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Respons Histopatologik Karsinoma Serviks Uteri Setelah Pemberian Kemoradiasi Iskandar, T Mirza; Mexitalia, Maria; Sarjadi, Sarjadi; Dharmana, Edi; Pramono, Noor
MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA 2011:MMI Volume 45 Issue 3 Year 2011
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA

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ABSTRACTFactors associated with histopathologic responses of cervical cancer after chemoradiation therapyIntroduction: Cervical carcinoma is the second most common women cancer in the world. A combined of surgical, radiation and chemotherapy is the main cervical carcinoma treatment. The histopathological response is one performance to assess the result of the treatment. The purpose of the study is to analyze the factors of cervical cancer which contributes to the histopathological response after chemoradiation treatment.Methods: The design of the study was a case control, done at Dr. Kariadi Hospital Semarang in 2008. Patients with biopsy-proven cervical carcinoma were entered into the study. The variables of risk factors included the stage of the cancer by FIGO staging, the type and differentiation of the tumour, the anemia and the history of the transfusion and the immunotherapy by BCG vaccine. The histopathological response was assessed after the chemoradiation treatment. Chi-square was used to analyze the risk factors and logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis.Results: Between April-August 2008, 77 patients finished the chemoradiation treatment. The type of the cancer was squamous cell carcinoma (71.4%) and the stage was III B (81.8%). The staging, type and differentiation of the tumor, and the history of transfusion did not contributes to the histopathological response. After adjustment of other factors, the contribution of anemia to poor histopathological response were 6.25 times (95% CI 1.12-34.90; p=0.037) higher than good histopahological response.Conclusion: Anemia is the risk factor of poor histopathological response of cervical carcinoma after chemoradiation therapy.Keywords: Cervical carcinoma, chemoradiation, histopahological responseABSTRAKPendahuluan: Karsinoma serviks uteri (KSU) merupakan kanker kedua terbanyak pada wanita di seluruh dunia. Sampai saat ini terapi pilihan utama KSU adalah operasi, radiasi dan kemoterapi. Salah satu penilaian keberhasilan terapi adalah dengan respon histopatologik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menilai faktor-faktor yang berperan terhadap respons histopatologik setelah terapi kemoradiasi.Metode: Desain penelitian adalah kasus kontrol. Penelitian dilakukan di RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang. Kriteria inklusi adalah KSU yang telah menyelesaikan kemoradiasi. Faktor-faktor yang dinilai berperan terhadap respons histopatologi adalah tipe histologis dan diferensiasi tumor, stadium tumor berdasarkan FIGO, anemia dan riwayat transfusi serta pemberian imunoterapi dengan BCG. Analisis statistik menggunakan kai-kuadrat dan regresi logistik.Hasil: Selama periode April-Agustus 2008 terdapat 77 penderita yang menyelesaikan kemoradiasi. Sebagian besar penderita berada pada stadium IIIB (71,4%) dan mempunyai tipe histologi karsinoma sel skuamosa (81,8%). Stadium tumor, tipe histologi dan diferensiasi tumor, riwayat transfusi serta imunoterapi BCG tidak berperan pada respons histopatologik. Setelah memperhitungkan faktor perancu, risiko anemia terhadap respons histopatologi yang jelek adalah 6,25 kali (95% CI 1,12-34,90; p=0,037).Simpulan: Anemia merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya respon histopatologik yang jelek pada penderita karsinoma serviks uterisetelah mendapatkan terapi kemoradiasi.
Nyeri Yang Diprovokasi Electric Foot Shock, Daya Bunuh Makrofag dan Penggunaan Imunomodulator BCG pada Mencit Balb/C Pudjonarko, Dwi; Jenie, M. Naharuddin; Dharmana, Edi
MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA 2008:MMI Volume 43 Issue 3 Year 2008
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA

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Provocated pain by electric foot shock, macrophage killing ability and the use of BCG as immunomodulator in Balb/C miceBackground: Pain affects immune system through Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) and Symphatetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis. Immunostimulator BCG increase immune system via type I response. The aim of this study is to prove that the decrease of immune response due to pain can be improved by introducing BCG vaccine assessed by macrophage activity.Methods: The study adapts Laboratory Experimental and Post-Test Only Control Group Design. Samples were 24 female Balb/C mice average weight 21.88(SD=1.75) grams and divided into four groups. The control group (C) received no other additional treatment. The BCG group (B) received intra-peritoneal injection of 0.1 ml BCG at day 1st and 11th. The EFS (E) received Electric foot shock 1-3 mA at day 12th to 21st and the BCG+ EFS group (BE) received BCG and EFS as mentioned before. All groups wereintravenously injected with 104 live L. monocytogenes at day 21st and sacrificed at day 26th by chloroform anaesthesia. Then, Macrophages Nitrit Oxyde (NO) concentration and liver bacterial count were measured. Data were analyzed by One Way ANOVA, Post Hoc Test Bonferroni and Pearson’s product moment supported by computer software SPSS 13.0 (significant if p<0.05).Results: There were significant differences in the macrophages NO production and the liver bacterial count (p<0.05) among the groups. The highest number of bacterial count and the lowest number of NO production was found in the E group. In contrast, there were significant differences on the number of bacterial count and NO production between BE group and E group (p>0.05).Conclusions: Pain provocation causes low NO concentration in macrophages and the introduction of BCG could improve the condition.Keywords: Pain, macrophages, NO, bacterial count ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Nyeri dapat mempengaruhi imunitas tubuh melalui aksis Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) dan Symphateticadrenal- medullary (SAM) dengan menurunkan produksi sitokin tipe 1. Penggunaan imunostimulator BCG terbukti dapat meningkatkan respon imunitas seluler melalui respon tipe I. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan penurunan imunitas seluler yang diakibatkan nyeri dapat diperbaiki dengan pemberian vaksin BCG dengan melihat aktivitas makrofag.Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratorik, dengan pendekatan The Post Test – Only Control Group Design yang menggunakan 24 ekor mencit betina strain Balb/C, umur 6-8 minggu. Sampel dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok dan mendapatkan makanan standar. Pada Kelompok Kontrol (K), mencit tidak mendapatkan perlakuan, sedangkan kelompok BCG (B) divaksinasi secara intra peritoneal dengan 0,1cc BCG pada hari ke-1 dan ke-11. Kelompok Nyeri (N), mendapat sensasi nyerimenggunakan Electric Foot Shock mulai hari ke-12 sampai 21 dan kelompok Nyeri + BCG (NB) mendapat kombinasi perlakuan N+B. Pada hari ke-21, semua mencit disuntik 104 Listeria monocytogenes hidup secara intravena. Dilakukan terminasi mencit pada hari ke-26 untuk dilakukan pemeriksaan konsentrasi produksi NO makrofag serta hitung kuman organ hepar. Dilakukan uji beda dengan Oneway ANOVA dan korelasi Pearson’s product moment dengan menggunakan software SPSS 13.0.Hasil: Didapatkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna pada produksi NO makrofag dan hasil hitung kuman organ hepar antar kelompok perlakuan (p<0,05). Pada kelompok Nyeri (N) didapatkan produksi NO makrofag terendah dan jumlah hitung kuman tertinggi. Pada kelompok Nyeri yang mendapat BCG (NB) didapatkan hasil yang berlawanan dan perbedaannya bermakna dalam variabel yang diteliti dibandingkan dengan kelompok Nyeri yang tidak mendapat BCG (N) (p<0,05).Simpulan: Provokasi nyeri menyebabkan rendahnya konsentrasi NO makrofag dan penggunaan BCG dapat memperbaiki keadaan tersebut.
Ekstrak Phyllanthus niruri Linn, Pertumbuhan Tumor dan Proliferasi Sel Kanker Kolorektal: Studi Eksperimental pada Tikus Sprague-Dawley yang Diinduksi 1,2 DMH Sawitri, Endang; Riwanto, Ign.; Tjahjono, Tjahjono; Dharmana, Edi
MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA 2012:MMI VOLUME 46 ISSUE 1 YEAR 2012
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA

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Effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn extract on tumor growth and cell proliferation of colorectal cancer: experimental study in 1.2 DMH-induced Sprague-Dawley ratsBackground: The development of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) is so very advanced, however, the survival of patients has not been satisfactory, therefore, the current therapy also involve immunotherapy. Phyllanthus niruri Linn (P. niruri L) may act as an immunomodulator and anticancer, but its potency has not been revealed. Study was conducted to confirm the effects of P. niruri L extract in the treatment of CRC.Method: The study was randomized posttest-only control group design. Samples were Sprague-Dawley male rats, bodyweight 170- 220 gr, were divided into two groups: non induced or negative control (K-) consisted of 9 normal rats, and induced by 1.2 DMH 30 mg/kgBW subcutaneously group consisted 30 rats. On the weeks 9, 11 and 13, four induced rats each week were sacrified to detect the development of CRC. On the weeks of 13th all of 4 rats were developed CRC, so the induction were stopped. The rest of 18 induced rats were randomly into two groups: without P. niruri L or positive control (K+)=9 rats and given P. niruri L extract 13.5 mg/kg orally or X group=9 rats. After 19th week all of rats were then terminated and tumor lesion of colon were examined macroscopically and hystophatologic tissues were stained with AgNORs for evaluate the cells proliferation. Oneway Anova and Post Hoc LSD test for the growth of colon tumor and non pairs t-test for cell proliferation were used. Considered significant if p was <0.05. Result: There was no tumor growth on K- group, while for K+ was 83.33±14.34% and on X was 40.44±13.23% (p=0.000). The mean of AgNORs on K+ was 4.60±0.55 while on X was 2.25±0.39 (p=0.000).Conclusion: The extract of P. niruri L suppress the tumor growth and cell proliferation of CRC.Keywords: Phyllanthus niruri Linn, colorectal cancer, tumor growth, proliferationABSTRAKLatar belakang: Perkembangan kemoterapi untuk kanker kolorektal (KKR) sangat maju, tetapi kelangsungan hidup penderitanya belum memuaskan, sehingga penanganan multimodalitas juga melibatkan imunoterapi yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidup. Phyllanthus niruri Linn dapat bekerja sebagai imunomodulator sekaligus antikanker, tetapi potensinya belum banyak diungkap. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh pemberian ekstrak P. niruri L terhadap pertumbuhan tumor danproliferasi sel KKR.Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan randomized posttest-only control group design. Sampel berupa tikus Sprague-Dawley jantan, dibagi 2: kelompok tanpa induksi 1,2 DMH dan tanpa P. niruri L (K-: kelompok kontrol negatif) sebanyak 9 ekor dan kelompok induksi 1,2 DMH 30 mg/kgBB subkutan setiap minggu sebanyak 30 ekor. Pada minggu ke-9, 11 dan 13 masing-masing empat ekor tikus dibunuh untuk melihat perkembangan tumor. Pada minggu ke-13 keempat tikus telah berkembang menjadi KKR, induksidihentikan dan sisa 18 tikus dirandom alokasi menjadi 2 kelompok. Kelompok kontrol positif (K+) tanpa pemberian P. niruri L (9 tikus) dan kelompok diberi P. niruri L. 13.5 mg/kg per hari melalui sonde (9 tikus). Minggu ke-19 semua tikus diterminasi, diperiksa lesi tumor makroskopik pada kolon. Jaringan histopatologik diwarnai AgNORs untuk memeriksa proliferasi sel. Analisis data meliputi analisis deskriptif dan uji Oneway Anova, dilanjutkan dengan post hoc test LSD untuk pertumbuhan tumor kolon dan uji ttidak berpasangan untuk proliferasi sel. Derajat signifikansi yang dipilih adalah p<0,05. Hasil: Tidak ditemukan pertumbuhan tumor pada kelompok K-. Persentase rerata pertumbuhan tumor kelompok X sebesar40,44±13,23%berbeda sangat signifikan (p=0,000) dibanding K+ sebesar 33±14,34%. Rerata bercak AgNORs kelompok K+sebesar 4,60±0,55 dan menurun pada kelompok X (2,25±0,39), terdapat perbedaan yang sangat signifikan pada kedua kelompok (p=0,000). Simpulan: Ekstrak P. niruri L menekan pertumbuhan tumor dan proliferasi sel kanker kolorektal.
The Role of Bamboo Shoot Gigantochloa apus Extract in Decreasing MDA and Increasing IL-10 at The Atherosclerosis Soesanto, Edy; Dharmana, Edi; Hadisaputro, Soeharyo; Muis, Siti Fatimah
Health Notions Vol 3, No 1 (2019): January
Publisher : Humanistic Network for Science and Technology (HNST)

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Introduction: Bamboo shoot Gigantochloa apus extract has antioxidant compounds that act as lipid peroxidation inhibitors and reduce free radical formation so that it can be used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress in the atherosclerosis. Aim: Knowing the effect of bamboo shoot Gigantochloa apus extract in reducing MDA levels and IL-10 increasing levels in rabbits given atherogenic diet. Methods: This experiment used randomized pre-test and post-test with control group design, in 24 New Zealand White rabbits divided into 4 groups randomly. MDA and IL-10 levels were examined by the ELISA method. Results and conclusion: Bamboo shoot Gigantochloa apus extract can reduce MDA levels and increase IL-10 levels significantly in accordance with increasing doses. The increase of MDA levels in the control group with all treatment groups was different (p = 0.0001), and between the treatment groups and other treatment groups there were also differences (p
PENGARUH PEMBERIAN TIGA JENIS KOMBINASI HERBAL A,B DAN C TERHADAP INDEKS FAGOSITOSIS MAKROFAG DAN PRODUKSI ROI PADA MENCIT BALB/C Ferdiansyah, Akhsananta Lian; Dharmana, Edi
MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA Vol 3, No 1 (2014): MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA
Publisher : Jurusan Kedokteran Umum, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro

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Latar Belakang: Respon imunitas tubuh yang baik diperlukan untuk mengatasi invasi patogen yang masuk seperti bakteri, virus dan jamur. Pemberian imunostimulan merupakan salah satu upaya yang dapat dilakukan dimana pada penelitian ini akan diteliti potensi tiga macam kombinasi herbal yang mengandung ekstrak tumbuh-tumbuhan yang menurut beberapa penelitian mampu meningkatkan sistem imunitas tubuh. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat respon imunitas melalui aktivitas makrofag dalam melakukan fagositosis terhadap lateks dan pengeluaran ROI yang merupakan metabolit oksidatif yang poten dalam membunuh mikroba.Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dengan desain Post Test-Only Controlled Group Design. Sampel berupa 32 ekor mencit Balb/C yang dikelompokkan secara acak menjadi empat kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol (K) yang diberikan aquades, dan kelompok perlakuan (P1,P2 dan P3) yang masing-masing diberikan kombinasi herbal A, B dan C dengan dosis 0,08 ml/hari melalui sonde lambung selama 7 hari. Penilaian dilakukan dengan cara membandingkan hasil antar kelompok. Makrofag yang digunakan didapatkan dari isolasi makrofag peritoneal mencit Balb/C.Hasil: Pemberian kombinasi herbal A, B, dan C pada aktivitas fagositosis makrofag didapatkan perbedaan bermakna pada kelompok K-P1 (p=0,027), K-P2 (p=0,000) dan K-P3 (p=0,024) serta pada produksi ROI pada kelompok K-P1 (p=0,004), K-P2 (p=0,006) dan K-P3 (p=0,006). Kelompok perlakuan yang memiliki hasil paling signifikan dalam peningkatan indeks fagositosis adalah pada kelompok P2 dan pada kelompok P3 untuk produktivitas ROI.Simpulan: Pemberian kombinasi herbal A, B dan C terbukti meningkatkan indeks fagositosis makrofag dan produksi ROI secara bermakna.
PENGARUH PEMBERIAN TIGA JENIS KOMBINASI HERBAL A, B DAN C TERHADAP KAPASITAS PRODUKSI INTERFERON GAMMA (IFN-ϒ) DAN INTERLEUKIN 4 (IL-4) PADA MENCIT BALB/C Paramitha, Dinda Sekar; Dharmana, Edi
MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA Vol 3, No 1 (2014): MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA
Publisher : Jurusan Kedokteran Umum, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro

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Latar Belakang Manusia memiliki sistem imun untuk melindungi diri terhadap masuknya unsur-unsur patogen. Interferon Gamma (IFN-ϒ) dan Interleukin 4 (IL-4) merupakan sitokin yang berperan sebagai mediator untuk pertahanan tubuh. Penelitian mengenai obat herbal sebagai imunostimulan telah banyak dikembangkan. Pemberian kombinasi herbal A, B, C belum pernah dilakukan, tetapi bahan-bahan yang terkandung di dalamnya sudah diketahui manfaat farmakologisnya, dan diharapkan dapat memberikan hasil yang signifikan sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai imunostimulan.Tujuan Mengetahui pengaruh pemberian 3 jenis kombinasi herbal A, B dan C terhadap kapasitas produksi IFN-ϒ dan IL-4 pada mencit BALB/c.Metode Penelitian eksperimental laboratorium murni dengan Post Test Only Control Group Design. Jumlah sampel 32 ekor mencit BALB/c betina yang dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok. Kelompok K diberi aquades 0,08 ml/hari, P1 diberi kombinasi herbal A 0,08 ml/hari, P2 diberi kombinasi herbal B 0,08 ml/hari, P3 diberi kombinasi herbal C 0,08 ml/hari. Sampel melalui adaptasi pakan standart selama 7 hari, kemudian diberi perlakuan selama 7 hari. Pada hari ke 8 dilakukan terminasi. Uji normalitas data menggunakan uji Saphiro-wilk dan uji One-way ANOVA, yang dilanjutkan dengan uji post hoc.Hasil Hasil rerata kapasitas produksi IFN-ϒ kelompok K=16,17 + 4,520; P1=29,42 + 8,773; P2=23,84 + 6,892; P3=25,38 + 5,287. Sedangkan IL-4 kelompok K=4,95 + 0,750; P1=8,16 + 0,753; P2=6,34 + 0,685; P3=6,69 + 0,776. Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna pada kapasitas produksi IFN-ϒ yaitu P1,P2,P3 terhadap kontrol. Pada kapasitas produksi IL-4 yaitu P1,P2,P3 terhadap kontrol dan P1 terhadap P2 dan P3.Kesimpulan Kombinasi herbal A, B dan C dapat meningkatkan kapasitas produksi IFN-ϒ dan IL-4 pada kelompok perlakuan.
EFEKTIVITAS PEMBERIAN KOMBINASI PRODUK HERBAL DAN ANTIBIOTIK TERHADAP INFEKSI SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM PADA MENCIT BALB/C Tursinawati, Yanuarita; Dharmana, Edi
PROSIDING SEMINAR NASIONAL 2015: Prosiding Bidang MIPA dan Kesehatan The 2nd University Research Colloquium
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang

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Background : Medicinal herbs contained in Tolak Angin Cair (TAC), a Standardized Herbal Medicine has immunostimulant and antimicrobial effect. This research is aimed to examine the effectiviness of TAC, a herbal product and chloramphenicol,an antibiotic combination against S.typhimurium which is represented by bacterial colony count in Balb/c mice’s liver. Methods : The experimental study with post test only control group design used 20 Balb/c female mice,randomly divided into 4 groups:control (aquades group), P1 (chloramphenicol group), P2 (Tolak Angin Cair group), and P3 (combination of Tolak Angin Cair-chloramphenicol group). All groups were infected by 105 CFU of S. thypimurium at 1st day and given the treatment until 5th day. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test (CI 95% and significance value p<0,05). Results: The number of bacterial colony was P2 (50.927.000+72.446.458,2 cfu/gram), K (10.583.000+14.623.899,8 cfu/gram),P1 and P3 (0 cfu/gram). There was significantly decreasing of bacterial colony between P3 to K (p=0,005). There was no significantly difference between P1 and P3 (p=1). Conclusions: Herbal product and antibiotic combination can decrease the bacterial colony in Balb/c mice’s liver which infected by S. thypimurium. These combination is as effective as a single administration of chloramphenicol. Single administration of herbal product fail to eliminate bacteria.Keywords: herbal product, antibiotic, Tolak Angin Cair, chloramphenicol, Salmonella typhimurium
The role of fluoxetine on macrophage function in chronic pain (Experimental study in Balb/c mice) Pudjonarko, Dwi; Dharmana, Edi; Hartanto, OS
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 9, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

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Chronic pain raises stress conditions such as depression that can lower the cellular immunity. Fluoxetine is an antidepressant  used as an adjuvant in pain management but no one has been linked it with the body immune system. The objectives of this research were to proof the benefits of fluoxetine in  preventing degradation of macrophage function in chronic pain by measuring the macrophage phagocytic index , macrophage NO levels and the liver bacterial count in BALB/c mice infected with Listeria Monocytogenes.A Post Test - Only Control Group Design was conducted using 28 male mice strain BALB /c, age 8-10 weeks. The control group (C), mice got the same standard feed as the other groups. Chronic pain group (P), mice were injected with 20μL intraplantar CFA on day-1. Pain + fluoxetine early group (PFE) were treated with P + fluoxetine 5 mg / kg ip day-1, the 4th, the 7th and the 10th, while the Pain + fluoxetine late group (PFL) were treated with P + fluoxetine 5 mg / kg ip on day 7th and 10th. All mice were injected with 104 live Listeria monocytogenes iv on day 8th. Termination was performed on day 13th. Differences within groups  were analyzed using  One-way ANOVA and Kruskall Wallis, whereas the correlation of variables were analyzed using  Pearsons product moment. The experimental results showed that The macrophage phagocytic index and NO macrophage level (pg/mL) in PFE group(2,24±1,013; 0,24±0,239) was higher than than P group (1,68±0,920; 0,21±0,263) and there was no different in the macrophage phagocytic index of PFE group compared to C group (p=0,583; p=0,805). In PFL group (4,32±1,459; 0,54±0,294) the macrophage phagocytic index as well as NO macrophage level (pg/mL) was higher than P group (1,68±0,920; 0,21±0,263) with p=0,002; p=0,017. P group Bacterial count (log cfu/gram) (2,30±0,849) was significantly higher than C group(1,15±0,223) (p=0,007), while PFE group bacterial count (1,96±0,653) and PFL group bacterial count (1,84±0,403) compared to C (1,15± 0,223) was not significantly different (p=0,093; p=0,220). Correlation found between macrophage phagocytic index and macrophage NO (r=0,515, p=0,005).Macrophage phagocytic index and macrophage NO showed no correlation with bacterial count (r=-0,051, p=0,798; r=-0,071, p=0,719).It can be concluded that fluoxetine significantly incerases macrophage phagocytosis index and macrophages NO level in mice with chronic pain,  on the other hand fluoxetine decreases liver bacterial count . There is a positive correlation between macrophage phagocytosis index and macrophages NO level, while no correlation observed  among two variables with mice liver bacterial count in chronic pain.
PENGARUH PEMBERIAN TERAPI MINYAK Nigella sativa DAN KOMBINASINYA DENGAN SEFTRIAKSON TERHADAP JUMLAH KUMAN Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PADA KULTUR LIMPA MENCIT BALB/c Valencia, Lovenia; Dharmana, Edi; Hadi, Purnomo
JURNAL KEDOKTERAN DIPONEGORO Vol 4, No 4 (2015): MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA
Publisher : Jurusan Kedokteran Umum, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro

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Background: Levels of serum albumin can be used as a predictor of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Reduced serum albumin concentration can be caused by oxidative modification due to aging or insufficient protein intake. SOD as an enzymatic antioxidant might prevent oxidative stress so that albumin modification process can be inhibited. SOD supplementation was expected to increase serum albumin levels.Aim: To prove the effect of Nigella sativa oil and its combination with ceftriaxone toward MRSA count in BALB/c mice’s spleen culture.Methods: This was true laboratory experimental study with post test only control group design. The samples were 20 males BALB/c mice, randomized into 4 groups. Control was given 0,03 ml aquabidest injected intraperitoneally, P1 was given 0,03 ml ceftriaxone injected intraperitoneally, P2 was given 0,3 ml Nigella sativa oil orally and P3 was given the combination of 0,03 ml ceftriaxone and 0,3 ml Nigella sativa oil. 0,2 ml (107 cfu/ml) MRSA was injected intraperitoneally at the hour 0. The treatment was given at the hour 16 and mice were terminated at the hour 24. Kruskall-Wallis Test and Mann-Whitney Test is used to analyze the data.Results: Results of the mean number of MRSA bacteria in spleen culture were K=124x103  160,70x103; P1=24,08x103  26,53x103; P2=0,78x103 1,52x103; P3=6,05x103  13,38x103. The number of MRSA bacteria decreased significantly between control group compared to P2 (p=0,016) and P3 (p=0,046) and P1 compared to P2 (p=0,016) and P3 (p=0,047). There were no significance between control compared to P1 (p=0,674) and P2 toward P3 (p=0,596).Conclusion: Administration of Nigella sativa oil and its combination with ceftriaxone can decrease the number of MRSA bacteria in BALB/c mice’s spleen cultures.
PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MINYAK Nigella sativa DAN KOMBINASINYA DENGAN SEFTRIAKSON TERHADAP JUMLAH KUMAN Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PADA KULTUR OTAK MENCIT BALB/c Marga U., Bernadetta Via; Dharmana, Edi; Hadi, Purnomo
JURNAL KEDOKTERAN DIPONEGORO Vol 4, No 4 (2015): MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA
Publisher : Jurusan Kedokteran Umum, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Background Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection cases reported to be high. This matter is caused by the bacteria resistance to many antibiotics, from this point WHO suggested to looking for new antibiotics, in this research utilize N.sativa oil that have antibacterial and immunomodulator effects. The combination of N.sativa oil with ceftriaxone is expected to resolve MRSA infection cases.Aims To investigate the effect of N.sativa oil administration and its combination with ceftriaxone toward MRSA bacteria count in cultured brain of BALB/c mice.Methods Experimental laboratory with post test only control group design. Total sample were 20 male BALB/c mice randomized into 4 groups and adapted for 7days. Every group was injected with MRSA ATCC 43300 0,2ml, after 16 hours K was given aquabidest 0,03 ml, P1 was given ceftriaxone 0,03 ml, P2 was given N.sativa oil 0,3 ml, P3 was given ceftriaxone 0,03 ml and N.sativa 0,3 ml, after 8 hours would be terminated. Data normality test used Saphiro-wilk test followed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test.Results The result of the average number of MRSA on brain culture, K= 128x103+ 157,25x103 cfu/ml; P1= 4,18x103+3,22x103 cfu/ml; P2= 0,12x103+0,11x103 cfu/ml; P3= 0,68x103 +1,30x103 cfu/ml. Significant differences was found between K with P2 (p=0,009) and P3(p=0,028), while with P1(p=0,346) wasn’t. Bacteria count between P1 with P2(p=0,009) and P3(p=0,028) showed a significant differences, and between P2 with P3(p=0,754) there was no significant difference.Conclusion Administration of Nigella sativa oil and its combination with ceftriaxone can decrease number of MRSA bacteria in BALB/c mice’s brain cultures.