Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan
Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Universitas Udayana, Bali
Articles
29
Documents
Present Situation and Problems of Cysticercosis in Animal in Bali and Papua

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 13, No 2 (2012)
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Abstract

Cysticercosis zoonotic parasitic disesase caused by Taenia solium larva, is a major public healthproblem. Cysticercosis results from the development of larval tapeworms in humans harboring adult T.solium or from ingesting soil containing eggs shed in the feces of humans, in areas where there are nolatrines. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts and pigs are the normal intermediate hosts. Clinicallythey are most serious when located in the central nervous system or in the eye where they persist formonths to years. Cysticercosis occurs worldwide primarily in developing country where pigs are raised,pork consumed and poor sanitation allows pigs’ access to human faeces. The occurance of the diseases isexpected to increase in relation to the growing demand for pork in those countries. In Indonesia cyticercosisis still a very important health problem, especially in Bali and Papua. The majority of the populations inBali and Papua are Hindus and Protestants/Catholics, respectively, so pork widely consumed in thoseislands. This brief review summarizes the present situation and problems of cysticercosis in animal inBali and Papua. Epidemiological data of the diseases were obtained from several sources.

Faktor Risiko Babi yang Diumbar dan Pakan Mentah Mempertinggi Prevalensi Sistiserkosis (RISK FACTOR OF FEE-RANGE HUSBANDRY AND RAW PORK FEED INCEASE THE PREVALENCE OF CYSTICERCOSIS)

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2012)
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The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors of porcine cysticercosis. Thesurvey was carried out in eight districts of Jaya Wijaya, Papua and Jibama market, during October 2009to June 2011. A total of 111 pigs were tested serologically. Serum samples were tested for the presence ofcirculating parasite antigen using monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay (MoAb-ELISA). Forty five samples (40.54%) were found positive by MoAb-ELISA and the highestprevalence occurred from the District of Asolokobal (92.86%), followed by Musatfak (75%), Kurulu (65.22%),Bolakme (33.33%), Asologaima (31.82%), Hom-hom (18.18%), Hubikosi (14.29%), Jibama trade (14.29%),and the lowest prevalence from Wamena Kota is 5.88%. Free-range pig husbandry system (OR=4.63;P<0.01) and uncook pork feed (OR=3.65; P<0.05) were important risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. It istherefore necessary to anthropology approach about pig husbandry system and pattern of cook pork feed.

Profil Kimia Klinik Darah Sapi Bali (BLOOD CLINICAL CHEMISTRY PROFILES OF THE BALI CATTLE)

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2012)
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Abstract

For the evaluation of clinical tests in veterinary laboratories a reference basis of normal values ofclinically healthy farm animals is essential. It is well known that variables such as breed, age and sex havean influence on many blood parameters. The reference value of blood chemistry of bali cattle is scanty. Theaim of the current study was to evaluate blood chemistry of bali cattle includes alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinine and glucose, measured by an auto analyzer.These data were used to establish reference intervals in bali cattle of different ages and sex. Blood wascollected from 195 (21 young males, 54 adult males, 60 young females, and 60 adult females) clinicallyhealthy bali cattle by means of jugular venipuncture. Values from different age and sex were comparedstatistically. The results of the study was obtained that ALT and blood glucose significantly higher inmales Bali cattle (P <0.05) then in females. ALT, AST and urea were significantly higher in adults Balicattle (P<0.05) then in young Bali cattle. However, glucose of young Bali cattle was higher when comparedwith the adult. There was no significant difference in the creatinine levels between adults and the youngones. The results of the current study provide reference intervals for clinical chemistry of Bali cattle

Protein Spesifik Cairan Kista Cysticercus bovis pada Sapi Bali yang Diinfeksi dengan Taenia saginata (SPECIFIC PROTEIN OF CYSTICERCUS BOVIS CYST FLUID ON BALI CATTLE EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH TAENIA SAGINATA)

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 14, No 1 (2013)
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Abstract

Cysticercus bovis is the larval stage of Taenia saginata, the bovine tapeworm. The infection of thislarval in cattle musculature causes Bovine cysticercosis or Cysticercosis bovis.  Bovine cysticercosis is foundworldwide, but mostly in developing countries, where unhygienic conditions, poor cattle managementpractices, and the absence of meat inspection are common.  The adult Taenia infection in man is referredto as taeniasis.  Taenia saginata taeniasis is also found almost all over the world.  The prevalence ofTaenia saginata taeniasis has reported up to 27.5% in Gianyar Bali. In order to control the diseases,vaccination against the larvae stages in cattle of Taenia saginata may play an important role in controllingthe disease in the endemic regions.  The aims of the present study were to prepare and to investigate theimmunogenic protein as vaccine candidate for controlling  Cysticercus bovis infection in in Bali cattle.Cysticercus protein from the cyst fluid was firstly used to immunize mice and the mice sera were thencollected. Cysticercus proteins then analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).All cysticercus proteins were then visualized by Commasie blue staining. The proteins were also transferredonto nitrocellulose membrane and the immunogenic proteins were visualized by Western Blotting usingimmune sera raised in mice.  By Commasie blue staining, a total of 17 proteins were detected with themolecular weight of 14,86 kDa -122,40 kDa from the smallest to the largest. As many as 7 immunogenicproteins with the molecular weights of 16.81 kDa; 19.22 kDa; 20.98 kDa; 27.41 kDa; 34.02 kDa; 38.31 kDa;and 54.94kDa were detected.

Kejadian Dermatosis yang Tinggi pada Anjing Jalanan di Bali (A HAIGH DERMATOSIS INCIDENCE AMONG STRAY DOGS IN BALI)

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 15, No 2 (2014)
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This study was designed to investigate the incidence of dermatosis among stray dogs in Bali. A totalof 401 stray dogs collected in the animal shelter of Bali Animal Welfare Association during 2011 wasinvestigated in this study. Dogs were examined by the clinical sign and continued by skin scraping, cytologyand wood lamp examination. In total, 37,9% sample were positive for dermatosis. Bacterial causeddermatosis found to be the most prevalent (23,6%), followed by tick and fleas (16.5%), scabies (12.7%),malassezia (8.2%), demodek (8%) and ringworm (4.5%) respectively. We also found that dermatosis weremore prevalent in male dogs (50.9%) rather than female dogs (32.9%). Dogs 9-12 weeks old were moreheavily infected (45.8%) than other group. In conclusion, the incidence of dermatosis among stray dogs inBali is relatively high. This may need serious awareness as some of this dermatosis were zoonotic tohuman.

Pelacakan Secara Imunohistokimiawi Antigen Ekskretori-Sekretori pada Sapi Bali yang Terinfeksi Fasciola gigantica (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF EXCRET0RY-SECRETORY ANTIGENS IN BALI CATLLE INFECTED BY FASCIOLA GIGANTICA)

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 15, No 3 (2014)
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In order to study the distribution of excretory-secretory (ES) F. gigantica in liver tissue of infected balicattle a research was establisihed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) againts ES antigens. Immortalmouse myeloma cells were fused with the lymphocytes derived from the spleen of mice that immunizedwith ES antigen. The mAbs were tested for their specificity by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Five specific mAbs againts ES antigens were isolated and two mAbs were used for immunodetectionof ES antigens in liver tissue of bali cattle. Immunohistochemical ES antigens were not detected in paraffinembeded tissue of negative confirmed fasciolosis samples. ES antigens was detected in hepatocytes andcytoplasm of bile duct epithelims in the bali cattle that infected with fasciolosis in moderate intensity.Therfore indicated that mAbs produced in this study are applicable for detecting ES antigens in bali cattleinfected by F. gigantica.

Imunitas Protektif Mencit Terhadap Cairan Kista Taenia saginata (PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY OF MICE AGAINST CYST FLUID OF TAENIA SAGINATA)

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 16, No 2 (2015)
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The aim of this research was to determine immune response of mice against vaccines derived fromcyst fluid of Taenia saginata. The study was conducted using four BALB/c mice aged 6 weeks as experimentalanimals. All experimental animals were vaccinated intra peritoneal with Taenia saginata cyst fluidemulsified in Freund’s adjuvant. Immune response in the mice was determined by detecting antibodiesusing ELISA and by the presence of lymphocytes through evaluation of blood smear. The results showedthat the cyst fluid of Taenia saginata was antigenic and capable of inducing antibody responses that weredetected by ELISA. Mean antibody titers obtained in the results of the first, second, third, and fourth ofvaccination was 3.3 units; 17.9 units; 21.2 units; and 72.1 units; respectively. Evaluation of blood smear ofvaccinated mice showed an increase in the percentage of lymphocytes after vaccination with an average66.75%, compared with the average of lymphocytes before vaccination which was 40.75%. Further researchis still required in experimental animals by vaccination followed by challenge test with Taenia saginataeggs.

Respons Imun Mencit yang Diimunisasi dengan Cysticercus cellulosae (IMMUNE RESPONSE TO TAENIA SOLIUM CYSTICERCOSIS IN MICE)

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 16, No 2 (2015)
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Cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease which is still problem in Indonesia. The purpose of thisstudy was to investigate immune responses of mice that had been immunized using Taenia solium larval(Cysticercus cellulosae) antigens originated from infected pigs. Three kinds of the C.cellulosaeantigens,secretory and whole antigens were used to immunize three different groups Balb/c mice consisted of 15animals. The serum samples before and after immunization were tested with ELISA test. The resultsshowed that the third antigens induced highly significant titre (P<0,01)compared to unimmunized animals.However no significant different (P>0,05) were found when the third antigens were compared. It wasconcluded that immunization with the three kinds of C. cellulosae antigens can cause immunity in mice.

Produksi dan Karakterisasi Antibodi Monoklonal Anti-Cysticercus cellulosae (PRODUCTION AND CHRACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST CYSTICERCUS CELLULOSAE)

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 16, No 3 (2015)
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The purpose of this study is to make a monoclonal antibody against- Cysticercus cellulosae and itscharacterization. Samples antigen prepared from T. solium larvae (C. cellulosae) was then used to immunizeBalb/c. The immune response of mice assessed by ELISA test, then the lymphocytes of mice used for theproduction of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb). Origin lymphocytes of mice that produce antibodies againstC. cellulosae antigen, fused with myeloma cells (NS1). Results fusion of two cells produces hybrid cellscalled hybridomas; cells are then screened by ELISA test. Hybridoma cells that produce only MoAb, usedto produce large quantities in vitro. Characterization of MoAb against-C.cellulosae was tested by usingELISA and Western blotting. Mice were immunized with C.cellulosae antigen showed an immune responseproducing antibodies to C.cellulosae. Based on the results of fusion, produced a total of 51 hybridoma cellclones and after being screened, only three clones of hybridoma cells that produced MoAb against–C.cellulosae. MoAb produced, named after the hole where the growth of the ELISA micro plate, the BE6,BE7, and EE9. Characteristics of this MoAb capable of tracking cellulosae of fluid larvae and recognizeantigen protein bands with molecular weight 78kDa.

Infeksi Cacing pada Ular Kobra (Naja sputatrix) di Bali (WORM INFECTION ON SPITTING COBRA SNAKE (Naja Sputatrix) IN BALI)

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 15, No 3 (2014)
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It has been done the survey for study about worm infection on spitting cobra snake (Naja sputatrix) inBali. There were 15 fecal samples from wild spitting cobra snake in Bali. The examination was usingconcentration cediment method. The result of examination showed that from all 15 fecal samples containedthe worm egg. From the result it could be conclude that the prevalent worm infection on spitting cobrasnake in Bali is capability 100% . From this study it means that infectioned could be happen more than 1(multiple infection) on 1 splitting cobra snake. The kind and prevalent of worm infected snake wereRhabdias sp (60,03%), Strongyloides sp (60,03%), Oxyuris sp (53,3%), Kalicephalus spp (20,01%), danCapilaria sp (6,67%). For enrich the information of another kind of parasitic infection should be done theresearch with variable and more collected samples.