influence the knowledge and attitudes about the importance of data Kader KIA. The research method used survey approach by looking at the relationship between age, education and length of employment with the attitude and knowledge of cadres. Results showed characteristic Cadres of the age, including adulthood, with most respondents education is the primary level. length of employment been a cadre mean is 8.06 years. Most of the knowledge and attitudes of the respondents about the importance of data MCH very good ,. There is a significant and positive relationship between education with the knowledge and attitudes about the importance of data MCH. There is a significant relationship between age and in contrast with the attitude of the cadres of the importance of data MCH. There is no relationship between the old cadre with knowledge and attitudes about the importance of data KIA cadre. It is advisable to pay attention to the education cadre recruitment. Keywords: Health Cadre, Data, Book KIA
Chitosan Pada Sisik Ikan Bandeng (Chanos Chanos) Sebagai Alternatif Pengawet Alami Pada Bakso Faridah, Fathin; Khafidzoh, Anisatul; Mustikawati, Dewi; Anggraeni, Nofi; Dharmawan, Yudhy
Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Vol 2, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa

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Abstract

Manusia membutuhkan makanan. Makanan yang baik adalah makanan tanpa zat aditif. Indonesia memiliki beragam jajanan kuliner, salah satunya bakso. Dalam pengolahan bakso, diperlukan zat pengawet. Penggunaan boraks pada bakso dapat membahayakan kesehatan. Indonesia merupakan negara maritim yang memiliki kekayaan alam potensial, salah satunya adalah hasil perikanan. Bandeng (Chanos chanos), selain mudah didapat dan enak untuk dikonsumsi, sisiknya pun memiliki manfaat untuk pengawet makanan. Chitosan adalah produk alami dari chitin, polysaccharide pada eksoskeleton ikan. Bahan dasar chitosan antara lain dari sisik ikan. Chitosan mempunyai kelebihan dan tingkat keamanan lebih dibandingkan dengan boraks karena mempunyai gugus aktif yang akan berikatan dengan mikroba, maka chitosan mampu menghambat pertumbuhan mikroba. Penelitian ini akan membuktikan keefektifan chitosan pada sisik ikan bandeng sebagai pengawet pada bakso. Luaran yang diharapkan adalah pembuktian terkait keefektifan pemanfaatan chitosan pada sisik ikan sebagai pengawet alami. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode penelitian eksperimental. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling, yaitu berdasarkan karakteristik subjek yang telah ditentukan oleh peneliti.
HUBUNGAN REWARD & PUNISHMENT DAN PENGAWASAN KINERJA DENGAN KUALITAS DATA SENSUS HARIAN RAWAT INAP OLEH PERAWAT DI RS MARDI RAHAYU KUDUS Febriani, Rade Roro Yuke Rahma; Dharminto, Dharminto; Dharmawan, Yudhy
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 4, No 1 (2016): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

Good data quality can be seen from the fulfillment functional dimensions data quality, namely: complete , accurate and timely .On preliminary study carried out at Mardi Rahayu Kudus Hospital achievement of completeness daily form in-patient census by 67,26% and achievement of accuracy daily form in-patient census by 60.34% .The purpose of this research was to describe the relationship reward & punishment and performance monitoring with data quality daily form in-patient census by nurse at the Mardi Rahayu Kudus Hospital.This research using descriptive analytic methods.The population research is nurses who have the main tasks and functions fill daily census in-patient care in 14 rooms. Samples fill some 11 nurses and 154 form daily census in-patient. The research results show the an index of reward & punishment on daily census in-patient (85%) , the index performance monitoring on daily census in-patient (84%), and data quality daily census in-patient (53.17%). Based on Spearman Rank Correlation statistical tests showed that the variables of reward & punishment and performance monitoring is not related to quality daily form in-patient census (sig. reward & punishment = 0,345 and sig. Performance monitoring= 0.872). Suggestions for nurses to fill daily form in-patient census and check before it’s collected. Medical records department  make SOP (Standard Operational Procedure) about fill daily form in-patient census. Head room to have regular monitoring of performance against the daily form in-patient census
KANDUNGAN L-DOPA DALAM VARIASI PERENDAMAN DAN PEREBUSAN DALAM PROSES PEMBUATAN TEMPE BENGUK Winarni, Sri; Dharmawan, Yudhy
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Vol 11, No 2 (2016): JURNAL KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT (KEMAS) JANUARY 2016
Publisher : Jurusan Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Fakultas Ilmu Keolahragaan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/kemas.v11i2.3489

Abstract

AbstrakL-Dopa biji koro benguk sebesar 14,7%, berbeda dengan tempe benguk. Tujuan penelitian adalah menguji L-Dopa dalam 4 pengolahan tempe benguk yang berbeda. Penelitian tahun 2015 ini menggunakan teknik pengumpulan data dengan mengamati proses pengolahan tempe benguk dan menguji L-Dopa dalam fraksi tempe benguk dengan HPLC. Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh pemilik industri tempe benguk. Sampel penelitian diambil dengan metode purposif sampling, menentukan 4 industri tempe benguk yang sering digunakan. Proses pertama dengan satu rebusan 1-1,5 jam dan satu rendaman (2 hari) mengandung L-Dopa 8425,00 ppm. Proses kedua yaitu rebusan dua kali 1-1,5 jam dan ulangan rendaman tiga kali (setiap rendaman 1 hari 1 malam) mengandung L-Dopa 389,42 ppm. Proses ketiga yaitu ulangan rebusan dua kali (1,5-2 jam) dan rendaman satu kali mengandung L-Dopa 2163,37 ppm. Proses keempat rebusan satu kali (< 1 jam) dan rendaman satu kali (dua hari) mengandung L-Dopa tertinggi yaitu 9781,55 ppm.Kata kunci : Tempe benguk; Perendaman Perebusan; L-Dopa AbtractL-Dopa of koro benguk seed is around 14,7%, different with benguk tempeh. The objective of this study is to test L-Dopa in 4 different ways. Data were collected in 2015 by observing benguk tempeh processing and testing L-Dopa in benguk tempeh  (HPLC). The population of this study are all owners of benguk tempeh industries. The sample was taken by using purposive sampling, determining 4 benguk tempeh industries that mostly used. The first process with one boiling 1-1,5 hours and  one immersion (2 days) contain L-Dopa 8425,00 ppm. The second process with two boiling 1-1,5 hours and repetition immersion three times (each immersion 1 day 1 night) contains L-Dopa 389,42 ppm. The third process is twice re-boiling once (< 1 hour)  and immersion once again (2 days) contain the high L-Dopa that is 9781,55 ppm.Keyword : Benguk tempeh; Soaking-boiling; L-Dopa
PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI DOKTER KELUARGA (STUDI KASUS PADA SALAH SATU KLINIK DI KELURAHAN BULUSAN) Widiyantoro, Rio; Dharmawan, Yudhy; Mawarni, Atik; Agusyahbana, Farid
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 4, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

A clinic is a health care facility that provides personal heatlh treatment. The clinic used in this research have problems in registration, finance and pharmacy divisions. The registration division has duplicates of patients data and it takes time for officers to find those data. The Finance division periodic reports are too simple and the pharmacy division have to record everything in a book so its hard to oversee how much medicine is left or how much is used in a period of time. These problems are caused by inadequat information system.The purpose of this research is to develop a computer-based information system using rapid action development method.This is a qualitative development research. Information network is developed in accordance to the problems of registration, finance and pharmacy divisions. The subjects of this research are the user of the system which includes a single staff for each divisions. The devepment of the system uses the Rapid Application Development (RAD) method while the evaluation of the results uses End User Computing (EUC). RAD includes user needs assessment, design and implementation. EUC evaluates the conent, accuracy, format, timeliness and user compatibility.The results of this research is a information system that have menu, input form in each section of clinic, database and report on each section.  shows that the information system is applied in the clinic. After the system was developed, it was evaluated according to each users. While the pharmacy division cannot be evaluated because of retirement, evaluations of the other two divisions sows that this system has provided adequat information prcessing and is ready to be used.
HUBUNGAN BEBERAPA FAKTOR DENGAN KELENGKAPAN PENGISIAN BUKU KESEHATAN IBU DAN ANAK OLEH BIDAN DESA DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS JEPARA TAHUN 2016 Sarasati, Rosnaya Ari; Mawarni, Atik; Dharmawan, Yudhy
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 4, No 4 (2016): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

One effort to improve the quality of health care of mothers and children is completeness of MCH handbook. MCH handbook is a tool for early detection of disorder or maternal and child health issues. In Jepara district, the contents of MCH handbook were not complete and not filled, there were nutrition and feeding, Stimulation Detection and Early Intervention on Growth and Development and child health records. This study aims to analyze some factors related to the completeness of MCH handbook filling by a village midwives. This type of research was Explanatory Research with Cross Sectional Study. Study population was 16 village midwives and 1,001 mothers with 5 years old children and has a MCH handbook. Proportional random sampling was applied and obtained a sample of 16 village midwives and 88 MCH handbooks. Data analysis consisted of univariate, bivariate analysis using Rank Spearman and multivariate analysis using multiple linear regression. Results of univariate analysis showed that most of village midwives aged 35-39 years old (50%) with length of work in 11-20 years (56.3%), good enough knowledge (68.8%), good enough attitude (50%), less good motivation (37.5%), good enough skills (68.8%), good enough data requirement (43.8%), less complexity of form (50.0%). The results of the bivariate analysis showed that there are correlation between knowledge (rs = 0.488), attitude (rs = 0.317) and skills (rs = 0.329) with the completeness of MCH handbook filling by village midwives. Multivariate analysis showed that there are correlation between knowledge and skills with the completeness of MCH handbook filling by village midwives. Recommendation to Puskesmas Jepara are establish a training program about MCH handbook and how to filling MCH handbook that aims to improve the knowledge, attitude and skills of village midwives in filling of MCH handbook.
PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PENDIDIKAN KESEHATAN REPRODUKSI TERHADAP TINGKAT PENGETAHUAN REMAJA AWAL SEKOLAH DASAR DI DAERAH WISATA BANDUNGAN, KABUPATEN SEMARANG TAHUN 2016 Astri, Letisa Azelia; Winarni, Sri; Dharmawan, Yudhy
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 4, No 4 (2016): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

The problems faced by vulnerable early adolescents include promiscuity, early marriage, abortion and sexual transmitted infections such as HIV/AIDS. In some major cities, around 21-30% of adolescents had sexual intercourse. The number of HIV cases at Semarang Regency were 63 cases, while as many as 19 cases of AIDS. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of materials and methods of reproductive health education to knowledge level of early adolescent of elementary school in the tourist area Bandungan, Semarang regency. This study was an experimental study (true experimental) using the design of a randomized block design. These samples included 54 students grade 5. Data were analyzed by univariate and bivariate analysis with two-way anova test. The results show there is a difference between the material knowledge of the reproductive organs and puberty (p=0,0001). There was no difference between treatment groups knowledge of lectures, group discussions and brainstorming (p=0,398). The average post-test score highest reproductive material by using group discussions, namely 81,00 and highest average puberty material using the method of brainstorming is 68,89. There is no mutual interaction between materials and methods of reproductive health education to the level of knowledge (p=0,159).The schools should cooperate with the local health clinic that made the program increased knowledge of reproductive health and reproductive organs material puberty. In giving the material reproductive organs, can be used the method of discussion groups and on the provision of material puberty, it can be used a method of brainstorming.
HUBUNGAN FAKTOR PERILAKU DENGAN KELENGKAPAN PENGISIAN DATA KMS DALAM BUKU KIA OLEH KADER POSYANDU DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS SIDOREJO LOR SALATIGA TAHUN 2016 Ariyanti, Catur Putri; Dharmawan, Yudhy; Mawarni, Atik
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 4, No 4 (2016): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

The prevalence of malnourished children in Indonesia tends to increase. One of the efforts used to prevent this malnutrition is by monitoring the growth of infants in the Posyandu by used the Growth Chart in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Handbook. The data of Growth Chart is recorded by the Community Health Volunteer (CHV). It is important to record the data of growth Chart for infants, and the health workers as the source information in decision-making and precautionary measures. The preliminary results of the observations of 20 Growth Chart in Puskesmas Sidorejo Lor Salatiga, is still lackingin the matter of completeness. The objective of this study is to analyze the correlationof the behavioral factors to the completeness of Growth Chart in MCH Handbook in Puskesmas Sidorejo Lor Salatiga. This type of research is Explanatory Research with Cross Sectional study design. The population in this study is 447 CHVs and sample are taken by using convinence sampling and it is found that there are 63 CHVs with criteria CHVs who record the Growth Chart when the Posyandu is open. Univariate and bivariate analysis are applied in the data analysis. The result of the study showed that the largest percentage of aged CHVs were in the age group of 45-49 years (27.0%), with the high school education (55.6%), have become cadre for 6-20 years (23.8%), the number of infants served are 21-30 infants (25.4%), insufficient knowledge (76.2%), with sufficient motivation (55.6%), and the less completeness of KMS (87.3%). The result of Spearman Rank analysis (α=5%) shows that there is significant correlate between how long they have become CHV and the completeness of the Growth Chart in MCH Handbook (p value = 0.047; rs = 0.251; 95% CI = -0,052-0,405). There are no correlation between age (p value = 0,900), education (p value = 0.888), the number of infants (p value = 0.505), knowledge (p value = 0.873), and motivation (p value = 0.188) with the completeness of Growth Chart in MCH Handbook. It is suggested for Puskesmas Sidorejo Lor to optimize the refreshing program of CHV, in order to avoid drop out CHV.
HUBUNGAN PENGETAHUAN DAN SIKAP DENGAN PRAKTIK KESEHATAN REPRODUKSI SISWA DI SMK “X” KABUPATEN KEBUMEN TRIWULAN I TAHUN 2016 Ulfah, Zakia; Nugroho, Djoko; Dharmawan, Yudhy
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 4, No 4 (2016): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

Adolescent problems related  to reproduction health is often caused by lack of information, understanding and awareness affecting in some problems faced by teenagers. In SMK “X” Kebumen, there are one to two cases of unwanted pregnancies among the students in almost every year. The aim of this research is to analyze the relation between knowledge and attitude toward reproduction health practices of students in SMK “X” Kebumen. This research is explanatory research with cross sectional study. The population is the entire students of Class X and XI with 610 students in total and the sample is 100 students chosen with simple random sampling technique. The analysis is done using univariate, bivariate analysis (Spearman rank) and multivariate (Multiple Linear Regression) analysis. Value significance relationship using significant value of α = 5%. The results of univariate analysis shows the largest percentage of students lack knowledge of reproductive health (57.0%), the juvenile hormones knowledge about KNPI (Kissing, patting, necking and intercourse); reproductive health attitudes enough students (74.0%) on the attitude of students agreed on frequent sexual intercourse caused by watching porn and the percentage of students sufficient reproductive health practices (54.0%) on the practice of students about watching porn, holding hands tenderly, kiss and hugging intimate with the opposite sex and doing masturbation, intimate stimulation in the neck area, and touched intimate breast area.The result of bivariat analysis shows that there is significant relation between student reproduction health knowledge toward its practice (p value=0,0001; 95%; r=0,664; CI=0,568-0,768); there is significant relation between student reproduction health attitude toward its practice (p value =0,0001; r=0,745; 95%; CI=0,634-0,828). The result of multivariat analysis shows that there is significant relation between knowledge and attitude towards student reproduction health practice (p value=0,0001; y=17,165 + 0,398 X1 + 0,337 X2). Based on those results, it is suggested to maximize the learning with the depth of the material, the use of instructional time with inovative methods such as video playback, role playing and group discussion, and peer companion.