Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan
Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Universitas Udayana, Bali

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INFEKSI EKSPERIMENTAL TAENIA SAGINATA PADA SAPI BALI Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra
Majalah Kedokteran Udayana Vol 31, No 110 (2000): Majalah Kedokteran Udayana
Publisher : Majalah Kedokteran Udayana

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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari aspek biologi hubungan inang-parasit antara Taenia saginata dengan sapi Bali. Penelitian dikerjakan dengan infeksi eksperimental proglottid gravid T. saginata yang diperoleh dari pasien orang Bali. Sebanyak dua ekor sapi Bali masing-masing diinfeksi dengan 30 proglotid. Sapi pertama disembelih enam minggu pasca infeksi, sedangkan yang kedua delapan minggu pasca infeksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada sapi pertama ditemukan dua sistiserkus yang belum berkembang sempurna pada otot masseter, dan tiga pada otot femoralis caudalis. Pada sapi yang kedua pertumbuhan sistiserkus telah sempurna dan terdistribusi ke seluruh karkas, terutama pada otot-otot di daerah muka, intercostae, diafragma, jantung, dan paha. Setiap sayatan yang dilakukan di daerah otot sapi yang kedua, ditemukan antara 3 - 5 sistiserkus. Dari penelitian ini dapat dinyatakan bahwa onkosfer T. saginata berkembang sempurna menjadi Cysticercus bovis pada sapi Bali sekitar delapan minggu pasca infeksi. Kata kunci : Teania saginata, sapi Bali, infeksi, eksperimental ABSTRACTThe purpose of the study was to determine the biological aspects (host-parasite relationship) of Taenia saginata in Bali cattle. Two Bali cattle were used as the samples, each was infected by 30 human-derived proglottides of T. saginata. Cattle I and II were slaughtered and examined for the presence of Cysticercus bovis, six and eight weeks post infection (p.i.), respectively. The result showed that C. bovis was present in both cattle. In regard with distribution and development of the C. bovis, some differences, however, were noted between these two cattle. In cattle I, C. bovis was only observed in the muscles of the masseter (n = 2) and the caudal femur (n = 3). In cattle II, it was found to be widely distributed in almost all of the skeletal muscles, namely the cheek, intercostal, diaphragm, heart muscle, and the thighs. The number of C. bovis found in each of the muscle examined in cattle II was between 3 to 5. The C. bovis observed in cattle I were less well developed as compared with those found in cattle II. Although the total sample was small, the finding of the present study may indicate that in Bali cattle the oncospheres of T. saginata might reach its optimal development (into C. bovis) in eight weeks time p.i. Key words : Taenia saginata, Bali cattle,, infection, experimental
Sistisekrosis pada Babi di Bali Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Siregar, Emir A.A.; He, Simon; Hasibuan, Krisna M.
Hemera Zoa Vol 75, No 3 (1992): Jurnal Hemera Zoa
Publisher : Hemera Zoa

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Telah dilakukan penelitian terhadap 5630 ekor babi yang dipotong di Rumah Potong Hewan Denpasar. Tujaun penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui prevalensi sistiserkosis dan beberapa aspek epidemiologi yang mendukung kejadian tersebut.Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa tujuh ekor (0.012%) babi terinfeksi Cysticercus cellulosae. Infeksi ini hanya ditemukan pada babi-babi lokal yang dipelihara secara tradisional. Sedangkan C. tenuicollis ditemukan pada 932 ekor babi (16.5%), Infeksi ini terdapat baik pada babi-babi lokal persilangan maupun pada babi-babi yang berasal dari Jawa. Prevalensi pada babi asal Bali (18.1%) sangat nyata lebih tinggi (P < 0.01) dibandingkan dengan prevalensi pada babi asal Jawa (6.3%). Prevalensi pada babi-babi lokal persilangan asal Bali (19.42%) juga berbeda sangat nyata (P< 0.01) dengan prevalensi pada babi ras asal Bali (8.77%).Hasil pengamatan di lapangan menunjukan bahwa faktor epidemiologi lainnnya yang berpengaruh terhadap kejadian tersebut adalah akibat sistem pemeliharaan ternak dan sanitasi lingkungan asal babi yang terinfeksi masih kurang baik. 
The Detection of Taenia Saginata Cysticercus in Pigs and Cattle in Bali Using Elisa Method Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra
Media Veteriner Vol 6, No 1 (1999): Media Veteriner
Publisher : Media Veteriner

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Penelitian mendeteksi sistiserkus Taenia saginata pada420 ekor ternak babi dan 210 ekor sapi telah dilakukan diBali. Metode yang dipakai adalah mendeteksi antigenmenggunakan double antibody.y sanwich ELISA (Avidirl-Biotirl sanwich ELISA). Sebanyak 47 ( 1 1 ,20/0) serum seropositif dari serum babi yang diperiksa. Dari contoh seropositif 38 (12,4%)berasal dari babi-babi yang dipotong diRPH Denpasar dan 9 (8,0%)seropositif asal babi-babi yangdipelihara oleh masyarakat di daerah-daerah endemik taeniasis- sistiserkosis di Bali. Dari serum sapi yang diperiksa terdapat 1 1 (5,2%,) serum yang seropositif terdiri dari 6 (53%) seropositif asal sapi yang dipotong di RPH dan 5 (5,0%)seropositif asal sapi-sapi milik peternak di daerah endemik taeniasis-sistiserkosis.
Present Situation and Problems of Cysticercosis in Animal in Bali and Papua Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Swastika, Kadek; Putra, I Made; Wandra, Toni; Sutisna, Putu; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 13, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Veteriner

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Cysticercosis zoonotic parasitic disesase caused by Taenia solium larva, is a major public healthproblem. Cysticercosis results from the development of larval tapeworms in humans harboring adult T.solium or from ingesting soil containing eggs shed in the feces of humans, in areas where there are nolatrines. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts and pigs are the normal intermediate hosts. Clinicallythey are most serious when located in the central nervous system or in the eye where they persist formonths to years. Cysticercosis occurs worldwide primarily in developing country where pigs are raised,pork consumed and poor sanitation allows pigs’ access to human faeces. The occurance of the diseases isexpected to increase in relation to the growing demand for pork in those countries. In Indonesia cyticercosisis still a very important health problem, especially in Bali and Papua. The majority of the populations inBali and Papua are Hindus and Protestants/Catholics, respectively, so pork widely consumed in thoseislands. This brief review summarizes the present situation and problems of cysticercosis in animal inBali and Papua. Epidemiological data of the diseases were obtained from several sources.
Faktor Risiko Babi yang Diumbar dan Pakan Mentah Mempertinggi Prevalensi Sistiserkosis (RISK FACTOR OF FEE-RANGE HUSBANDRY AND RAW PORK FEED INCEASE THE PREVALENCE OF CYSTICERCOSIS) Assa, Inriyanti; Satrija, Fadjar; Lukman, Denny Widaya; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Dorny, Pierre
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Veteriner

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The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors of porcine cysticercosis. Thesurvey was carried out in eight districts of Jaya Wijaya, Papua and Jibama market, during October 2009to June 2011. A total of 111 pigs were tested serologically. Serum samples were tested for the presence ofcirculating parasite antigen using monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay (MoAb-ELISA). Forty five samples (40.54%) were found positive by MoAb-ELISA and the highestprevalence occurred from the District of Asolokobal (92.86%), followed by Musatfak (75%), Kurulu (65.22%),Bolakme (33.33%), Asologaima (31.82%), Hom-hom (18.18%), Hubikosi (14.29%), Jibama trade (14.29%),and the lowest prevalence from Wamena Kota is 5.88%. Free-range pig husbandry system (OR=4.63;P&lt;0.01) and uncook pork feed (OR=3.65; P&lt;0.05) were important risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. It istherefore necessary to anthropology approach about pig husbandry system and pattern of cook pork feed.
Profil Kimia Klinik Darah Sapi Bali (BLOOD CLINICAL CHEMISTRY PROFILES OF THE BALI CATTLE) Kendran, Anak Agung Sagung; Damriyasa, I Made; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Ardana, Ida Bagus Komang; Anggreni, Luh Dewi
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 13, No 4 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Veteriner

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For the evaluation of clinical tests in veterinary laboratories a reference basis of normal values ofclinically healthy farm animals is essential. It is well known that variables such as breed, age and sex havean influence on many blood parameters. The reference value of blood chemistry of bali cattle is scanty. Theaim of the current study was to evaluate blood chemistry of bali cattle includes alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinine and glucose, measured by an auto analyzer.These data were used to establish reference intervals in bali cattle of different ages and sex. Blood wascollected from 195 (21 young males, 54 adult males, 60 young females, and 60 adult females) clinicallyhealthy bali cattle by means of jugular venipuncture. Values from different age and sex were comparedstatistically. The results of the study was obtained that ALT and blood glucose significantly higher inmales Bali cattle (P &lt;0.05) then in females. ALT, AST and urea were significantly higher in adults Balicattle (P&lt;0.05) then in young Bali cattle. However, glucose of young Bali cattle was higher when comparedwith the adult. There was no significant difference in the creatinine levels between adults and the youngones. The results of the current study provide reference intervals for clinical chemistry of Bali cattle
Protein Spesifik Cairan Kista Cysticercus bovis pada Sapi Bali yang Diinfeksi dengan Taenia saginata (SPECIFIC PROTEIN OF CYSTICERCUS BOVIS CYST FLUID ON BALI CATTLE EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH TAENIA SAGINATA) Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Dwinata, I Made; Swastika, Kadek; Damriyasa, I Made; Oka, Ida Bagus Made; Astawa, I Nyoman Mantik
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 14, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Jurnal Veteriner

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Cysticercus bovis is the larval stage of Taenia saginata, the bovine tapeworm. The infection of thislarval in cattle musculature causes Bovine cysticercosis or Cysticercosis bovis.  Bovine cysticercosis is foundworldwide, but mostly in developing countries, where unhygienic conditions, poor cattle managementpractices, and the absence of meat inspection are common.  The adult Taenia infection in man is referredto as taeniasis.  Taenia saginata taeniasis is also found almost all over the world.  The prevalence ofTaenia saginata taeniasis has reported up to 27.5% in Gianyar Bali. In order to control the diseases,vaccination against the larvae stages in cattle of Taenia saginata may play an important role in controllingthe disease in the endemic regions.  The aims of the present study were to prepare and to investigate theimmunogenic protein as vaccine candidate for controlling  Cysticercus bovis infection in in Bali cattle.Cysticercus protein from the cyst fluid was firstly used to immunize mice and the mice sera were thencollected. Cysticercus proteins then analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).All cysticercus proteins were then visualized by Commasie blue staining. The proteins were also transferredonto nitrocellulose membrane and the immunogenic proteins were visualized by Western Blotting usingimmune sera raised in mice.  By Commasie blue staining, a total of 17 proteins were detected with themolecular weight of 14,86 kDa -122,40 kDa from the smallest to the largest. As many as 7 immunogenicproteins with the molecular weights of 16.81 kDa; 19.22 kDa; 20.98 kDa; 27.41 kDa; 34.02 kDa; 38.31 kDa;and 54.94kDa were detected.
Serodeteksi Brucella abortus pada Sapi Bali di Timor Leste Septyawati, Reny; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Suartha, Nyoman
Indonesia Medicus Veterinus Vol 2 (5) 2013
Publisher : Indonesia Medicus Veterinus

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Brucellosis adalah penyakit bakterial yang bersifat zoonosis berupa ganguan pada fungsi reproduksi hewan. Brucellosis disebabkan oleh Brucella abortus pada sapi, B. melitensis atau B. ovis pada ruminansia kecil, B. suis pada babi dan B. canis pada anjing. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kejadian Brucellosis pada sapi bali di Timor Leste dengan cara pemeriksaan serologis. Metode pengujian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) yang bertindak sebagai uji skrining. Jika hasilnya positif, penelitian dilanjutkan dengan uji Complement Fixation Test (CFT) sebagai uji penegak. Dari hasil pemeriksaan 60 serum sapi bali yang berasal dari distrik Dili, Suai, Maliana dan Lospalos ditemukan tujuh sampel positif, ketujuh sampel tersebut adalah Maliana (1), Suai (1) dan Lospalos (5), sedangkan sampel yang berasal dari distrik Dili negative. Masing-masing sampel yang positif menunjukkan hasil positif (++). Sampel yang positif RBPT selanjutnya diuji dengan uji Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Hasilnya adalah berupa rataan titer antibody untuk sampel Maliana, Lospalos, dan Suai berturut-turut adalah 128±0; 56±48; dan 16±0. Berdasarkan hasil pemeriksaan tersebut bahwa status dari distrik Lospalos terinfeksi berat Brucellosis dan distrik Maliana dan Suai terinfeksi sedang. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa Brucellosis ditemukan di Timor Leste.
Kejadian Dermatosis yang Tinggi pada Anjing Jalanan di Bali (A HAIGH DERMATOSIS INCIDENCE AMONG STRAY DOGS IN BALI) Wiryana, I Kadek Saka; Damriyasa, I Made; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Arnawa, Kadek Agus Agra; Dianiyanti, Kadek; Harumna, Dina
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 15, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Jurnal Veteriner

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This study was designed to investigate the incidence of dermatosis among stray dogs in Bali. A totalof 401 stray dogs collected in the animal shelter of Bali Animal Welfare Association during 2011 wasinvestigated in this study. Dogs were examined by the clinical sign and continued by skin scraping, cytologyand wood lamp examination. In total, 37,9% sample were positive for dermatosis. Bacterial causeddermatosis found to be the most prevalent (23,6%), followed by tick and fleas (16.5%), scabies (12.7%),malassezia (8.2%), demodek (8%) and ringworm (4.5%) respectively. We also found that dermatosis weremore prevalent in male dogs (50.9%) rather than female dogs (32.9%). Dogs 9-12 weeks old were moreheavily infected (45.8%) than other group. In conclusion, the incidence of dermatosis among stray dogs inBali is relatively high. This may need serious awareness as some of this dermatosis were zoonotic tohuman.
Pelacakan Secara Imunohistokimiawi Antigen Ekskretori-Sekretori pada Sapi Bali yang Terinfeksi Fasciola gigantica (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF EXCRET0RY-SECRETORY ANTIGENS IN BALI CATLLE INFECTED BY FASCIOLA GIGANTICA) Winaya, Ida Bagus Oka; Astawa, I Nyoman Mantik; Damriyasa, I Made; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Berata, I Ketut
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 15, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Jurnal Veteriner

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In order to study the distribution of excretory-secretory (ES) F. gigantica in liver tissue of infected balicattle a research was establisihed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) againts ES antigens. Immortalmouse myeloma cells were fused with the lymphocytes derived from the spleen of mice that immunizedwith ES antigen. The mAbs were tested for their specificity by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Five specific mAbs againts ES antigens were isolated and two mAbs were used for immunodetectionof ES antigens in liver tissue of bali cattle. Immunohistochemical ES antigens were not detected in paraffinembeded tissue of negative confirmed fasciolosis samples. ES antigens was detected in hepatocytes andcytoplasm of bile duct epithelims in the bali cattle that infected with fasciolosis in moderate intensity.Therfore indicated that mAbs produced in this study are applicable for detecting ES antigens in bali cattleinfected by F. gigantica.